Chapter 6


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Chapter 6

  1. 1. Chapter 6Theories & Methods of Bilingual Education
  2. 2. Important Areas• Bilingual education’s legal evolution• Issues related to teaching in two languages• Organizational models of instruction in US schools• Instructional strategies• Updated report
  3. 3. Bilingual Ed: A quick history• Always been bilingual education (since 1664 Dutch, French, German, etc…)• After WWII, language minority students were seen to be “culturally and linguistically deprived” and disproportionably placed in special classes due to low IQ scores on ENGLISH tests• Cuban crisis in Florida created new demand for language instruction in schools• Bilingual has been seen as “remedial”• English as Official Language movement (1980s) created politically charged discussions on whether students should learn in their L1 or L2!• States are in control of education so it varies from state to state
  4. 4. Legal Evolution: TESOL/NCATE Standard 2• Title VI (Civil Rights Act) 1964 provided minimum standard for education of any student by prohibiting discrimination based on race, color, or national origin• 1968 Bilingual Education Act – first federal law related to bilingual children• In may, 1970, Office of Civil Rights (OCR) districts with 5% or more bilingual students had to provide language services, prohibited them from placing students without testing into special education, required communication with parents in a language they could understand – was AR effected at this point?• Lau v. Nichols – 1974 – benchmark case – practices that excluded children from effective education based on language deemed illegal• EEOA – Equal Education Opportunities Act of 1974 – language forefront• 1974 Reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act refined service to students – Equal educational opportunities to ALL children – Eliminated poverty as requirement – Included Native-American children – Provided English-speaking children to enroll in bilingual education programs – Funding for teacher training – Technical assistance – Dissemination of instructional materials
  5. 5. More decisions/legislation• Castañeda v. Pickard (1981) (EEOA)• Fifth Circuit court outlined three criteria – Sound educational theory – Adequately trained personnel & sufficient resources – Evaluated as effective for overcoming language barriers• Plyer v. Doe (1982) – illegal immigrant children allowed to attend public school (14th amendment)• No Child Left Behind (2001) –provides funding for language instruction programs for LEP and immigrant students, provided they meet the same standards as all children are expected to meet. – Revision September 13, 2006 – Criticism: NABE states that NCLB does not consider resource inequities, critical shortages of teachers trained to serve ELLs, inadequate instructional materials, substandard school facilities…
  6. 6. Issues Involving Bilingual Education• Underachievement – Ethnic minority groups, except for Asian Americans, attain lower levels of education – Out of 62% who attended college, only 5.6% were of Hispanic origin – only 3.3% of higher education faculty are Hispanic• Dropouts – 27% dropout for Hispanics, 3.6% for Asian Americans – Hispanic Dropout project suggested three things – high quality curriculum/instruction, teacher become knowledgeable about students & families, professional development for teachers• Overachievement – Stereotype the Asian American students as top of the class – Within group Khmer & Lao children have a lower GPA than white students whereas Vietnamese, Chinese Vietnamese, Japanese, Korean, Chinese and Hmong students are above
  7. 7. Issues Involving ELD Students• Placement• Retention/promotion• Segregation• Culturally based teacher expectations p. 155
  8. 8. Organizational Models• Submersion – sink or swim• English as a second language• Pull-out ESL• ESL class period• Content-based ESL• Sheltered Instruction (SDAIE)• chart
  9. 9. Bilingualism in Arkansas• ESL is official policy of the state• Still important to consider the following – Subtractive bilingualism – Additive bilingualism – Which is better for individuals and society as a whole?• Newcomer Centers – Focus on learning language as quickly as possible – video• FLES (language learning in elementary)