Meaning,nature,scope,process of management & approaches of a system


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Meaning,nature,scope,process of management & approaches of a system

  2. 2. “A Group of Donkeys lead by a lion can defeat a group of lions lead by a donkey” --Socrates
  3. 3. After this presentation you will be able to define- Introduction Of Management Nature OF Management Scope Of Management Process Of Management System Approach
  4. 4. Man is a social being as he likes to live together with other people. It is by working and living together in organised groups and institutions that people satisfy their economic and social needs. As a result there are several types of groups like family, school, government, army, a business firm, a cricket team. Such formal groups can achieve their goals effectively only when the efforts of the people working in these groups are properly coordinated and controlled.
  5. 5. The task of getting results through others by coordinating their efforts is known as management. Just as the mind coordinates and regulates all the activities of a person, management coordinates and regulates the activities of various members of an organisation.
  6. 6. “Management is the process involving planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling human efforts to achieve stated objectives in an organization.” The definition by some of the leading management thinkers are given below-
  7. 7. “Management is the art of knowing what you want to do and then seeing that it is done in the best and cheapest way.” -F .W. Taylor “Management is a multipurpose organ that manage a business and manages Managers and manages Workers and work.” -Peter Drucker
  8. 8. The Value of Studying Management: The universality of management  Good management is needed in all organizations. The reality of work  Employees either manage or are managed. Rewards and challenges of being a manager  Management offers challenging, exciting and creative opportunities for meaningful and fulfilling work.  Successful managers receive significant monetary rewards for their efforts.
  9. 9. • Managerial Concerns  Efficiency  “Doing things right” -Getting the most output for the least inputs  Effectiveness  “Doing the right things” -Attaining organizational goals
  10. 10. Efficiency and Effectiveness in Management
  11. 11. Who is the person responsible for supervising the use of an organization’s resources to meet its goals? A. Team leader B. Manager C. President D. Resource allocator
  12. 12. A person who plans, organizes, directs and controls the allocation of human, material, financial, and information resources in pursuit of the organization’s goals.
  13. 13. Communication Competency Planning and Administration Competency Strategic Action Competency Self-Management Competency Global Awareness Competency Teamwork Competency Managerial Effectiveness
  14. 14. Management is Goal-oriented. Management is Universal. Management is an Integrative Force. Management is a Social Process. Management is Multidisciplinary. Management is Continuous Process. Management is Intangible. Management is an Art as well as Science.
  15. 15. Management has no justification to exist without goals. Management goals are called group goals or organisational goals. The basic goal of management is to ensure efficiency and economy in the utilisation of human, physical and financial resources. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the established goals one achieved.
  16. 16. Management is an essential element of every organised activity irrespective of the size or type of activity. Wherever two or more persons are engaged in working for a common goal, management is necessary. All types of organisations, e.g., family, club, university, government, army, cricket team or business, require management. Thus, management is a pervasive activity. The fundamental principles of management are applicable in all areas of organised effort. Managers at all levels perform the same basic functions.
  17. 17. The essence of management lies in the coordination of individual efforts in to a team. Management reconciles the individual goals with organisational goals.
  18. 18. Management is a social process because it is concerned with interpersonal relations. Human factor is the most important element in management. According to Appley, “Management is the development of people not the direction of things. A good manager is a leader not a boss. It is the pervasiveness of human element which gives management its special character as a social process”.
  19. 19. Management has to deal with human behaviour under dynamic conditions. Therefore, it depends upon wide knowledge derived from several disciplines like engineering, sociology, psychology, economic s, anthropology, etc. The vast body of knowledge in management draws heavily upon other fields of study
  20. 20. Management is a dynamic and an on- going process. The cycle of management continues to operate so long as there is organised action for the achievement of group goals.
  21. 21. Management is an unseen or invisible force. It cannot be seen but its presence can be felt everywhere in the form of results. However, the managers who perform the functions of management are very much tangible and visible.
  22. 22. Management is also a discipline involving specialised training and an ethical code arising out of its social obligations. On the basis of these characteristics, management may be defined as a continuous social process involving the coordination of human and material resources in order to accomplish desired objectives. It involves both the determination and the accomplishment of organisational goals.
  23. 23. STRATEGY :-means to achieve organizational purpose. STRUCTURE:-basic framework to designate responsibilities and functions. SYSTEMS:-management tools for planning, decision making , communication and control. STAFF:-human resources of the organization. SKILLS:- organizational and individual capabilities. SHARED VALUES:-values , goals , objectives which the organization pursues.
  24. 24. Production Management: a) Designing the product b) Location and layout of plant and building c) Planning and Control of factory operations d) Operation of purchase and storage of materials e) Inventory cost and Quality Control f) Research and Development etc.
