SENTENCE & STRUCTURE

Course adviser Ayaz Qadeer

02/18/14 15:46
SENTENCE
A group of words which makes complete
sense. e.g. Little Jack Horner sat in a
corner.
Not a Sentence
‘in a corner...
KINDS OF SENTENCES
Statements or Assertions: (Declarative or
Assertive)
Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall.
Questions: (Interroga...
SUBJECT AND PREDICATE
Subject: Speaking about
Predicate:

Speaking

The Cackling of geese saved Rome.
A barking sound the ...
Activity (Subject & Predicate)
In the following sentences separate the Subject and the Predicate.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
...
Solution

Activity (Subject & Predicate)
In the following sentences separate the Subject and the Predicate.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5....
TASK # 01
High School English Grammar &
Composition
by
Wren and Martin
Book One
EXERCISE # 01
02/18/14 15:46
SIMPLE SENTENCES
One Complete Clause, No Conjunction
Abdul, quite pale with fright, rushed into the
room.
Home they brough...
Abdul, quite pale with fright, rushed into the room.

SUBJECT
Subject word: Abdul,
Attribute:
quite pale with fright,
PRED...
Home they brought the warrior dead.
SUBJECT
Subject word: They
Attribute:
PREDICATE
Verb:
brought
Object: the warrior dead...
The farmer’s rosy children sat.
SUBJECT
Subject word: Children,
Attribute:
the farmer’s, rosy
PREDICATE
Verb:
sat
Object:
...
His friends elected him secretary of the club.
SUBJECT
Subject word: friends
Attribute:
his
PREDICATE
Verb:
elected
Object...
COMPOUND SENTENCES
COMPLETE CLAUSES:
COORDINATIVE CONJUNCTION
We must eat to live
but
we should not live to eat
Govern you...
COMPOUND SENTENCES
The horse reared
and
the rider was thrown.
He must have done his duty
for
he is a conscientious man.
02...
COMPLEX SENTENCES
COMPLETE AND INCOMPLETE CLAUSES
SUB-ORDINATIVE CONJUNCTION
If you work hard,
you will get through the ex...
Activity: Compound and Complex
Sentences
State which of the following sentences are Compound, and which are
Complex.
1.
2....
Solution
Activity: Compound and Complex Sentences
State which of the following sentences are Compound, and which are
Compl...
TASK

BOOK SECOND
EXERCISE # 37

02/18/14 15:46
TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCES
INTERCHANGE OF THE DEGREES OF
COMPARSION
INTERCHANGE OF ACTIVE AND PASSIVE
VOICE
INTERCHNAGE O...
INTERCHANGE OF THE DEGREES
OF COMPARSION
Positive: I am as strong as he.
Comp:
He is not stronger than I.
Positive: No oth...
Activity: Interchange of Degrees of
Comparison
Change the degree of comparison without changing the
meanings:
1.
2.
3.
4.
...
Solution
Activity: Interchange of Degrees of Comparison
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

Change the degree of comparison without changing...
TASK

BOOK SECOND
EXERCISE # 60

02/18/14 15:46
INTERCHANGE OF ACTIVE AND
PASSIVE VOICE
Active:
Passive:

Brutus stabbed Caesar.
Caesar was stabbed by Brutus.

Active:
Pa...
Activity: Active & Passive Voice
Rewrite the following sentences in the passive form. (Omit the
agent where possible)
1.
2...
Solution
Activity: Active & Passive Voice
Rewrite the following sentences in the passive form. (Omit the agent
where possi...
Solution
Activity: Active & Passive Voice
Rewrite the following sentences in the passive form.
(Omit the agent where possi...
TASK

BOOK SECOND
EXERCISE # 62

02/18/14 15:46
INTERCHNAGE OF AFFFIMATIVE
AND NEGATIVE
Affirmative:
Negative:

Brutus loved Caesar.
Brutus was not without
love for Caesa...
Activity: Interchange of Affirmative and
Negative Sentences
Express the meanings of the following sentences in a negative ...
Solution
Activity: Interchange of Affirmative and Negative Sentences
Express the meanings of the following sentences in a
...
Solution
Activity: Interchange of Affirmative and Negative Sentences

Express the meanings of the following sentences in a...
TASK

BOOK SECOND
EXERCISE # 64 & 65

02/18/14 15:46
CONVERSION OF SIMPLE SENTENCES
TO COMPOUND SENTENCES

Simple:
make
Comp:

