Project Planning Scheduling


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Project Planning Scheduling

  1. 1. Project Management Orientation Program Project Planning & Scheduling Basics Sadhanandavel R Dheenadayalan S
  2. 2. <ul><li>Projects happen in two ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Planned and then executed or </li></ul><ul><li>b) Executed, stopped, planned and then executed. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Develop Project Management Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Define the Scope and Create the WBS </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence the activities, Estimate the duration and Create the Schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the Risks and Plan the Responses </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate the Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Plan the Human Resources, Purchases </li></ul><ul><li>Plan the Communication </li></ul>Planning
  4. 4. <ul><li>Describes the Project Management Processes used by the Project Team </li></ul><ul><li>If the processes differ from Organization’s standards, the details of Project Specific Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Project Team Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Roles and Responsibilities of Project Team </li></ul><ul><li>Communication needs – Status Reports, Review Meetings, Escalation Matrix </li></ul>PLANNING > Project Management Plan
  5. 5. <ul><li>Defines the Project Life Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Describes management of: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk – Risk Dimensions, Approach to Risk Management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change Control – Change Control Process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Configuration – Details of version control mechanisms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality – Project Metrics; Quality Audits </li></ul></ul></ul>PLANNING > Project Management Plan
  6. 6. <ul><li>Integrates all the plans in one place </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidiary plans are developed separately also </li></ul><ul><li>PMP is different from Schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Some plans include Earned Value Management </li></ul>PLANNING > Project Management Plan
  7. 7. <ul><li>Product Scope – The functions and features of the product </li></ul><ul><li>Project Scope – The work associated in the delivery of the product of the project with specified </li></ul><ul><li>Methods for defining scope vary from industry to industry </li></ul><ul><li>In Software, product scope is defined in SRS and Project Scope is defined in Project Plan, WBS </li></ul><ul><li>Document Assumptions/Constraints </li></ul>Planning > Scope Definition
  8. 8. <ul><li>Define the Deliverables of the Project – SRS, Project Plan, Design Specs, Test Plans, Test Cases, User Documents, Tested Product etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the related work - Deployment on Client Servers, User Training, Online Support etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Document the Assumptions/Constraints </li></ul>Planning > Scope Definition > Project Scope
  9. 9. <ul><li>Define the Functional and Non-functional requirements – Use Cases, Screen Shots, Process Flow Charts etc </li></ul><ul><li>Define the Technical Requirements – Deployment Architecture, Technology used, License, Bandwidth requirements, Disaster Recovery Plan etc. </li></ul><ul><li>A separate Technical Requirements Document may be prepared </li></ul><ul><li>Document the assumptions, constraints </li></ul>Planning > Scope Definition > Product Scope
  10. 10. “ Assumptions are important sources for Risk Identification!”
  11. 11. <ul><li>Represents the scope of the project into smaller, manageable hierarchy of components </li></ul><ul><li>Enables allocation of resources and assignment of responsibilities at granular levels </li></ul><ul><li>Improves the accuracy of Cost Estimation </li></ul><ul><li>Improves the Cost, Performance Measurement & Control </li></ul>Planning > Work Breakdown Structure
  12. 12. Planning > Work Breakdown Structure
  13. 13. <ul><ul><li>Start at the project goal, and keep breaking down activities until you get to the smallest task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve the team for identifying the tasks or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sub team approach (agree on level 1 activities, then have sub teams tackle each activity in detail; then check for duplication and missed tasks) </li></ul></ul>Planning > WBS > Top-down Approach
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>Agree on the top level activities using the top-down approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then break into teams and brainstorm all the activities you think are within that overall activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize the activities, and check for missed tasks and redundancies </li></ul></ul>Planning > WBS > Bottom-up Approach
  15. 15. The top-down approach is more effective for generating a detailed WBS
