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Chapter 6


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Highlights of legal obligations

Highlights of legal obligations

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  • 1. Chapter 6 Theories & Methods of Bilingual Education
  • 2. Important Areas
    • Bilingual education’s legal evolution
    • Issues related to teaching in two languages
    • Organizational models of instruction in US schools
    • Instructional strategies
    • Updated report
  • 3. Bilingual Ed: A quick history
    • Always been bilingual education (since 1664 Dutch, French, German, etc…)
    • After WWII, language minority students were seen to be “culturally and linguistically deprived” and disproportionably placed in special classes due to low IQ scores on ENGLISH tests
    • Cuban crisis in Florida created new demand for language instruction in schools
    • Bilingual has been seen as “remedial”
    • English as Official Language movement (1980s) created politically charged discussions on whether students should learn in their L1 or L2!
    • States are in control of education so it varies from state to state
  • 4. Legal Evolution: TESOL/NCATE Standard 2
    • Title VI (Civil Rights Act) 1964 provided minimum standard for education of any student by prohibiting discrimination based on race, color, or national origin
    • 1968 Bilingual Education Act – first federal law related to bilingual children
    • In may, 1970, Office of Civil Rights (OCR) districts with 5% or more bilingual students had to provide language services, prohibited them from placing students without testing into special education, required communication with parents in a language they could understand – was AR effected at this point?
    • Lau v. Nichols – 1974 – benchmark case – practices that excluded children from effective education based on language deemed illegal
    • EEOA – Equal Education Opportunities Act of 1974 – language forefront
    • 1974 Reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act refined service to students
      • Equal educational opportunities to ALL children
      • Eliminated poverty as requirement
      • Included Native-American children
      • Provided English-speaking children to enroll in bilingual education programs
      • Funding for teacher training
      • Technical assistance
      • Dissemination of instructional materials
  • 5. More decisions/legislation
    • Casta ñ eda v. Pickard (1981) (EEOA)
    • Fifth Circuit court outlined three criteria
      • Sound educational theory
      • Adequately trained personnel & sufficient resources
      • Evaluated as effective for overcoming language barriers
    • Plyer v. Doe (1982) – illegal immigrant children allowed to attend public school (14 th amendment)
    • No Child Left Behind (2001) –provides funding for language instruction programs for LEP and immigrant students, provided they meet the same standards as all children are expected to meet.
      • Revision September 13, 2006
      • Criticism: NABE states that NCLB does not consider resource inequities, critical shortages of teachers trained to serve ELLs, inadequate instructional materials, substandard school facilities…
  • 6. Issues Involving Bilingual Education
    • Underachievement
      • Ethnic minority groups, except for Asian Americans, attain lower levels of education
      • Out of 62% who attended college, only 5.6% were of Hispanic origin – only 3.3% of higher education faculty are Hispanic
    • Dropouts
      • 27% dropout for Hispanics, 3.6% for Asian Americans
      • Hispanic Dropout project suggested three things – high quality curriculum/instruction, teacher become knowledgeable about students & families, professional development for teachers
    • Overachievement
      • Stereotype the Asian American students as top of the class
      • Within group Khmer & Lao children have a lower GPA than white students whereas Vietnamese, Chinese Vietnamese, Japanese, Korean, Chinese and Hmong students are above
  • 7. Issues Involving ELD Students
    • Placement
    • Retention/promotion
    • Segregation
    • Culturally based teacher expectations p. 155
  • 8. Organizational Models
    • Submersion – sink or swim
    • English as a second language
    • Pull-out ESL
    • ESL class period
    • Content-based ESL
    • Sheltered Instruction (SDAIE)
    • chart
  • 9. Bilingualism in Arkansas
    • ESL is official policy of the state
    • Still important to consider the following
      • Subtractive bilingualism
      • Additive bilingualism
      • Which is better for individuals and society as a whole?
    • Newcomer Centers
      • Focus on learning language as quickly as possible – video
    • FLES (language learning in elementary)