Project Planning Scheduling

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  • 1. Project Management Orientation Program Project Planning & Scheduling Basics Sadhanandavel R Dheenadayalan S
  • 2.
    • Projects happen in two ways:
    • Planned and then executed or
    • b) Executed, stopped, planned and then executed.
  • 3.
    • Develop Project Management Plan
    • Define the Scope and Create the WBS
    • Sequence the activities, Estimate the duration and Create the Schedule
    • Identify the Risks and Plan the Responses
    • Estimate the Costs
    • Plan the Human Resources, Purchases
    • Plan the Communication
    Planning
  • 4.
    • Describes the Project Management Processes used by the Project Team
    • If the processes differ from Organization’s standards, the details of Project Specific Processes
    • Project Team Structure
    • Roles and Responsibilities of Project Team
    • Communication needs – Status Reports, Review Meetings, Escalation Matrix
    PLANNING > Project Management Plan
  • 5.
    • Defines the Project Life Cycle
    • Describes management of:
        • Risk – Risk Dimensions, Approach to Risk Management
        • Change Control – Change Control Process
        • Configuration – Details of version control mechanisms
        • Quality – Project Metrics; Quality Audits
    PLANNING > Project Management Plan
  • 6.
    • Integrates all the plans in one place
    • Subsidiary plans are developed separately also
    • PMP is different from Schedule
    • Some plans include Earned Value Management
    PLANNING > Project Management Plan
  • 7.
    • Product Scope – The functions and features of the product
    • Project Scope – The work associated in the delivery of the product of the project with specified
    • Methods for defining scope vary from industry to industry
    • In Software, product scope is defined in SRS and Project Scope is defined in Project Plan, WBS
    • Document Assumptions/Constraints
    Planning > Scope Definition
  • 8.
    • Define the Deliverables of the Project – SRS, Project Plan, Design Specs, Test Plans, Test Cases, User Documents, Tested Product etc.
    • Define the related work - Deployment on Client Servers, User Training, Online Support etc.
    • Document the Assumptions/Constraints
    Planning > Scope Definition > Project Scope
  • 9.
    • Define the Functional and Non-functional requirements – Use Cases, Screen Shots, Process Flow Charts etc
    • Define the Technical Requirements – Deployment Architecture, Technology used, License, Bandwidth requirements, Disaster Recovery Plan etc.
    • A separate Technical Requirements Document may be prepared
    • Document the assumptions, constraints
    Planning > Scope Definition > Product Scope
  • 10. “ Assumptions are important sources for Risk Identification!”
  • 11.
    • Represents the scope of the project into smaller, manageable hierarchy of components
    • Enables allocation of resources and assignment of responsibilities at granular levels
    • Improves the accuracy of Cost Estimation
    • Improves the Cost, Performance Measurement & Control
    Planning > Work Breakdown Structure
  • 12. Planning > Work Breakdown Structure
  • 13.
      • Start at the project goal, and keep breaking down activities until you get to the smallest task
      • Involve the team for identifying the tasks or
      • The Sub team approach (agree on level 1 activities, then have sub teams tackle each activity in detail; then check for duplication and missed tasks)
    Planning > WBS > Top-down Approach
  • 14.
      • Agree on the top level activities using the top-down approach
      • Then break into teams and brainstorm all the activities you think are within that overall activity
      • Organize the activities, and check for missed tasks and redundancies
    Planning > WBS > Bottom-up Approach
  • 15. The top-down approach is more effective for generating a detailed WBS
  • 16.
    • The levels of hierarchy varies from project to project
    • The division of levels can be based on Product Features (e.g. User Module), Process (e.g. Requirements)
    • The lowest level of the WBS contains items for which the cost can be tracked
    • The items at the lowest level are called Work Packages or Terminal Elements
    Planning > WBS > Levels of Hierarchy
  • 17.
