Rockcyc Mineral

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Rockcyc Mineral

  1. 1. The Rock Cycle Thinking about relationships among the major rock groups
  2. 2. Major Rock Groups <ul><li>Igneous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed from a melt (molten rock) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plutonic (intrusive):slow cooling and crystallization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanic (extrusion): quick cooling at the surface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sedimentary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed at the Earth’s surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clastic (Mineral Fragments or grains, clays) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical (crystalline chemical/biochemical precipitates) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metamorphic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed by pressure, temperature and fluids. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Fig. 2.9 MAGMA
  4. 4. MAGMA Crystallization IGNEOUS
  5. 5. MAGMA IGNEOUS Plutonic Crystallization
  6. 6. MAGMA Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic Crystallization
  7. 7. MAGMA Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic Uplift Crystallization Weathering
  8. 8. MAGMA Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic SEDIMENT Uplift Crystallization Weathering SEDIMENT
  9. 9. MAGMA Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic SEDIMENT SEDIMENTARY Uplift Crystallization Weathering Erosion Transport Deposition
  10. 10. MAGMA Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic SEDIMENT SEDIMENTARY Uplift Crystallization Weathering Erosion Transport Deposition
  11. 11. MAGMA Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic SEDIMENT SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC Uplift Burial Increased P&T Crystallization Weathering Erosion Transport Deposition
  12. 12. MAGMA Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic SEDIMENT SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC Uplift Burial Increased P&T Melting Crystallization Weathering Erosion Transport Deposition Can you see any shortcuts?
  13. 13. MAGMA Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic SEDIMENT SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC Uplift Burial Increased P&T Melting Crystallization Weathering Erosion Transport Deposition
  14. 14. <ul><li>The rock cycle demonstrates the relationships among the three major rock groups </li></ul><ul><li>It is powered by the interior heat of the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>As well as earth’s momentum and… </li></ul><ul><li>The energy from the sun </li></ul><ul><li>It involves processes on the Earth’s surface as well as the Earth’s interior </li></ul><ul><li>It connects the “hydrologic cycle” with the “tectonic cycle”. </li></ul>
  15. 16. What is a mineral? <ul><li>Naturally occurring </li></ul><ul><li>Non-organic </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristic chemical composition </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctive physical properties </li></ul><ul><li>Crystalline structure </li></ul>
  16. 17. Mineral properties <ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Luster </li></ul><ul><li>Habit (Shape) </li></ul><ul><li>Cleavage & Fracture </li></ul><ul><li>Streak </li></ul><ul><li>Hardness </li></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul>
  17. 18. Color: <ul><li>Not mineral specific </li></ul>
  18. 19. Luster: How minerals reflect light Non-metallic Metallic
  19. 20. Mineral Habit (Shape) <ul><li>Shape a mineral takes if grown unimpeded </li></ul>
  20. 21. Cleavage & Fracture <ul><li>Cleavage: planes of weakness along which minerals can break </li></ul><ul><li>Fracture: surfaces along which minerals can break </li></ul>
  21. 22. Cleavage & Fracture Best identified on a fracture surface
  22. 23. Streak: <ul><li>The powdered form of a mineral </li></ul>
  23. 24. Hardness: <ul><li>Based on Moh’s scale of hardness </li></ul>
  24. 25. Other Properties <ul><li>Specific gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction to acid </li></ul><ul><li>Striations </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetism </li></ul>
  25. 26. Igneous Rocks
  26. 27. Metamorphic Rocks Gneiss Schist
  27. 28. Sedimentary Rocks Shale Conglomerate Sandstone

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