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Aerodynamic theories

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• Foundational building blocks Relate some to applied flying
• When two solid objects interact in a mechanical process, forces are transmitted, or applied, at the point of contact. Force is a quantity which is measured using the standard metric unit known as the Newton . One Newton is the amount of force required to give a 1-kg mass an acceleration of 1 m/s/s. The concept of force was originally defined by Sir Isaac Newton in his three laws of motion . Force is a vector . The SI unit for force is the Newton (N). One Newton =1 kg * m/s 2 .
• C ontact force is defined as the force exerted when two physical objects come in direct contact with each other. Other forces, such as gravitation and electromagnetic forces, can exert themselves even across the empty vacuum of space. Other forces, such as gravitation, electric and electromagnetic forces, can exert themselves even across the empty vacuum of space.
• C ontact force is defined as the force exerted when two physical objects come in direct contact with each other. Other forces, such as gravitation and electromagnetic forces, can exert themselves even across the empty vacuum of space.
• C ontact force is defined as the force exerted when two physical objects come in direct contact with each other. Other forces, such as gravitation and electromagnetic forces, can exert themselves even across the empty vacuum of space.
• Other forces, such as gravitation, electric and electromagnetic forces, can exert themselves even across the empty vacuum of space.
• GM! This is what the presentation is all about… and the definition is a flashed. As delineated aerodynamics deals with airflow over and around the aerofoil.
• A fighter is exposed to greater aerodynamic forces/ loads due hi-G maneuvers and hi-speed flight Between a body and a gaseous fluid caused by their relative motion. Also known as aerodynamic load. The force generated by the rush of air over a body Aerodynamics involves the motion of air and other gases and the forces acting on objects in motion through the air The person who practices this science - an aerodynamicist.
• The pressure and shear-stress distributions are the two hands of nature that reach out and grab the body , exerting a force on the body—the aerodynamic force .
• The pressure exerted by the air at a point on the surface Acts perpendicular to the surface at that point Length of each arrow denotes the pressure at each point on the surface Net unbalance of varying pressure distributions over the surface creates an aerodynamic force
• The point on the chord line through which the total reaction is considered to act
• The pressure exerted by the air at a point on the surface Acts perpendicular to the surface at that point Length of each arrow denotes the pressure at each point on the surface Net unbalance of varying pressure distributions over the surface creates an aerodynamic force
• Pressure: F orce per unit area exerted on a surface due to the time rate of change of momentum of the gas molecules impacting on that surface. Common units of pressure are N/m2, Dynes/cm2, Lb/ft2, Atmosphere Density of a substance (including a gas): M ass of that substance per unit volume. Common units of density: kg/m3, slug/ft3, g/cm3, lb/ft3 Temperature: Measure of the average kinetic energy of particles in the gas. Common units of temperature: degree kelvin (K), degree Celsius (°C), degree Rankine (°R), degree Fahrenheit (°F)
• Unsteady Where flow parameters vary with time Flow cannot be represented by streamlines
• Aerodynamic theories

1. 1. <ul><li>Definition - ‘Force’ </li></ul><ul><li>Definition – ‘Aerodynamic Force’ </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental sources of Aerodynamic Force </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure Distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shear Stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of Flows </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equation of Continuity </li></ul><ul><li>Bernoulli’s Theorem / Application </li></ul><ul><li>Flat Plate Effect </li></ul>Aerodynamic Theories
2. 4. <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Force’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Aerodynamic Force’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fundamental sources of Aerodynamic Force </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Shear Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Flows </li></ul><ul><li>Equation of Continuity </li></ul><ul><li>Bernoulli’s Theorem / Application </li></ul><ul><li>Flat Plate Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>Aerodynamic Theories
3. 5. Aerodynamic Theories
4. 6. <ul><li>Introduction: Aerodynamics Basics </li></ul>
5. 8. F16 pushes the ground by 28000 lbs and the ground pushes the a/c by 28000 lbs Aerodynamic Theories
6. 9. <ul><li>Contact force / Surface force </li></ul><ul><li>Distance force / Body force </li></ul>Aerodynamic Theories
7. 10. <ul><li>Frictional Force </li></ul><ul><li>Tensional Force </li></ul><ul><li>Air Resistance Force </li></ul><ul><li>Applied Force </li></ul><ul><li>Spring Force </li></ul>Aerodynamic Theories
8. 11. Aerodynamic Theories
9. 12. <ul><li>Gravitational Force </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Force </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic Force </li></ul>Aerodynamic Theories
10. 13. <ul><li>Vector =Magnitude + Direction </li></ul>350 Kts Heading 345° Aerodynamic Theories
11. 14. <ul><li>Balanced force </li></ul><ul><li>Unbalanced force </li></ul>Aerodynamic Theories
12. 16. <ul><li>Force exerted on a body whenever there is a </li></ul><ul><li>relative velocity between the body and the </li></ul><ul><li>air </li></ul>Aerodynamic Theories
13. 17. <ul><li>Pressure Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Shear Stress </li></ul>Aerodynamic Theories
14. 18. Aerodynamic Theories
15. 19. Aerodynamic Theories
16. 20. Aerodynamic Theories
17. 21. <ul><li>Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Flow Velocity and Streamlines </li></ul>Aerodynamic Theories
18. 22. <ul><li>Speed and direction of gas may vary from point to point in the flow </li></ul><ul><li>The velocity at any fixed point B in a flowing gas is the velocity of an infinitesimally small fluid element as it sweeps through B </li></ul>Aerodynamic Theories
19. 23. <ul><li>Steady Streamline </li></ul><ul><li>Two Dimensional </li></ul><ul><li>Three Dimensional </li></ul>Aerodynamic Theories
20. 24. <ul><li>Flow parameters (speed, direction, pressure variable) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May vary from point to point in the flow but </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At any point are constant with respect to time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classical Linear: More or less, streamlines follow body contour without separation </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled Separated / LE Vortex Flow (at Hi AOA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LE vortex on highly swept plan-forms, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A strong controlled vortex (at a sharp LE) is made to produce useful lift force </li></ul></ul>Aerodynamic Theories
21. 25. Aerodynamic Theories
22. 26. Aerodynamic Theories