    • Do not make it too detailed – Results Micro-Management
    • Do not make it less detailed too – Tasks too large to manage
    • 8/80 Rule – Thumb Rule says Work Package should be more than 8 and less than 80 hours in duration
    • Consider appropriate milestones as Control points as well as for Status Reporting
    • Maintain Standard WBS for the organization based on project types
    Planning > WBS > Points To Ponder
  • 18.
    • Decomposition – The process of arriving at components for WBS; Division of project scope into manageable components/activities to the level of work packages
    • Rolling Wave Planning – The process of defining the tasks at a higher level (due to lack of information) and elaborating them later based on the clarification of details
    Planning > WBS > Terminology
  • 19.
      • Develop the list of project activities (WBS/Activity List)
      • Sequence the list of project activities
      • Determine the relationships between activities
      • Estimate the resource requirements for each activity
      • Estimate the duration for each activity
      • Determine the project duration (start and completion dates)
    Scheduling > Steps Involved
  • 20. Scheduling > Activity Sequencing
  • 21. The resource related dependencies and constraints should not be considered for sequencing the activities
  • 22.
    • Identifying the relationships between activities involves the sequencing plus dependencies between tasks
    • There are 4 types of scheduling dependencies
    Scheduling > Activity Relationships Finish to Start Start to Start Finish to Finish Start to Finish
  • 23.
    • Two widely used diagramming techniques
      • Bar / Gantt Charts
        • Schedule and progress graphically depicted on a single chart
        • Simple and most used scheduling diagram
        • Good for Status Reporting
      • Network Diagrams
        • Identifies activities that control the project length
        • Clearly shows the task dependencies
        • Shows available float for non-critical activities
    Scheduling > Schedule Diagrams
  • 24. Scheduling > Gantt Charts Status Date Tasks Plan Progress
  • 25.
    • Two types of network diagramming techniques
      • Arrow Diagramming Method
      • Precedence Diagramming Method
    Scheduling > Network Diagrams A B C D E F C E F A B D
  • 26.
    • Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
      • Boxes/Nodes represent the activities
      • Arrows connect the boxes, show the dependencies
      • Also called Activity On Node (AON) method
      • PDM uses all the four dependencies (F-S,F-F,S-S,S-F)
      • The dependency – Start to Finish – is seldom used
    Scheduling > Network Diagrams C E F A B D
  • 27.
    • Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM)
      • Arrows represent activities
      • Arrows connect the nodes for showing dependencies
      • Also called Activity on Arrow (AOA) method
      • Uses only Finish to Start dependency
      • Uses Dummy activities to show logical relationships
    Scheduling > Network Diagrams A B C D E F
  • 28.
    • Estimate the resource requirement for each activity
    • The information from previous projects will be helpful
    • The dependency between tasks should be considered for estimating the resources
    Scheduling > Resource Estimation
  • 29.
    • People who are familiar with the work can estimate better
    • Organizational Process Assets (Historical Info, Productivity Data etc.) will be helpful as a reference
    • Estimation will be more accurate if it is obtained from more than one source and averaged
    • Consider the availability of a resource for a task. If the resource is available only 50%, the task will take twice the duration
    Scheduling > Duration Estimation
  • 30.
    • Two estimating methods : PERT and CPM
    • Three time estimates
      • Optimistic (O)  No risk impacts considered
      • Pessimistic (P)  Some amount of risk impacts considered
      • Most Likely (M)  All risk impacts considered
    • PERT uses the distribution’s mean to determine individual activity duration  (P + 4M + O) / 6
    • CPM uses only one time estimate – Most Likely estimate
    Scheduling > Duration Estimation
  • 31.
      • A Milestone is an event specifically designated to represent some meaningful or specified goal that shows progress
      • Good Reference for Management Reporting
      • Types of Milestones
        • Key Milestones – Phase Gates
        • Schedule Milestones – Any significant event in the schedule
    Scheduling > Milestones
  • 32.
    • Lead – A lead in dependency that allows acceleration of successor activity
    • Lag – A lag in dependency directs a delay in the successor activity
    Scheduling > Leads & Lags Lag – 3 days delay after A Lead – D accelerated for 5 days -5 B +3 A C
  • 33.