He must work very hard to
up for the lost time.
...
Activity: CONVERSION OF SIMPLE SENTENCES TO
COMPOUND SENTENCES
Rewrite the following Simple sentences as Compound ones:
1....
Solution
Activity: CONVERSION OF SIMPLE SENTENCES TO COMPOUND
SENTENCES

Rewrite the following Simple sentences as Compoun...
Solution
Activity: CONVERSION OF SIMPLE SENTENCES TO COMPOUND
SENTENCES

Rewrite the following Simple sentences as Compoun...
TASK

BOOK SECOND
EXERCVISE # 71

02/18/14 15:46
CONVERSION OF SIMPLE
SENTENCES TO COMPLEX
Simple:
He confessed his crime.
Complex: He confessed that he was guilty.
Simple...
Activity: CONVERSION OF SIMPLE
SENTENCES TO COMPLEX
Rewrite the following Simple sentences as Complex ones:
1. The prince ...
Solution
Activity: CONVERSION OF SIMPLE SENTENCES TO COMPLEX
Rewrite the following Simple sentences as Complex ones:
1. Th...
Solution
Activity: CONVERSION OF SIMPLE SENTENCES TO COMPLEX
Rewrite the following Simple sentences as Complex ones:
6.

T...
TASK

BOOK SECOND
EXERCISE # 78

02/18/14 15:46
Solution
Activity: Interchange of Degrees of Comparison
Change the degree of comparison without changing the meanings:
6.
...
BEST OF LUCK

02/18/14 15:46
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Sentence & structure pw

