“A Group of Donkeys
lead by a lion can
defeat a group of lions
lead by a donkey”
After this presentation you will be
able to define-
Introduction Of Management
Nature OF Management
Scope Of Management
Process Of Management
Man is a social being as he likes to live
together with other people. It is by working
and living together in organised groups and
institutions that people satisfy their economic
and social needs.
As a result there are several
types of groups like family, school,
government, army, a business firm, a cricket
team. Such formal groups can achieve their
goals effectively only when the efforts of the
people working in these groups are properly
coordinated and controlled.
The task of getting results through others
by coordinating their efforts is known as
management. Just as the mind coordinates
and regulates all the activities of a person,
management coordinates and regulates the
activities of various members of an
“Management is the process involving
planning, organizing, staffing, directing and
controlling human efforts to achieve stated
objectives in an organization.”
The definition by some of the
leading management thinkers
are given below-
“Management is the art of knowing what you
want to do and then seeing that it is done in
the best and cheapest way.”
-F .W. Taylor
“Management is a multipurpose organ that
manage a business and manages Managers
and manages Workers and work.”
The Value of Studying Management:
The universality of management
Good management is needed in all organizations.
The reality of work
Employees either manage or are managed.
Rewards and challenges of being a manager
Management offers challenging, exciting and
creative opportunities for meaningful and
Successful managers receive significant
monetary rewards for their efforts.
• Managerial Concerns
“Doing things right”
-Getting the most output for
the least inputs
“Doing the right things”
-Attaining organizational goals
Who is the person responsible for
supervising the use of an
organization’s resources to meet its
A. Team leader
D. Resource allocator
A person who plans, organizes,
directs and controls the allocation
of human, material, financial, and
information resources in pursuit
of the organization’s
Management is Goal-oriented.
Management is Universal.
Management is an Integrative Force.
Management is a Social Process.
Management is Multidisciplinary.
Management is Continuous Process.
Management is Intangible.
Management is an Art as well as
Management has no justification to
exist without goals. Management goals
are called group goals or organisational
goals. The basic goal of management is
to ensure efficiency and economy in the
utilisation of human, physical and
financial resources. The success of
management is measured by the extent
to which the established goals one
Management is an essential element of every
organised activity irrespective of the size or
type of activity.
Wherever two or more persons are engaged in
working for a common goal, management is
necessary. All types of organisations, e.g.,
family, club, university, government, army,
cricket team or business, require
management. Thus, management is a
pervasive activity. The fundamental principles
of management are applicable in all areas of
organised effort. Managers at all levels
perform the same basic functions.
The essence of management lies in
the coordination of individual efforts
in to a team. Management reconciles
the individual goals with organisational
Management is a social process because it
is concerned with interpersonal relations.
Human factor is the most important
element in management.
According to Appley, “Management is the
development of people not the direction of
things. A good manager is a leader
not a boss. It is the pervasiveness
of human element which gives
management its special character
as a social process”.
Management has to deal with human
behaviour under dynamic conditions.
Therefore, it depends upon wide knowledge
derived from several disciplines like
engineering, sociology, psychology, economic
s, anthropology, etc. The vast body of
knowledge in management draws heavily
upon other fields of study
Management is a dynamic and an on-
going process. The cycle of
management continues to operate so
long as there is organised action for
the achievement of group goals.
Management is an unseen or invisible
force. It cannot be seen but its
presence can be felt everywhere in
the form of results. However, the
managers who perform the functions
of management are
very much tangible
Management is also a discipline involving
specialised training and an ethical code
arising out of its social obligations. On the
basis of these characteristics, management
may be defined as a continuous social
process involving the coordination of human
and material resources in order to
accomplish desired objectives. It involves
both the determination and the
accomplishment of organisational goals.
STRATEGY :-means to achieve organizational
STRUCTURE:-basic framework to designate
responsibilities and functions.
SYSTEMS:-management tools for planning,
decision making , communication and control.
STAFF:-human resources of the organization.