  25. 25. Marketing Management: a) marketing research to determine the needs and expectation of consumers b) planning and developing suitable products c) setting appropriate prices d) selecting the right channel of distribution, and e) promotional activities like advertising and salesmanship to communicate with the customers
  26. 26. Financial Management: a) Selecting the appropriate source of funds b) Raising the required funds at the right time c) Administration of earnings d) Estimating the volume of fund.
  27. 27. Personnel Management: a) manpower planning b) recruitments, c) selection, d) training e) appraisal, f) promotions and transfers, g) compensation, h) employee welfare services, and i) personnel records and research, etc.
  28. 28. Top Level Management- The top level management is generally occupied by the ownership group. It is the highest level in the managerial hierarchy and the ultimate source of authority in the organisation.
  29. 29. Middle Level Management-In order to fill up the gap which exists between functional and operative level, some managerial positions are created at the middle level of management. Middle level management consists of departmental managers, deputy managers,foreman and administrative officers etc.
  30. 30. Lower Level or Supervisory Level Management- It consists of factory supervisors, superintendents, foremen, sales supervisors, accounts officers etc. They directly guide and control the performance of rank and file workers. They issue orders and instructions and guide day to-day activities.
  31. 31. Management Level and Skills
  32. 32. The father of modern management “Henri fayol”, described firstly the process of management in 5-terms-
  33. 33. Planning : Planning is the first step which is basically a logical thinking process that decides what needs to be done in order to achieve organization's goals and objectives. It focuses on the broader perspective of the business as well as taking into consideration, the tactical methods to get the desired results.
  34. 34.  Deciding which goals the organization will pursue.  Deciding what courses of action to adopt to attain those goals.  Deciding how to allocate organizational Resources.
  35. 35. Organizing : Organizing is about setting up and maintaining the internal organizational structure in accordance with objectives mentioned in planning stage. It also involves assigning tasks to various individuals for the larger goal of organization's missions and objectives.
  36. 36. Organizing: Involves grouping people into departments according to the kinds of job-specific tasks they perform. Managers lay out lines of authority and responsibility. Decide how to coordinate organizational resources.
  37. 37. Staffing : Staffing is the process of choosing right people for organization. It can be associated with human resource management and involves recruitment, hiring, training and compensating the workforce.
  38. 38. Directing : Directing is guiding people in the organization through the means of counseling, instructing, motivating. Controlling : Controlling The process of leading and influencing the task related activities of group members or an entire organization.
  39. 39. “A set of detailed methods, procedures, and routines established or formulated to carry out a specific activity, perform a duty, or solve a problem.”
  40. 40. A system is a combination of parts and sub systems. Parts and sub parts of a system are mutually related to each other. Arrangement in a system is more important. System transforms inputs into outputs. Prevalence of boundary. Closed and open system.
  41. 41. Management as a social system Management as open system Adaptive Dynamic Probabilistic Multi level and multidimensional Multivariable An integrated approach
  42. 42. System approach to Management  It is a collection of interrelated parts acting together to achieve some goals which exists in the environment. Also system is defined as a set of object working together with relationship between the objects and the attributes related to each other and to environment.  Therefore, system in simple term in respect to management, it is a set of different independent parts working together in interrelated manner to accomplish a set of objectives.
  43. 43. Elements of System Approach  An Organization is a unified and purposeful system consisting of several interconnected, interacting and interdependent parts.  The parts of a system are called sub- systems. Each sub-system influences the other sub systems and the system as a whole.  The position and function of each sub- system can be analyzed and understood only in relation to other sub-systems and to organization as a whole.
  44. 44. Elements of System Approach  Each sub-system derives its strength by its association and interaction with the other sub- systems. As a result the collective contribution of the organization is greater than the aggregate of individual contribution of its sub- systems. This is known as SYNERGY.  Each system has a boundary that separates it from its environment. The boundary determines which parts are internal to organization and which are external.
  45. 45. Elements of System Approach  The reactions or response of the environment to the output is known as FEEDBACK. Feedback is useful in evaluating and improving the functioning of the system.  Organizations operates on the principle that they have several alternative ways of doing the same thing or achieving the same goal.
  46. 46. Process of System Approach
  48. 48. An open system actively interacts with its environment. By interacting with other systems, it tries to establish exchange relationships. Open systems have feedback Mechanism.
  49. 49. Closed systems have no interaction with environment Closed system are self contained and self maintaining Closed systems are mechanical Closed systems are like closed loops.
  50. 50. It aims at meaningful analysis of organizations and their management. It facilitates the interaction between organization and its environment. It guides managers to avoid analysing problems in isolation and to develop an integrated approach
  51. 51. Over-conceptual The approach does not recognize the differences in systems. Systems philosophy does not specify the nature of interactions and inter- dependencies. Unpractical: It cannot be easily and directly applied to practical problems.
  52. 52. We are very thankful to our respected sir Prof. S.K. SRIVSTAVA for his guidance and motivation to this presentation.