Punj Lloyd Thermal Power Plant By, Sadhana... Engineer
Punj Lloyd Power Generation in 2008-09 & Requirement in 2010 At present, India’s total installed power capacity stands at 1,47,402.81MW. Of this, the contribution of each sources are Thermal - 93,392MW Hydro - 36,647.76MW Nuclear sources - 4,120 MW Renewable energy - 13,242.41 MW. India’s power generation capacity 68% below target in 2009. There is a huge demand for power in FY10.It is expected to grow by 4.6% with a capacity of 7,730 MW are likely in FY10.
Punj Lloyd Types of Power Plants Mechanical Energy Electrical Energy Thermal Station: The turbine is rotated by steam which is produced by the heat generated by burning fuel in a Boiler. Hydel Power Plant: The mechanical energy is produced by inducing high pressure water through a nozzle onto the turbine. Nuclear Power Plant: Nuclear power is power (generally electrical) produced from controlled (i.e., non- explosive) nuclear Reactions i.e. fission or Fusion.
The coal is brought and crushed to powder. This is feed to Boiler for producing heat In Boiler the water is converted to steam. In Super heater the moisture content is removed from the steam and that steam is called super heated steam The superheated steam rotates the shaft of the High pressure turbine The Exhausted steam is sent to preheater and the steam then rotates the Intermediate pressure(IP) Turbine The steam from the IP turbine is then feed to low pressure turbine. The turbine shaft is connected to the Generator, which produces Electric Power. The power generated is then Transmitted. Operation Mechanism Punj Lloyd
Thermal Power Plant Power plant order is placed on EPC contract, which is divided into 2 parts EPC Punj Lloyd BOP Balance of plant 40% of total contract value BTG 60% of total contract value CBOP Civil contributes 25% Boiler, Turbine & Generator EBOP Electrical contrbutes 15% MBOP Mechanical Contributes 60%
BOP includes supply , erection and commissioning of complete plant excluding Boiler, Turbine & Generator.
Boiler, Turbine & Generator includes supply, erection & commissioning of Boiler Turbine Generator BTG constitutes Approximately 60%of total contract value Balance of Plant is given as a separate contract which include supply, erection & commissioning of Coal Handling Plant Water Handling Plant( water treatment) Ash Handling Plant Switch Yard Switch Gear This constitutes Approximately 40% of total contract value BTG & BOP Punj Lloyd
Boiler Boiler Punj Lloyd The boiler is fed with HFO and LDO initially to ignite the coal in the Boiler. Types of boilers: Water tube Boiler: A boiler in which water circulates in tubes heated externally by the fire. Fire tube Boiler: Water is present in the drum inside the boiler and Hot air is circulated around to maintain the temperature. Fuel HFO,LDO & Coal Air Fuel HFO,LDO & Coal Air Dryer Air compressor
The fuel and air are feed from 2 directions to increase the efficiency
FD Fan Atmospheric Air
Turbine Punj Lloyd In a Thermal Power Plant generally 3 turbines are used to increase the efficiency. High Pressure Turbine(HPT): The superheated steam is directly fed to this turbine to rotate it. Intermediate Pressure Turbine(IPT): The out put from the HPT is reheated in a reheater(RH) and used to rotate IPT . Low Pressure Turbine(LPT): The Exhausted steam from the IPT is directly fed to rotate the shaft of LPT. *All the turbines are connected to a single shaft which is connected to the Generator. Super Heater Steam Shaft Generator HPT IPT LPT RH Steam Condenser
Generator Punj Lloyd The Synchronous Generator is used to Generate power by connecting the shaft of the Turbine to the shaft of the generator which cuts the magnetic flux producing Emf. The Generated Voltage will generally 11KV to 20 KV max. The Generated Voltage is stepped up by connecting Step up transformer and is transmitted and is also used for Auxiliary purposes. UAT 20Kv to 6.KV Bus Duct SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR Generator Transformer 20KV to 400KV Unit Auxiliary Transformer: This transformer is used to step down the produced voltage and use for Auxiliary purpose.
Coal Handling Plant Raw Coal Wagon- Coal is brought to the site through a Wagon as per requirement. Punj Lloyd Wagontippler-The coal is unloaded from the Wagon and is transported to crushers and for storage place through conveyor. Rejected- The stones and unwanted coal is rejected Junction tower- JT’s are used where the conveyor has any angular deviation. Primary Crusher-The Raw coal is crushed into fine pieces to 45mm grit). Primary crusher is also calledRotary Breaker since the coal is crushed by a rotating plate. Secondary Crusher-The fine pieces of coal is crushed to powder (to 25mm grit)
Junction Tower Stacker & Reclaimer- It is used to store the powdered coal for emergency purpose Atmospheric air (Through FD fan) Punj Lloyd Mill Bunker-The 25mm grit coal is crushed into very fine powder for feeding the boiler. We will have a spare Bunker for each Boiler. Two way conveyor BOILER
Water Handling Plant(WHP) Raw Water Punj Lloyd Purified DM water Condenser Water in a Power Plant is used for Production of Steam- for rotating turbine. Cooling Purpose- For cooling of various equipment . Water is recycled and used for various purpose: For cooling purpose Steam 3% of water is wasted during this process. Appx 4 cubic mt water is lost /day/MW
Reservoir Steam to Water Cool water from CWP 25D 35D 25D 20D Punj Lloyd Water Cycle Water Clarification Chlorification & Filtration DM Plant (Demineralized Plant) Auxiliary cooling Water (ACW) DMCW Demineralized cooling Water Hot Well Various Equipment Cooling Water Boiler Various Equipment Dearator Cooling Tower CT Steam Condenser PHE DMCWP water Hot water CT CWP CWP CWP Cool water D-Degrees CWP-cooling water Pump PHE-Pre heat Exchange
The Ash from the boiler is collected in two forms: Bottom Ash(Slurry):It’s a waste which is dumped into a Ash Pond Fly ash: Fly ash is separated from Flue Gases in ESP(Electro static Precipitator). Ash Handling Plant Punj Lloyd Flue Gases Economizer : Reduces the temperature Chimney Fly Ash & Flue Gases Economizer ESP Boiler Flue Gases Bottom ash(wet ash) Fly ash Ash Pond Cylo Cement Factory
DCS-Distributed Control System DCS- It merges all communication capabilities of IED’s across a network to perform protection,control,metering and Automation scheme. Substation Automation-The systems used to monitor & control power systems It typically include Station SW, HMI, Bay Control / Automation . Protection units, Protection devices, Telecommunication systems and interfaces, Data gateways, plus comprehensive engineering, Project management, maintenance and training.