Course Coordinator: Ayyaz Qadeer
The Seven C’s of Effective
1. Remember the five W’s & One H
Who? What? When? Where?Why? and How?
Answer all questions:
A. Stated questions from questioner.
B. Implied questions from questioner.
Give extra information, when desirable.
Example: Incomplete letter to a new saving depositor
All our facilities are at your disposal, and anytime we can be of service, please call
on us. Our appreciation is best expressed by our being of service to you.
Revised, complete letter to the new saving depositor.
Thank you for the confidence you have shown in First Federal by the savings
account you recently opened. Our goal is to make all our services to you
both pleasant and helpful.
Among the conveniences and services available to you at First Federal, you may
be especially interested in these:
You are most welcome to come in whenever we can assist you. Please consider
this association your financial headquarters for your savings and
Use one word in place of phrases; one
sentence in place of two Read out loud to
‘listen’ for wordiness.
Omit outdated trite expression.
Ask yourself: What material is really
Look for unnecessary repetition: Does the
same word or idea appear too often?
2. Conciseness (Eliminate Wordy Expression)
At this time
Due to the fact that
Please be advised that
your admission statement
It was known by Mr..
Smith that we must
The total balance due will
be found on page 2 of
Your admission statement
has been received.
Mr. Smith knew we must
The balance due is on page
2 of this report.
2. Conciseness (Include only relevant)
We hereby wish to
let you know that our
company is pleased
with the confidence
you have reposed in
We appreciate your
2. Conciseness (Avoid unnecessary repetition)
COMSATS Institute of
Will you ship us sometime,
anytime during the month of
October would be fine, or
even November if you are
rushed (November would
suit us just as well, in fact a
little bit better) 300 of the
regular 3-by 15 inch blue
felt armbands with white
sewn letters in the center.
Thank you in advance for
sending these along to us by
parcel post, and not
express, as express is too
Please ship parcel post,
before the end of
November, 300 regular 3 by
15 inch blue felt armbands
with white sewn letters in
See your material from your reader’s point
‘You’ is more desirable than ‘I’ or ‘We’ in
Readers like to see benefits. Be sure
benefits are a prominent part of the
Consciously use positive words; readers will
react more favorably.
3. Consideration (Focus on ‘You’ instead of ‘I’ and
I am delighted to
announce that we will
You failed to enclose
your check in the
You will be able to
shop evenings with the
The check was not
3. Consideration (Show audience benefit
or interest in the receiver, pleasant facts)
Negative - Unpleasant
It is impossible to
open an account for
We don’t refund if the
returned item is soiled
Positive – Pleasant
As soon as your
signature card reaches
us, we will gladly open
We refund when the
returned item is clean
3. Consideration (Emphasize pleasant
People want to hear
People don’t want to hear
Were you precise in using facts and figure
Did you use the active voice more than the
Is there action in verbs rather than in nouns
Did you try to occasionally use vivid, imagebuilding words? But in business writing, use
4. Concreteness (Use specific facts and figures)
Vague, General, Indefinite
Student GMAT scores
Eastern Europe is making
progress in obtaining
In 2007 the GMAT scores
averaged 600; by 2008
they had risen to 610.
In 2000 investments in
Eastern Europe were about
US $ 30 millions; today that
figure has increased by
4. Concreteness (Put actions into your verbs)
administered by the
Professor A. will give
consideration to the
administered the tests.
Prof. A. will consider
Be Specific, personal , concise and emphatic
Choose as precise or as concrete a word as
Select words that have a high sense of
appropriateness for the reader.
Opt for the familiar word, the one that is not
Limit average sentence length to 17 to 25 words.
Insert no more than one main idea into a sentence.
Arrange words so that the main idea occurs early in
5. Clarity (choose precise, concrete, and familiar words)
After our perusal of
pertinent data, the
conclusion is that a
lucrative market exists
The data we studied
show that your
property is profitable
and in high demand.
5. Clarity (Construct effective sentences and
Emphasis (put main ideas up front)
Ask yourself: Does the communication have a
Have someone else look at your statement if you
have doubts about whether it is tactful. Another
opinion may cause you to reconsider making a
Be cautious in using humour in communication.
Here too it pays to have someone else review your
Be careful in using discriminatory language; this
means being aware of gender, race, age, colour,
creed, sexual preferences, or ethnic origins.
6. Courtesy (be sincerely tactful, thoughtful, and
Tactless, blunt, Irritating
Stupid letter; I can’t
understand any of it.
You are delinquent
You did not tell us
Your stubborn silence
It’s my understanding.
Contrary to you inference
I’m sure you must realize
We find it difficult to believe
Why have you ignored
6. Courtesy (Choose nondiscriminatory expression)
The best man for
Select the right level of language for your
communication: either formal or informal
Realize that informal language is also used
in business communication.
Check –often by letting another person read
your material – for correct figures, facts, and
Apply the principles of accepted mechanics
to your writing.