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Overview of Thermal Power Plant
 

Overview of Thermal Power Plant

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    Overview of Thermal Power Plant Overview of Thermal Power Plant Presentation Transcript

    • Punj Lloyd
      Thermal Power Plant
      By,
      Sadhana...
      Engineer
    • Punj Lloyd
      Power Generation in 2008-09 & Requirement in 2010
      At present, India’s total installed power capacity stands at 1,47,402.81MW. Of this, the contribution of each sources are
      Thermal - 93,392MW
      Hydro - 36,647.76MW
      Nuclear sources - 4,120 MW
      Renewable energy - 13,242.41 MW.
      India’s power generation capacity 68% below target in 2009.
      There is a huge demand for power in FY10.It is expected to grow by 4.6% with a capacity of 7,730 MW are likely in FY10.
    • Punj Lloyd
      Types of Power Plants
      Mechanical Energy Electrical Energy
      Thermal Station: The turbine is rotated by steam which is produced by the heat generated by burning fuel in a Boiler.
      Hydel Power Plant: The mechanical energy is produced by inducing high pressure water through a nozzle onto the turbine.
      Nuclear Power Plant: Nuclear power is power (generally electrical) produced from controlled (i.e., non- explosive) nuclear Reactions i.e. fission or Fusion.
    • The coal is brought and crushed to powder. This is feed to Boiler for producing heat
      In Boiler the water is converted to steam.
      In Super heater the moisture content is removed from the steam and that steam is called super heated steam
      The superheated steam rotates the shaft of the High pressure turbine
      The Exhausted steam is sent to preheater and the steam then rotates the Intermediate pressure(IP) Turbine
      The steam from the IP turbine is then feed to low pressure turbine.
      The turbine shaft is connected to the Generator, which produces Electric Power.
      The power generated is then Transmitted.
      Operation Mechanism
      Punj Lloyd
    • Thermal Power Plant
      Power plant order is placed on EPC contract, which is divided into 2 parts
      EPC
      Punj Lloyd
      BOP
      Balance of plant 40% of total contract value
      BTG
      60% of total contract value
      CBOP
      Civil contributes
      25%
      Boiler, Turbine & Generator
      EBOP
      Electrical contrbutes
      15%
      MBOP
      Mechanical
      Contributes
      60%
      • BOP includes supply , erection and commissioning of complete plant excluding Boiler, Turbine & Generator.
    • Boiler, Turbine & Generator includes supply, erection & commissioning of
      Boiler
      Turbine
      Generator
      BTG constitutes Approximately 60%of total contract value
      Balance of Plant is given as a separate contract which include supply, erection & commissioning of
      Coal Handling Plant
      Water Handling Plant( water treatment)
      Ash Handling Plant
      Switch Yard
      Switch Gear
      This constitutes Approximately 40% of total contract value
      BTG & BOP
      Punj Lloyd
    • Boiler
      Boiler
      Punj Lloyd
      The boiler is fed with HFO and LDO initially to ignite the coal in the Boiler.
      Types of boilers:
      Water tube Boiler: A boiler in which water circulates in tubes heated externally by the fire.
      Fire tube Boiler: Water is present in the drum inside the boiler and Hot air is circulated around to maintain the temperature.
      Fuel
      HFO,LDO & Coal
      Air
      Fuel
      HFO,LDO & Coal
      Air
      Dryer
      Air compressor
      • The fuel and air are feed from 2 directions to increase the efficiency
      FD Fan
      Atmospheric Air
    • Turbine
      Punj Lloyd
      In a Thermal Power Plant generally 3 turbines are used to increase the efficiency.
      High Pressure Turbine(HPT): The superheated steam is directly fed to this turbine to rotate it.
      Intermediate Pressure Turbine(IPT): The out put from the HPT is reheated in a reheater(RH) and used to rotate IPT .