  16. 16. <ul><li>The levels of hierarchy varies from project to project </li></ul><ul><li>The division of levels can be based on Product Features (e.g. User Module), Process (e.g. Requirements) </li></ul><ul><li>The lowest level of the WBS contains items for which the cost can be tracked </li></ul><ul><li>The items at the lowest level are called Work Packages or Terminal Elements </li></ul>Planning > WBS > Levels of Hierarchy
  17. 17. <ul><li>Do not make it too detailed – Results Micro-Management </li></ul><ul><li>Do not make it less detailed too – Tasks too large to manage </li></ul><ul><li>8/80 Rule – Thumb Rule says Work Package should be more than 8 and less than 80 hours in duration </li></ul><ul><li>Consider appropriate milestones as Control points as well as for Status Reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain Standard WBS for the organization based on project types </li></ul>Planning > WBS > Points To Ponder
  18. 18. <ul><li>Decomposition – The process of arriving at components for WBS; Division of project scope into manageable components/activities to the level of work packages </li></ul><ul><li>Rolling Wave Planning – The process of defining the tasks at a higher level (due to lack of information) and elaborating them later based on the clarification of details </li></ul>Planning > WBS > Terminology
  19. 19. <ul><ul><li>Develop the list of project activities (WBS/Activity List) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence the list of project activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the relationships between activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate the resource requirements for each activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate the duration for each activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the project duration (start and completion dates) </li></ul></ul>Scheduling > Steps Involved
  20. 20. Scheduling > Activity Sequencing
  21. 21. The resource related dependencies and constraints should not be considered for sequencing the activities
  22. 22. <ul><li>Identifying the relationships between activities involves the sequencing plus dependencies between tasks </li></ul><ul><li>There are 4 types of scheduling dependencies </li></ul>Scheduling > Activity Relationships Finish to Start Start to Start Finish to Finish Start to Finish
  23. 23. <ul><li>Two widely used diagramming techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bar / Gantt Charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule and progress graphically depicted on a single chart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple and most used scheduling diagram </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good for Status Reporting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Diagrams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies activities that control the project length </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly shows the task dependencies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shows available float for non-critical activities </li></ul></ul></ul>Scheduling > Schedule Diagrams
  24. 24. Scheduling > Gantt Charts Status Date Tasks Plan Progress
  25. 25. <ul><li>Two types of network diagramming techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrow Diagramming Method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precedence Diagramming Method </li></ul></ul>Scheduling > Network Diagrams A B C D E F C E F A B D
  26. 26. <ul><li>Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boxes/Nodes represent the activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrows connect the boxes, show the dependencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called Activity On Node (AON) method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PDM uses all the four dependencies (F-S,F-F,S-S,S-F) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The dependency – Start to Finish – is seldom used </li></ul></ul>Scheduling > Network Diagrams C E F A B D
  27. 27. <ul><li>Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrows represent activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrows connect the nodes for showing dependencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called Activity on Arrow (AOA) method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses only Finish to Start dependency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses Dummy activities to show logical relationships </li></ul></ul>Scheduling > Network Diagrams A B C D E F
  28. 28. <ul><li>Estimate the resource requirement for each activity </li></ul><ul><li>The information from previous projects will be helpful </li></ul><ul><li>The dependency between tasks should be considered for estimating the resources </li></ul>Scheduling > Resource Estimation
  29. 29. <ul><li>People who are familiar with the work can estimate better </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Process Assets (Historical Info, Productivity Data etc.) will be helpful as a reference </li></ul><ul><li>Estimation will be more accurate if it is obtained from more than one source and averaged </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the availability of a resource for a task. If the resource is available only 50%, the task will take twice the duration </li></ul>Scheduling > Duration Estimation