    • The path in a project with the longest duration. The duration of the Critical Path is earliest completion date for the project
    • Critical Path Method (CPM)
      • Forward Pass calculates Early Start and Early Finish dates
      • Backward Pass calculates Late Start and Late Finish dates
    Scheduling > Critical Path
  • 34.
    • Early Start (ES)- The earliest date a task can start
    • Early Finish (EF)- The earliest date a task can be completed
    • Late Start (LS)- The latest date a task can start without delaying the projects end date
    • Late Finish (LF)- The latest date a task can finish without delaying the projects end date
    Scheduling > Early & Late Dates A 2 ES EF ES EF LS LF LS LF
  • 35.
    • Calculation of Early & Late Dates
    • Early Start = EF predecessor + 1
    • Early Finish = ES + duration - 1
    • Late Start = LF - duration + 1
    • Late Finish = LS successor - 1
    Scheduling > Early & Late Dates
  • 36.
    • Forward pass calculates an activity’s early dates
    • ES start + duration – 1 = EF
    • Purpose of forward pass is to find the Critical Path
    • Backward pass calculates an activity’s late dates
    • LF – duration + 1 = LS
    • Purpose of the Backward Pass is to find the slack/float
    Scheduling > Forward/Backward Pass ES EF LS LF 10 A 14 15 5 19
  • 37.
    • The amount of time an activity can be delayed or lengthened. Also called slack.
    • Total float - The amount of time an activity can be delayed without extending the overall project completion time. TF = LS – ES or TF = LF – EF
    • Free Float - The amount of time that an activity can be delayed without delaying the start or occurrence of any other activity in the schedule
    Scheduling > Float
  • 38. My Sample Project Scheduling > Sample Project Tasks  Duration Start End Predecessor 12 days 6-Oct-08 21-Oct-08   Task A 1 day 6-Oct-08 6-Oct-08   Task B 3 days 7-Oct-08 9-Oct-08 A Task C 2 days 7-Oct-08 8-Oct-08 A Task D 5 days 10-Oct-08 16-Oct-08 B,C Task E 3 days 9-Oct-08 13-Oct-08 C Task F 3 days 17-Oct-08 21-Oct-08 D,E
  • 39.
    • My Sample Project
    • Method
      • ES of task with no predecessor = 1
      • EF of task with one predecessor = EF of predecessor + 1
      • EF of task with multiple predecessors = Max (EF of predecessors) + 1
      • EF = ES + Task Duration – 1
      • Critical Path = A-B-D-F
    Scheduling > Forward Pass 2 3 C 2 4 6 E 3 10 12 F 3 1 1 A 1 2 4 B 3 5 9 D 5
  • 40.
    • My Sample Project
    • LF of the last task = EF of the last task
    • LS = LF - Duration +1
    Scheduling > Backward Pass 2 3 C 2 4 6 E 3 10 12 F 3 1 1 A 1 2 4 B 3 5 9 D 5 LS 12 10 LF ES EF
  • 41.
    • My Sample Project
      • LF of a predecessor = Min (LS of all successors) - 1
    Scheduling > Backward Pass 9 7 4 3 1 1 A 1 2 4 B 3 5 9 D 5 2 3 C 2 4 6 E 3 10 12 F 3 10 12 9 5 4 2 1 1
  • 42. Scheduling > Calculating Float Total Float = LS – ES or LF – EF Free float = ES (Earliest successor) - EF – 1 or Free float = Min (ES of successors) – ES - Duration My Sample Project A B C D E F   Early Start Early Finish Late Start Late Finish Free Slack Total Slack Task A 1 1 1 1 0 0 Task B 2 4 2 4 0 0 Task C 2 3 3 4 0 1 Task D 5 9 5 9 0 0 Task E 4 6 7 9 3 3 Task F 10 12 10 12 0 0
  • 43. Questions…?
  • 44. Thank You