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  • 1. Pre-writing Techniques English Comprehension & Composition Course Supervisor 02/18/14 03:45 PM Ayyaz Qadeer
  • 2. FREE WRITING 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 3. FREE WRITING Free writing is the act of writing unstructured, stream-of-consciousness thoughts without pausing or making corrections.. It’s an excellent way to think of ideas, explore topics, or practice writing more often. 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 4. Free writing Example so i  need  to  think  of  something  to  write  but  I  cant  think  of  anything  really  so  here  I  am  free  writing  for  a  couple  minutes  while  watching  TV.  I  should  probably  turn  it  off  since  it’s  so  distracting except I can’t find the remote  and  uh  I  should  probably  think  about  what  i’m  gonna  write  instead  of  writing  about nothing. hmmm maybe I’ll just like  write about free writing..  02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 5. Variations of free writing 1. Grammar and punctuation Some prefer to write in complete sentences, while others prefer not to use any punctuation at all. 2. Topic You can either write about anything that comes to mind or stick to a focused topic 3. Time limit You can either time yourself (usually for a short amount of time, like several minutes) or just write until you feel you’re done.  02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 6. While Free writing Don’t stop writing! Don’t read over your Free writing until after you’re done. Ignore any mistakes you make. If you usually use the computer, trying Free writing by hand to see if it works better for you 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 7. After Free writing Once you’re done, read what you wrote.  Take the main ideas from your Free writing  and  organize  them  with  another  prewriting technique,  like  mapping  or  outlining  Take a  word,  a  sentence,  or  the  main  idea from your Free writing and use it as a  prompt for another Free writing exercise.  Save  it.  If  you’re  ever  in  need  of  02/18/14 03:45 PM inspiration, 
  • 8. Br ain st o rm 02/18/14 03:45 PM i ng an dM i nd M ap pin g
  • 9. Why Use a Mind-map? It clearly defines the central idea, by positioning it in the centre of the page. It allows you to indicate clearly the relative importance of each idea. It allows you to add in new information without messy scratching out or squeezing in. It allows you to figure out the links among the key ideas more easily. 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 10. 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 11. 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 12. How to do a Map Use unlined paper Use paper with no previous writing on it. Connect all words or phrases or lists with lines, to the centre or to other "branches." Go quickly, without pausing Write down everything you can think of without judging or editing You may want to use color-coding, to group sections of the Map. 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 13. Some Graphic Organizational Patterns Branches. An idea may branch many times to include both closely and distantly related ideas. Arrows. You may want to use arrows to join ideas from different branches. Groupings. If a number of branches contain related ideas, you may want to draw a circle around the whole area. Lists. Explanatory/Exploratory notes. You may want to write a few sentences in the Map itself, to explain, 02/18/14 03:45 PM question, or comment on some aspect of your Map
  • 14. 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 15. Graphic Organizers 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 16. Graphic Organizers 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 17. Graphic Organizers 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 18. Graphic Organizers 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 19. Graphic Organizers 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 20. Graphic Organizers 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 21. Graphic Organizers 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 22. Graphic Organizers 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 23. Graphic Organizers 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 24. Graphic Organizers 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 25. Graphic Organizers 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 26. LET’S MAKE A MIND MAP 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 27. Stage 1: brainstorming = free thinking —> producing ideas Write your topic or area of study in the centre of a blank page. Use colours, pictures, words and symbols to record any other ideas, topics, authors, theories or anything else associated with the topic. You can put these anywhere on the page. At this point anything and everything is OK. 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 28. 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 29. Stage 2: mind mapping = identifying relationships —> organizing ideas Circle the key points or ideas you have identified. Identify gaps in your knowledge, and any questions you have. Look at each item and consider, "How does this point relate to the others, and to the topic as a whole?" Map the relationships between the ideas or key points using lines, arrows, colours and words to link them. Identify the type of relationship between points: 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 30. 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 31. Major thought relationships 1. Exemplification: 'An illustration of this is the...' 'Characteristics such as...' 'For instance,...' 2. Contrast: 'As opposed to,...' 'This differs from X in that...' 02/18/14 03:45 PM 'Whereas,...'
  • 32. Major thought relationships 3. Comparison: 'Like X, Y is...' 'X resembles Y in that...' 'In the same way,...' 4. Enumeration: 'There are several kinds of...' 'These can be divided into three types,...' 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 33. Major thought relationships 5. 02/18/14 03:45 PM Chronology: 'The earliest...' 'Thereafter,...' 'By the time,...' 6. Causality: 'As a consequence,...' 'This resulted in...' 'Hence,...'
  • 34. Major thought relationships 7. Process: 'Step 1 involves... Step 2...' 'Initially, ... then ... finally ...' 8. Spatial Order: 'The base is positioned next to ...' 'X moves outwards to the ...' 02/18/14 03:45 PM
  • 35. Exercise Select one topic and Make a Mind Map How to eliminate poverty from Pakistan Status of English Language in our society Islam in a religion of peace not terrorism. 02/18/14 03:45 PM