  30. 30. <ul><li>Two estimating methods : PERT and CPM </li></ul><ul><li>Three time estimates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimistic (O)  No risk impacts considered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pessimistic (P)  Some amount of risk impacts considered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Likely (M)  All risk impacts considered </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PERT uses the distribution’s mean to determine individual activity duration  (P + 4M + O) / 6 </li></ul><ul><li>CPM uses only one time estimate – Most Likely estimate </li></ul>Scheduling > Duration Estimation
  31. 31. <ul><ul><li>A Milestone is an event specifically designated to represent some meaningful or specified goal that shows progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good Reference for Management Reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of Milestones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Key Milestones – Phase Gates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule Milestones – Any significant event in the schedule </li></ul></ul></ul>Scheduling > Milestones
  32. 32. <ul><li>Lead – A lead in dependency that allows acceleration of successor activity </li></ul><ul><li>Lag – A lag in dependency directs a delay in the successor activity </li></ul>Scheduling > Leads & Lags Lag – 3 days delay after A Lead – D accelerated for 5 days -5 B +3 A C
  33. 33. <ul><li>The path in a project with the longest duration. The duration of the Critical Path is earliest completion date for the project </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Path Method (CPM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward Pass calculates Early Start and Early Finish dates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backward Pass calculates Late Start and Late Finish dates </li></ul></ul>Scheduling > Critical Path
  34. 34. <ul><li>Early Start (ES)- The earliest date a task can start </li></ul><ul><li>Early Finish (EF)- The earliest date a task can be completed </li></ul><ul><li>Late Start (LS)- The latest date a task can start without delaying the projects end date </li></ul><ul><li>Late Finish (LF)- The latest date a task can finish without delaying the projects end date </li></ul>Scheduling > Early & Late Dates A 2 ES EF ES EF LS LF LS LF
  35. 35. <ul><li>Calculation of Early & Late Dates </li></ul><ul><li>Early Start = EF predecessor + 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Early Finish = ES + duration - 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Late Start = LF - duration + 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Late Finish = LS successor - 1 </li></ul>Scheduling > Early & Late Dates
  36. 36. <ul><li>Forward pass calculates an activity’s early dates </li></ul><ul><li>ES start + duration – 1 = EF </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of forward pass is to find the Critical Path </li></ul><ul><li>Backward pass calculates an activity’s late dates </li></ul><ul><li>LF – duration + 1 = LS </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of the Backward Pass is to find the slack/float </li></ul>Scheduling > Forward/Backward Pass ES EF LS LF 10 A 14 15 5 19
  37. 37. <ul><li>The amount of time an activity can be delayed or lengthened. Also called slack. </li></ul><ul><li>Total float - The amount of time an activity can be delayed without extending the overall project completion time. TF = LS – ES or TF = LF – EF </li></ul><ul><li>Free Float - The amount of time that an activity can be delayed without delaying the start or occurrence of any other activity in the schedule </li></ul>Scheduling > Float
  38. 38. My Sample Project Scheduling > Sample Project Tasks  Duration Start End Predecessor 12 days 6-Oct-08 21-Oct-08   Task A 1 day 6-Oct-08 6-Oct-08   Task B 3 days 7-Oct-08 9-Oct-08 A Task C 2 days 7-Oct-08 8-Oct-08 A Task D 5 days 10-Oct-08 16-Oct-08 B,C Task E 3 days 9-Oct-08 13-Oct-08 C Task F 3 days 17-Oct-08 21-Oct-08 D,E
  39. 39. <ul><li>My Sample Project </li></ul><ul><li>Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ES of task with no predecessor = 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EF of task with one predecessor = EF of predecessor + 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EF of task with multiple predecessors = Max (EF of predecessors) + 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EF = ES + Task Duration – 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical Path = A-B-D-F </li></ul></ul>Scheduling > Forward Pass 2 3 C 2 4 6 E 3 10 12 F 3 1 1 A 1 2 4 B 3 5 9 D 5
  40. 40. <ul><li>My Sample Project </li></ul><ul><li>LF of the last task = EF of the last task </li></ul><ul><li>LS = LF - Duration +1 </li></ul>Scheduling > Backward Pass 2 3 C 2 4 6 E 3 10 12 F 3 1 1 A 1 2 4 B 3 5 9 D 5 LS 12 10 LF ES EF
  41. 41. <ul><li>My Sample Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LF of a predecessor = Min (LS of all successors) - 1 </li></ul></ul>Scheduling > Backward Pass 9 7 4 3 1 1 A 1 2 4 B 3 5 9 D 5 2 3 C 2 4 6 E 3 10 12 F 3 10 12 9 5 4 2 1 1
  42. 42. Scheduling > Calculating Float Total Float = LS – ES or LF – EF Free float = ES (Earliest successor) - EF – 1 or Free float = Min (ES of successors) – ES - Duration My Sample Project A B C D E F   Early Start Early Finish Late Start Late Finish Free Slack Total Slack Task A 1 1 1 1 0 0 Task B 2 4 2 4 0 0 Task C 2 3 3 4 0 1 Task D 5 9 5 9 0 0 Task E 4 6 7 9 3 3 Task F 10 12 10 12 0 0
  43. 43. Questions…?
  44. 44. Thank You