  1. 1. SENTENCE & STRUCTURE Course adviser Ayaz Qadeer 02/18/14 15:46
  2. 2. SENTENCE A group of words which makes complete sense. e.g. Little Jack Horner sat in a corner. Not a Sentence ‘in a corner’ as the sense is not complete 02/18/14 15:46
  3. 3. KINDS OF SENTENCES Statements or Assertions: (Declarative or Assertive) Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall. Questions: (Interrogative) Where do you live? Commands, Requests, Entreaties: (Imperative) Be quiet. Have mercy upon us. Strong Feelings: (Exclamatory) How very cold the night is! What a shame! 02/18/14 15:46
  4. 4. SUBJECT AND PREDICATE Subject: Speaking about Predicate: Speaking The Cackling of geese saved Rome. A barking sound the shepherd hears. 02/18/14 15:46
  5. 5. Activity (Subject & Predicate) In the following sentences separate the Subject and the Predicate. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Edison invented the phonograph. The sea hath many thousand sands. We cannot pump the ocean dry. Borrowed garments never fit well. The early bird catches the worm. All matter is indestructible. Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan. We should profit by experience. All roads lead to Rome. A guilty conscience needs to excuse. 02/18/14 15:46
  6. 6. Solution Activity (Subject & Predicate) In the following sentences separate the Subject and the Predicate. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Edison invented the phonograph. The sea hath many thousand sands. We cannot pump the ocean dry. Borrowed garments never fit well. The early bird catches the worm. All matter is indestructible. Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan. We should profit by experience. All roads lead to Rome. A guilty conscience needs to excuse. 02/18/14 15:46
  7. 7. TASK # 01 High School English Grammar & Composition by Wren and Martin Book One EXERCISE # 01 02/18/14 15:46
  8. 8. SIMPLE SENTENCES One Complete Clause, No Conjunction Abdul, quite pale with fright, rushed into the room. Home they brought the warrior dead. The farmer’s rosy children sat. His friends elected him secretary of the club. My uncle has been teaching me mathematics. 02/18/14 15:46
  9. 9. Abdul, quite pale with fright, rushed into the room. SUBJECT Subject word: Abdul, Attribute: quite pale with fright, PREDICATE rushed Verb: Object: Complement: Adverbial Qualification: into the room. 02/18/14 15:46
  10. 10. Home they brought the warrior dead. SUBJECT Subject word: They Attribute: PREDICATE Verb: brought Object: the warrior dead Complement: Adverbial Qualification: Home 02/18/14 15:46
  11. 11. The farmer’s rosy children sat. SUBJECT Subject word: Children, Attribute: the farmer’s, rosy PREDICATE Verb: sat Object: Complement: Adverbial Qualification: 02/18/14 15:46
  12. 12. His friends elected him secretary of the club. SUBJECT Subject word: friends Attribute: his PREDICATE Verb: elected Object: him Complement: secretary of the club Adverbial Qualification: 02/18/14 15:46
  13. 13. COMPOUND SENTENCES COMPLETE CLAUSES: COORDINATIVE CONJUNCTION We must eat to live but we should not live to eat Govern your passions Or they will govern you 02/18/14 15:46
  14. 14. COMPOUND SENTENCES The horse reared and the rider was thrown. He must have done his duty for he is a conscientious man. 02/18/14 15:46
  15. 15. COMPLEX SENTENCES COMPLETE AND INCOMPLETE CLAUSES SUB-ORDINATIVE CONJUNCTION If you work hard, you will get through the exam. A guest is unwelcome when he stays too long. Whenever he heard the question, the old man who lived in that house, answered that the earth is flat. 02/18/14 15:46
  16. 16. Activity: Compound and Complex Sentences State which of the following sentences are Compound, and which are Complex. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. He blushes; therefore he is guilty. A guest is unwelcome when he stays too long. Whatever you do, do well. He must have done his duty, for he is a conscientious man. He rushed into the field, and foremost fighting fell. Man proposes, but God disposes. Where ignorance is bliss, tis folly to be wise. Listen carefully and take notes. The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament showeth His handwork. 10. He tried hard, but he did not succeed. 02/18/14 15:46
  17. 17. Solution Activity: Compound and Complex Sentences State which of the following sentences are Compound, and which are Complex. 1. 2. 3. 4. He blushes; therefore he is guilty. Compound A guest is unwelcome when he stays too long. Complex Whatever you do, do well. Complex He must have done his duty, for he is a conscientious man. Compound 5. He rushed into the field, and foremost fighting fell. Compound 6. Man proposes, but God disposes. Compound 7. Where ignorance is bliss, tis folly to be wise. Complex 8. Listen carefully and take notes. Compound 9. The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament showeth His handwork. Compound 10. He tried hard, but he did not succeed. Compound 02/18/14 15:46
  18. 18. TASK BOOK SECOND EXERCISE # 37 02/18/14 15:46
  19. 19. TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCES INTERCHANGE OF THE DEGREES OF COMPARSION INTERCHANGE OF ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE INTERCHNAGE OF AFFFIMATIVE AND NEGATIVE CONVERSION OF SIMPLE SENTENCES TO COMPOUND SENTENCES CONVERSIONN OF SIMPLE SENTENCES TO COMPLEX 02/18/14 15:46
  20. 20. INTERCHANGE OF THE DEGREES OF COMPARSION Positive: I am as strong as he. Comp: He is not stronger than I. Positive: No other metal is as useful as iron. Comp.: Iron is more useful than any other metal. Super: Iron is the most useful of all metals. 02/18/14 15:46
