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  1. 1. - Plasters are solid or semisolid masses adhere to the skin when spread upon cotton felt line or muslin as a backing material and they are mainly used to, A- Afford protection and mechanical support. B- Furnish an occlusive and macerating action. C- Bring medication into close contact with the surface of the skin.
  2. 2. •Protective liner •Drug containing layer •Backing layer
  3. 3.     adhesive plasters medicated plasters are used for local or regional drug delivery transdermal delivery (or therapeutic) systems (TTS) are used for long-term systemic delivery of therapeutic agents through the skin. Examples: Nitroderm TTS, Estraderm TTS, Durogesic, etc.
  4. 4.   Also called a sticking plaster Is a small dressing used for injuries not serious enough to require a fullsize bandage.
  5. 5.     The adhesive bandage protects the cut from friction, bacteria, damage, or dirt. Thus, the healing process of the body is less disturbed. Sometimes they have antiseptic properties. An additional function is to hold the two cut ends of the skin together to make the healing process faster.
  6. 6.   An adhesive bandage is usually covered by woven fabric, plastic, or latex rubber which has an adhesive. Adhesive bandages usually have an absorbent pad, which is sometimes medicated with an antiseptic solution.
  7. 7.   Some bandages have a thin, porous-polymer coating over the pad to keep it from sticking to the wound. The bandage is applied such that the pad covers the wound, and the fabric or plastic sticks to the surrounding skin to hold the dressing in place and prevent dirt from entering the wound.
  8. 8.     Band-Aid Curad Elastoplast Nexcare
  9. 9.  Versatis medicated plasters Versatis medicated plasters contain the active ingredient lidocaine. Main use Active ingredient Manufacturer Nerve pain following shingles Lidocaine Grunenthal
  10. 10.       Use with caution in Severely decreased liver function. Severely decreased kidney function. Severe heart problems. People taking medicines to treat an irregular heart beat, for example mexiletine. People using other local anaesthetics.
  11. 11. Contents:  TTS 5 Patches: The average amount of active substance nitroglycerine releases per application in 24 hrs is 5mg (Per hour releases 0.2mg).  TTS 10 Patches: The average amount of active substance nitroglycerine releases per application in 24 hours is 10mg (Per hour releases 0.4mg).
  12. 12.   Drug Classification: Glyceryl Trinitrate Patch Trade Name Manufacturer(s): Novartis
  13. 13.  Estraderm TTS patches contain the active ingredient estradiol ,which is a naturally occuring form of the main female sex hormone, oestrogen. Main use Active ingredient Manufacturer Symptoms of the menopause Estradiol Novartis
  14. 14. Used for  Hormone replacement therapy to relieve symptoms of the menopause.  Second-line option for preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women who are at high risk of fractures and cannot take other medicines licensed for preventing osteoporosis (Estraderm TTS 50 only).
  15. 15. Use with caution in  Decreased kidney function.  Heart failure.  History of diabetes.  History of gallstones.  History of migraines or severe headaches.  History of epilepsy.  History of asthma.
  16. 16. Side effects  Breakthrough bleeding and spotting.  Breast pain, tenderness or enlargement.  Headache/migraine.  Redness or itching at patch application site.  Leg cramps.  Fatigue.  Weight changes.  Vaginal thrush.  Depression.  Anxiety.  Dizziness.
  17. 17.  Duragesic (fentanyl) is an opioid analgesic that is used for patients with chronic pain that is persistent, not managed by other opioids or non-steroidal analgesics, and are opioid-tolerant.
  18. 18. USES DURAGESIC is a transdermal formulation of fentanyl indicated for the management of persistent, moderate to severe chronic pain in opioid-tolerant patients 2 years of age and older when a continuous.
  19. 19. SIDE-EFFECTS  Nausea, vomiting,  dry mouth, constipation,  hypotension and hypertension,  bradycardia, somnolence,  confusion, hallucinations,  euphoria, pruritus, sweating and  urinary retention.
  20. 20.    Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy 21st edition pages no 948,1029,2309.