      Low Pressure Turbine(LPT): The Exhausted steam from the IPT is directly fed to rotate the shaft of LPT.
      *All the turbines are connected to a single shaft which is connected to the Generator.
      Super Heater
      Steam
      Shaft
      Generator
      HPT
      IPT
      LPT
      RH
      Steam
      Condenser
    • Generator
      Punj Lloyd
      The Synchronous Generator is used to Generate power by connecting the shaft of the Turbine to the shaft of the generator which cuts the magnetic flux producing Emf.
      The Generated Voltage will generally 11KV to 20 KV max.
      The Generated Voltage is stepped up by connecting Step up transformer and is transmitted and is also used for Auxiliary purposes.
      UAT
      20Kv to 6.KV
      Bus Duct
      SYNCHRONOUS
      GENERATOR
      Generator Transformer
      20KV to 400KV
      Unit Auxiliary Transformer: This transformer is used to step down the produced voltage and use for Auxiliary purpose.
    • Coal Handling Plant
      Raw Coal Wagon- Coal is brought to the site through a Wagon as per requirement.
      Punj Lloyd
      Wagontippler-The coal is unloaded from the Wagon and is transported to crushers and for storage place through conveyor.
      Rejected- The stones and unwanted coal is rejected
      Junction tower- JT’s are used where the conveyor has any angular deviation.
      Primary Crusher-The Raw coal is crushed into fine pieces to 45mm grit). Primary crusher is also calledRotary Breaker since the coal is crushed by a rotating plate.
      Secondary Crusher-The fine pieces of coal is crushed to powder (to 25mm grit)
    • Junction Tower
      Stacker & Reclaimer- It is used to store the powdered coal for emergency purpose
      Atmospheric air (Through FD fan)
      Punj Lloyd
      Mill Bunker-The 25mm grit coal is crushed into very fine powder for feeding the boiler. We will have a spare Bunker for each Boiler.
      Two way conveyor
      BOILER
    • Water Handling Plant(WHP)
      Raw Water
      Punj Lloyd
      Purified DM water
      Condenser
      Water in a Power Plant is used for
      Production of Steam- for rotating turbine.
      Cooling Purpose- For cooling of various equipment .
      Water is recycled and used for various purpose:
      For cooling purpose
      Steam
      3% of water is wasted during this process. Appx 4 cubic mt water is lost /day/MW
    • Reservoir
      Steam to Water
      Cool water from CWP
      25D 35D
      25D 20D
      Punj Lloyd
      Water Cycle
      Water Clarification
      Chlorification
      &
      Filtration
      DM Plant
      (Demineralized Plant)
      Auxiliary cooling
      Water (ACW)
      DMCW Demineralized cooling Water
      Hot Well
      Various Equipment
      Cooling Water
      Boiler
      Various Equipment
      Dearator
      Cooling Tower
      CT
      Steam
      Condenser
      PHE
      DMCWP
      water
      Hot water
      CT
      CWP
      CWP
      CWP
      Cool water
      D-Degrees
      CWP-cooling water Pump
      PHE-Pre heat Exchange
    • The Ash from the boiler is collected in two forms:
      Bottom Ash(Slurry):It’s a waste which is dumped into a Ash Pond
      Fly ash: Fly ash is separated from Flue Gases in ESP(Electro static Precipitator).
      Ash Handling Plant
      Punj Lloyd
      Flue Gases
      Economizer : Reduces the temperature
      Chimney
      Fly Ash & Flue Gases
      Economizer
      ESP
      Boiler
      Flue Gases
      Bottom ash(wet ash)
      Fly ash
      Ash Pond
      Cylo
      Cement Factory
    • DCS-Distributed Control System
      DCS- It merges all communication capabilities of IED’s across a network to perform protection,control,metering and Automation scheme.
      Substation Automation-The systems used to monitor & control power systems It typically include Station
      SW, HMI, Bay Control / Automation .
      Protection units, Protection devices,
      Telecommunication systems and interfaces,
      Data gateways, plus comprehensive
      engineering, Project management,
      maintenance and training.