  21. 21. Activity: Interchange of Degrees of Comparison Change the degree of comparison without changing the meanings: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Helen of Troy was more beautiful than any other woman. The airplane flies faster than birds. Hyderabad is one of the biggest of Indian cities. Some beans are at least as nutritious as meat. Jalal ud Din Akbar was one of the greatest of Indian kings. Australia is the largest island in the world. Very few Urdu poets are as great as Faiz Ahmed Faiz. This is one of the hottest districts in Pakistan. It is better to starve than beg. He loves all his sons equally. 02/18/14 15:46
  22. 22. Solution Activity: Interchange of Degrees of Comparison 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Change the degree of comparison without changing the meanings: Helen of Troy was more beautiful than any other woman. 1. No other woman was so beautiful as Helen of Troy. 2. Helen was the most beautiful woman. The airplane flies faster than birds. 1. Birds do not fly as fast as airplane. Hyderabad is one of the biggest of Indian cities. 1. Very few Indian cities are as big as Hyderabad. 2. Hyderabad is bigger than most other Indian cities. Some beans are at least as nutritious as meat. 1. Meat is not more nutritious than some beans. Jalal ud Din Akbar was one of the greatest of Indian kings. 1. Very few Indian kings were as great as Akbar. 2. Akbar was greater than most other Indian kings. 02/18/14 15:46
  23. 23. TASK BOOK SECOND EXERCISE # 60 02/18/14 15:46
  24. 24. INTERCHANGE OF ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE Active: Passive: Brutus stabbed Caesar. Caesar was stabbed by Brutus. Active: Passive: Give the order. Let the door be given. Active: Passive: It is time to shut up the shop. It is time for the shop to be shut up. 02/18/14 15:46
  25. 25. Activity: Active & Passive Voice Rewrite the following sentences in the passive form. (Omit the agent where possible) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. I saw him opening the box. He ordered the police to pursue the thief. One cannot gather grapes from thistles. You never hear of a happy millionaire. The public will learn with astonishment that war is imminent. Did you never hear that name? The legend tells us how the castle received it name. Do not insult the weak. Why did he defraud you of your earnings? 02/18/14 15:46
  26. 26. Solution Activity: Active & Passive Voice Rewrite the following sentences in the passive form. (Omit the agent where possible) 1. I saw him opening the box. 1. He was seen opening the box. 2. He ordered the police to pursue the thief. 1. The police was were ordered to pursue the thief. 3. One cannot gather grapes from thistles. 1. Grapes cannot be gathered from thistles. 4. You never hear of a happy millionaire. 1. A happy millionaire is never heard of. 5. The public will learn with astonishment that war is imminent. 1. It will be learnt with astonishment that war is imminent. 02/18/14 15:46
  27. 27. Solution Activity: Active & Passive Voice Rewrite the following sentences in the passive form. (Omit the agent where possible) 6. Did you never hear that name? 1. Was that name never heard? 7. The legend tells us how the castle received it name. 1. We were told how the castle received its name. 8. Do not insult the weak. 1. Let not the weak be insulted. 9. Why did he defraud you of your earnings? 1. Why were you defrauded of your earnings? 02/18/14 15:46
  28. 28. TASK BOOK SECOND EXERCISE # 62 02/18/14 15:46
  29. 29. INTERCHNAGE OF AFFFIMATIVE AND NEGATIVE Affirmative: Negative: Brutus loved Caesar. Brutus was not without love for Caesar. Negative: Old fools surpass al other fools in folly. There's no fool like an old fool. Affirmative: 02/18/14 15:46
  30. 30. Activity: Interchange of Affirmative and Negative Sentences Express the meanings of the following sentences in a negative form: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. He failed to notice me when he came in. Everybody will admit that he did his best. Only a millionaire can afford such extravagance. Every man makes mistake sometimes. I care very little what he says about me. Express the meanings of the following sentences in a negative form: 1. 2. 3. 4. He has promised never to touch wine again. We did not find the road very bad. There is no smoke without fire. It is not likely that he will ever see his home again. 02/18/14 15:46
  31. 31. Solution Activity: Interchange of Affirmative and Negative Sentences Express the meanings of the following sentences in a negative form: 1. He failed to notice me when he came in. 1. He did not notice me when he came in. 2. Everybody will admit that he did his best. 1. No body will deny that he did his best. 3. Only a millionaire can afford such extravagance. 1. None but a millionaire can afford such extravagance. 4. Every man makes mistake sometimes. 1. There is no man who does not make mistake sometimes. 5. I care very little what he says about me. 1. I do not care what he says about me. 02/18/14 15:46
  32. 32. Solution Activity: Interchange of Affirmative and Negative Sentences Express the meanings of the following sentences in a negative form: 1. He has promised never to touch wine again. 1. He has promised to abstain from wine in future. 2. We did not find the road very bad. 1. We found the road rather bad. 3. There is no smoke without fire. 1. Where there is smoke there is fire. 4. It is not likely that he will ever see his home again. 1. It is likely that he has seen the home for the last time. 02/18/14 15:46
  33. 33. TASK BOOK SECOND EXERCISE # 64 & 65 02/18/14 15:46
  34. 34. CONVERSION OF SIMPLE SENTENCES TO COMPOUND SENTENCES Simple: make Comp: He must work very hard to up for the lost time. He must work very and make up for the lost time. Simple: Notwithstanding his hard work, he did not succeed. He worked hard, yet did not succeed. Comp: 02/18/14 15:46