SKILLS:- organizational and individual
SHARED VALUES:-values , goals , objectives
which the organization pursues.
a) Designing the product
b) Location and layout of plant and building
c) Planning and Control of factory operations
d) Operation of purchase and storage of
e) Inventory cost and Quality Control
f) Research and Development etc.
a) marketing research to determine the
needs and expectation of consumers
b) planning and developing suitable products
c) setting appropriate prices
d) selecting the right channel of
e) promotional activities like advertising and
salesmanship to communicate with the
a) Selecting the appropriate source of
b) Raising the required funds at the
c) Administration of earnings
d) Estimating the volume
a) manpower planning
f) promotions and transfers,
h) employee welfare services, and
i) personnel records and research,
Top Level Management-
The top level management is
generally occupied by the
ownership group. It is
the highest level in the
managerial hierarchy and
the ultimate source of
authority in the organisation.
Middle Level Management-In order
to fill up the gap which exists between
functional and operative level, some
managerial positions are created at the
middle level of management. Middle level
management consists of
Lower Level or Supervisory Level
Management- It consists of factory
supervisors, superintendents, foremen,
sales supervisors, accounts officers etc.
They directly guide and control the
performance of rank and file workers.
They issue orders and instructions and
guide day to-day activities.
The father of
firstly the process
Planning is the first step which is basically
a logical thinking process that decides what
needs to be done in order to achieve
organization's goals and objectives. It
focuses on the broader perspective of the
business as well as taking into
consideration, the tactical
methods to get the
Deciding which goals the
organization will pursue.
Deciding what courses of action to
adopt to attain those goals.
Deciding how to
Organizing is about setting up and
maintaining the internal organizational
structure in accordance with objectives
mentioned in planning stage. It
also involves assigning
tasks to various individuals
for the larger goal of
Involves grouping people into
departments according to the kinds
of job-specific tasks they perform.
Managers lay out lines of authority
Decide how to coordinate
Staffing is the process of choosing
right people for organization. It can
be associated with human resource
management and involves
recruitment, hiring, training and
compensating the workforce.
Directing is guiding people in the organization
through the means of counseling, instructing,
Controlling The process of leading and
influencing the task related activities of
group members or an entire
“A set of detailed methods,
procedures, and routines established
or formulated to carry out a specific
activity, perform a duty, or solve a
A system is a combination of parts and sub
Parts and sub parts of a system are mutually
related to each other.
Arrangement in a system is more important.
System transforms inputs into outputs.
Prevalence of boundary.
Closed and open system.
Management as a social system
Management as open system
Multi level and multidimensional
An integrated approach
System approach to
It is a collection of interrelated parts acting
together to achieve some goals which exists in
the environment. Also system is defined as a
set of object working together with relationship
between the objects and the attributes related
to each other and to environment.
Therefore, system in simple term in respect to
management, it is a set of different
independent parts working together in
interrelated manner to accomplish a set of
Elements of System Approach
An Organization is a unified and purposeful
system consisting of several interconnected,
interacting and interdependent parts.
The parts of a system are called sub-
systems. Each sub-system influences the
other sub systems and the system as a
The position and function of each sub-
system can be analyzed and understood only
in relation to other sub-systems and to
organization as a whole.
Elements of System
Each sub-system derives its strength by its
association and interaction with the other sub-
systems. As a result the collective contribution
of the organization is greater than the
aggregate of individual contribution of its sub-
systems. This is known as SYNERGY.
Each system has a boundary that separates it
from its environment. The boundary determines
which parts are internal to organization and
which are external.
Elements of System
The reactions or response of the environment to
the output is known as FEEDBACK. Feedback is
useful in evaluating and improving the
functioning of the system.
Organizations operates on the principle that
they have several alternative ways of doing the
same thing or achieving the same goal.
An open system actively interacts
with its environment. By interacting
with other systems, it tries to
establish exchange relationships.
Closed systems have no interaction
Closed system are self contained and
Closed systems are mechanical
Closed systems are like
It aims at meaningful analysis of
organizations and their management.
It facilitates the interaction
between organization and its
It guides managers to avoid
analysing problems in isolation and to
develop an integrated approach
The approach does not recognize the
differences in systems.
Systems philosophy does not specify
the nature of interactions and inter-
Unpractical: It cannot be easily and
directly applied to practical problems.
We are very thankful to
our respected sir Prof.
S.K. SRIVSTAVA for
his guidance and
motivation to this