Chapter 6 Theories & Methods of Bilingual Education
Important Areas <ul><li>Bilingual education’s legal evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Issues related to teaching in two language...
Bilingual Ed:  A quick history <ul><li>Always been bilingual education (since 1664 Dutch, French, German, etc…) </li></ul>...
Legal Evolution: TESOL/NCATE Standard 2 <ul><li>Title VI (Civil Rights Act) 1964 provided minimum standard for education o...
More decisions/legislation <ul><li>Casta ñ eda v. Pickard (1981) (EEOA) </li></ul><ul><li>Fifth Circuit court outlined thr...
Issues Involving Bilingual Education <ul><li>Underachievement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic minority groups, except for Asi...
Issues Involving ELD Students <ul><li>Placement </li></ul><ul><li>Retention/promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Segregation </li><...
Organizational Models <ul><li>Submersion – sink or swim </li></ul><ul><li>English as a second language  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Bilingualism in Arkansas <ul><li>ESL is official policy of the state </li></ul><ul><li>Still important to consider the fol...
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Chapter 6

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Chapter 6

  1. 1. Chapter 6 Theories & Methods of Bilingual Education
  2. 2. Important Areas <ul><li>Bilingual education’s legal evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Issues related to teaching in two languages </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational models of instruction in US schools </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Updated report </li></ul>
  3. 3. Bilingual Ed: A quick history <ul><li>Always been bilingual education (since 1664 Dutch, French, German, etc…) </li></ul><ul><li>After WWII, language minority students were seen to be “culturally and linguistically deprived” and disproportionably placed in special classes due to low IQ scores on ENGLISH tests </li></ul><ul><li>Cuban crisis in Florida created new demand for language instruction in schools </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual has been seen as “remedial” </li></ul><ul><li>English as Official Language movement (1980s) created politically charged discussions on whether students should learn in their L1 or L2! </li></ul><ul><li>States are in control of education so it varies from state to state </li></ul>
  4. 4. Legal Evolution: TESOL/NCATE Standard 2 <ul><li>Title VI (Civil Rights Act) 1964 provided minimum standard for education of any student by prohibiting discrimination based on race, color, or national origin </li></ul><ul><li>1968 Bilingual Education Act – first federal law related to bilingual children </li></ul><ul><li>In may, 1970, Office of Civil Rights (OCR) districts with 5% or more bilingual students had to provide language services, prohibited them from placing students without testing into special education, required communication with parents in a language they could understand – was AR effected at this point? </li></ul><ul><li>Lau v. Nichols – 1974 – benchmark case – practices that excluded children from effective education based on language deemed illegal </li></ul><ul><li>EEOA – Equal Education Opportunities Act of 1974 – language forefront </li></ul><ul><li>1974 Reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act refined service to students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal educational opportunities to ALL children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminated poverty as requirement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Included Native-American children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided English-speaking children to enroll in bilingual education programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding for teacher training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissemination of instructional materials </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. More decisions/legislation <ul><li>Casta ñ eda v. Pickard (1981) (EEOA) </li></ul><ul><li>Fifth Circuit court outlined three criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound educational theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequately trained personnel & sufficient resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluated as effective for overcoming language barriers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plyer v. Doe (1982) – illegal immigrant children allowed to attend public school (14 th amendment) </li></ul><ul><li>No Child Left Behind (2001) –provides funding for language instruction programs for LEP and immigrant students, provided they meet the same standards as all children are expected to meet. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revision September 13, 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criticism: NABE states that NCLB does not consider resource inequities, critical shortages of teachers trained to serve ELLs, inadequate instructional materials, substandard school facilities… </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Issues Involving Bilingual Education <ul><li>Underachievement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic minority groups, except for Asian Americans, attain lower levels of education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Out of 62% who attended college, only 5.6% were of Hispanic origin – only 3.3% of higher education faculty are Hispanic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dropouts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>27% dropout for Hispanics, 3.6% for Asian Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hispanic Dropout project suggested three things – high quality curriculum/instruction, teacher become knowledgeable about students & families, professional development for teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overachievement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stereotype the Asian American students as top of the class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within group Khmer & Lao children have a lower GPA than white students whereas Vietnamese, Chinese Vietnamese, Japanese, Korean, Chinese and Hmong students are above </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Issues Involving ELD Students <ul><li>Placement </li></ul><ul><li>Retention/promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Culturally based teacher expectations p. 155 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Organizational Models <ul><li>Submersion – sink or swim </li></ul><ul><li>English as a second language </li></ul><ul><li>Pull-out ESL </li></ul><ul><li>ESL class period </li></ul><ul><li>Content-based ESL </li></ul><ul><li>Sheltered Instruction (SDAIE) </li></ul><ul><li>chart </li></ul>
  9. 9. Bilingualism in Arkansas <ul><li>ESL is official policy of the state </li></ul><ul><li>Still important to consider the following </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subtractive bilingualism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additive bilingualism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which is better for individuals and society as a whole? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Newcomer Centers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on learning language as quickly as possible – video </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FLES (language learning in elementary) </li></ul>

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