Nonopioid analgesics

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Nonopioid analgesics

  1. 1. Group manesSadiiq Abdi ElmiMubaarik Mahamuud SaleebanUmulkhair Bashiir Mahamuud
  2. 2. pain Pain is a sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. The perception of pain is apart of clinical presentation in many disorders and is one of the hardest sensations for patients to cope with during the course of disease or dysfunction
  3. 3. ActionsInhibit platelet aggregation, decrease the risk ofthromboses and reduce the product at the site ofinjury of prostaglandin, They either stop pain signalsfrom going to the brain or alter the brain’sinterpretation of those signals. Non-opioid prevent thebrain from processing pain signals, yet do not rely onanesthesia or loss of consciousness to achieve theirpain-killing effect. . E.g. Acetaminophen providesrelief from pain by elevating the amount of pain youcan tolerate before you experience the feeling of pain.
  4. 4. UsesNon-opioid analgesics are a type of drugs used totreat pain fever, inflammation and reduction ofplatelet aggregation.Non-opioids are a quick and effective way ofcoping with mild to moderate pain. While thesedrugs do not treat the cause of the pain, they canprovide enough relief to make people morecomfortable and to allow them to carry out theirdaily routines.NSAIDs are part of non-opioids that indicated forpain that involves inflammation as an underlyingpathologic process because of their ability tosuppress production of inflammatory prostaglandins.
  5. 5. Cont…NSAIDs are both analgesic and anti-inflammatory,and may be useful for the treatment of pain notinvolving inflammation as well .Aspirin is used for primary and secondaryprevention of coronary artery disease, stroke, andsome colorectal cancers.Acetaminophen and NSAIDs are useful for acute andchronic pain
  6. 6. Cont..oNon-opioid analgesics are used treat pain fromarthritis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis,minor injuries and trauma pain .headaches, including tension headaches andmigrainesSome types of eye pain and ear painJoint painToothaches and other types of dental painmenstrual cramps and other types of pelvic paintrauma, arthritis, surgery, cancer
  7. 7. Generic name Uses Adverse reaction DosageAcetaminophen(p headache, toothache, joint Fatal liver, kidney Po (adult)325-aracetamol) pain, damage, stomach 650mg q4-6hrs or bleeding 1g 3-4times daily or 1300mg q 8hrs not to exceed 4g or 2.5g/day in pt with hepatic/renal impairmentAspirin Inflammatory disorders, Hearing loss, tinnitus, 325-500mg q3hrs fever, prophylaxis of Gi bleeding, epigasteric Or 325-650mg transit ischemia distress, hurt burn, q4hrs nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, anorexia, hypotoxity, anemia, hemolysis,Diclofenac Inflammatory disorders, Dizziness, Drowsiness, Po 100mg-50mg rheumatoid arthritis, Haedache.HTN, TID, 25mg TID osteoarthritis, ankylosing Diarrhea, Abdominal spondylitis , dysmenorrhea, pain, Heartburn, Acute mild to moderate pain renal failure, hematauria,nephritis and so onNefopam Moderate pain Sweating, tachycardia, Po 30-90mg dry mouth, difficulty IM 20mg
  8. 8. Generic name Uses Adverse reaction DosageIbuprofen Dysmenorrhea Headache, dizziness, drowsiness, Po 400-800mg 3- , inflammatory blurred vision, tinnitus, 4times daily (not disorders arrhythmias, edema, GI bleeding, exceed 3600mg/day including Hepatitis, constipation, dyspepsia, Po(children)20- rheumatoid nausea, vomiting, abdominal 40mg/kg/day in 3-4 arthritis, discomfort , hematauria .renal r divided doses( not osteoarthritis failure, allergic reactions exceed 50mg/kg/day)Etodolac Osteoarthritis Dizziness, drowsiness, depression, Po (adults) 200- , rheumatoid insomnia, malaise, nervousness, 400mg q 6-8hrs arthritis, mild syncope, weakness (not exceed to moderate 1200mg/day) painFlurbiprofen Inflammatory Dizziness, drowsiness, headache, Po 200-300mg BID disorders, insomnia, mental depression, Not exceed including, psychic disturbances, blurred 300mg/daily rheumatoid vision, change in blurred vision, arthritis, nausea, diarrhea, chills fever, osteoarthritis constipation
  9. 9. Generic name Uses Adverse reaction DosageIndomethacin Inflammatory Po 25-50mg 4xdaily disorders including, Rect 50mg 4x daily rheumatoid Same as Flurbiprofen arthritis, gouty arthritis, osteoarthritis InflammatoryKetoprofen disorders including Anti inflammatory po , rheumatoid 150-300mg/day arthritis, Same as Indomethacin Anti pain 12.5 q4- osteoarthritis, mid 6hrs to moderate pain including dysmenorrhea and fever.Ketorolac Short term Drowsiness, abnormal Po 10mg q4-6hrs prn management of thinking, dizziness, euphoria, not exceed 40mg/day pain(not exceed for headache, asthma, dysepnea, five days) edema polar vasodilatation, abnormal test, GI pain, nausea, urinary frequency, renal toxity injection.Meclofenamate
  10. 10. Generic name Uses Adverse reaction DosageNaproxen Mild to moderate pain , Po 250-500mg bid dysmenorrhea, fever, inflammatory Same as Ketorolac disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritisOxaprozin Rheumatoid arthritis, Abdominal pain, insomnia, Po 1200mg once daily osteoarthritis abnormal liver function, duodenal ulcer, n/v/d, gastritis, prolonged bleeding time, jaundice, agitation,Piroxicam Management of Drowsiness, headache , Po 10-20mg /day inflammatory disorders dizziness, blurred vision, including rheumatoid tinnitus, N/V/D arthritis, ,constipation, renal failure osteoarthritis, , allergic reactions dysmenorheaRofecoxib Rheumatoid arthritis, fatigue HTN, lower Po 12.5mg once daily osteoarthritis, extremity edema, GI initially , may be dysmenorhea bleeding, anemia, allergic increased 25mg once reaction including daily anaphylaxis
  11. 11. Adverse reactionPlatelet DysfunctionGastritis and peptic ulceration with bleeding.Acute Renal Failure in susceptible Sodium+water retention and edemaAnalgesic nephropathyProlongation of gestation and inhibition of labor.Hypersensitivity.GIT bleeding and perforationCommon side effects of NSAIDs include: upsetstomach, nausea, abdominalpain, diarrhea, heartburn, unusualbleeding, drowsiness, dizziness, skin rashes. Moresevere side effects of NSAIDs include: allergicreactions, high blood pressure, stomachbleeding, stomach ulcers (with long-termuse), kidney or liver problems
  12. 12. ContraindicationsHypersensitivity and cross-sensitivity amongNSAIDS may occur precautionsoUse cautiously in patient with severe hepatic or renaldisease, chronic alcohol use/abuse or malnutrion .oshould be avoided by people who:Are taking blood pressure medicinesHave stomach ulcers or a history of ulcersHave kidney problemsWill have surgery within a week
  13. 13. InteractionDuiticsAntihypertensive drugsCephalosporins
  14. 14. Clinical Pharmacology is hard…

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