  35. 35. Activity: CONVERSION OF SIMPLE SENTENCES TO COMPOUND SENTENCES Rewrite the following Simple sentences as Compound ones: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Little Jack Horner sat in a corner, eating his Christmas pie. He must resign on pain of public dismissal. Owing to drought the crop is short. The men had not completed their work by sunset. Notwithstanding several efforts, he failed. By his pleasant manners he gained many friends. In addition to pecuniary assistance he gave them much valuable advice. 8. The referee having whistled, the game was stopped. 9. On account of his negligence the company suffered heavy losses. 10. Running at top speed, he got out of breath. 02/18/14 15:46
  36. 36. Solution Activity: CONVERSION OF SIMPLE SENTENCES TO COMPOUND SENTENCES Rewrite the following Simple sentences as Compound ones: 1. Little Jack Horner sat in a corner, eating his Christmas pie. 1. Little Jack Horner sat in and ate his Christmas Pie. 2. He must resign on pain of public dismissal. 1. He must resign, or he will be publicly dismissed. 3. Owing to drought the crop is short. 1. There is drought and so the crop is short. 4. The men had not completed their work by sunset. 1. The sun set, and yet the men had not completed their work. 5. Notwithstanding several efforts, he failed. 1. He made several efforts but failed. 02/18/14 15:46
  37. 37. Solution Activity: CONVERSION OF SIMPLE SENTENCES TO COMPOUND SENTENCES Rewrite the following Simple sentences as Compound ones: 6. By his pleasant manners he gained many friends. 1. He had pleasant manners and therefore gained many friends. 7. In addition to pecuniary assistance he gave them much valuable advice. 1. Not only did he give them pecuniary assistance, he also gave them much valuable advice. 8. The referee having whistled, the game was stopped. 1. The referee whistled and the game was stopped. 9. On account of his negligence the company suffered heavy losses. 1. He was negligent and therefore the company suffered heavy losses. 10. Running at top speed, he got out of breath. 1. He ran at top speed and got out of breath. 02/18/14 15:46
  38. 38. TASK BOOK SECOND EXERCVISE # 71 02/18/14 15:46
  39. 39. CONVERSION OF SIMPLE SENTENCES TO COMPLEX Simple: He confessed his crime. Complex: He confessed that he was guilty. Simple: Only Pakistanis are admitted here. Complex: If you are not a Pakistani, you cannot be admitted here. Simple: The management is thoroughly bad. Complex: The management is as bad as it could be. 02/18/14 15:46
  40. 40. Activity: CONVERSION OF SIMPLE SENTENCES TO COMPLEX Rewrite the following Simple sentences as Complex ones: 1. The prince was to be found in the hottest battle. 2. I rejoice at his good fortune. 3. But for his own confession, the crime could scarcely have been brought home to him. 4. He alone entered, the rest of us waiting outside. 5. Not feeling well, he decided to lie down. 6. The last of these voyages not proving very fortunate, I grew weary of the sea. 7. Considering the difficulties of his position, he has acted admirably. 8. Speak low, to prevent out being overheard. 9. He was too much excited to hear reason. 10. A letter from the butler brings to the club the news of Sir Roger’s death. 02/18/14 15:46
  41. 41. Solution Activity: CONVERSION OF SIMPLE SENTENCES TO COMPLEX Rewrite the following Simple sentences as Complex ones: 1. The prince was to be found in the hottest battle. 1. The prince was to be found where the battle was the hottest. 2. I rejoice at his good fortune. 1. I rejoice that he has good fortune. 3. But for his own confession, the crime could scarcely have been brought home to him. 1. If he had not confessed it himself, the crime could scarcely have been brought home to him. 4. He alone entered, the rest of us waiting outside. 1. He alone entered, while the rest of us were waiting outside. 5. Not feeling well, he decided to lie down. 1. As he was not feeling well, he decided to lie down. 02/18/14 15:46
  42. 42. Solution Activity: CONVERSION OF SIMPLE SENTENCES TO COMPLEX Rewrite the following Simple sentences as Complex ones: 6. The last of these voyages not proving very fortunate, I grew weary of the sea. 1. 7. Considering the difficulties of his position, he has acted admirably. 1. 8. Speak low so that you may prevent our being overheard. He was too much excited to hear reason. 1. 10. If we consider the difficulties of his position, he has acted admirably. Speak low, to prevent out being overheard. 1. 9. As the last of these voyages did not prove very fortunate, I grew weary of the sea. He was so much excited that he could not hear reason. A letter from the butler brings to the club the news of Sir Roger’s death. 1. A letter from the butler brings to the club the new that Sir Roger is dead. 02/18/14 15:46
  43. 43. TASK BOOK SECOND EXERCISE # 78 02/18/14 15:46
  44. 44. Solution Activity: Interchange of Degrees of Comparison Change the degree of comparison without changing the meanings: 6. Australia is the largest island in the world. 1. No other island in the world is so large as Australia. 2. Australia is larger than any other island in the world. 7. Very few Urdu poets are as great as Faiz Ahmed Faiz. 1. Faiz is the greatest poet of Urdu. 2. No other poet in Urdu is as great as Faiz. 3. No other poet in Urdu greater than Faiz. 8. This is one of the hottest districts in Pakistan. 1. This is hotter than most of the districts in Pakistan. 2. Very few districts in Pakistan are as hot as this. 9. It is better to starve than beg. 1. It is not so good to beg as to starve. 10. He loves all his sons equally. 1. He does not love any of his sons more than the others. 02/18/14 15:46
  45. 45. BEST OF LUCK 02/18/14 15:46
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