School readiness in Pakistan:School environment factors andchildren’s outcomes in early primarySadaf Shallwani & Carl Cort...
Pakistan
Pakistan: Education Context Challenges facing primary schools    School facilities    Availability of learning materials  ...
Pakistan: Education Context Access to primary education (UNESCO, 2009)    1 out of 3 children will never enroll in primary...
School Readiness: Ready Schools Education system not working for too many children Much research and programming in ECD/EC...
School Readiness: Ready Schools Research suggesting high-quality classrooms contribute positively to student outcomes in p...
School Readiness: Ready Schools What makes ‘ready schools’ – schools that are ready to receive children and enable their s...
School Readiness in Pakistan  Need a contextually grounded, culturally valid, and socially  relevant (Kağitçibasi, 1996) c...
MethodologyData collected as part of larger research study with theReleasing Confidence and Creativity (RCC) programme of ...
Outcome indicatorsOutcome indicator             Indicator of the following(Primary 1)                   aspects of transit...
PredictorsLevel        Data             Child characteristics (gender, age, pre-primaryChild and    experience, etc.)famil...
Findings: Child and Family PredictorsNote: Mother occupation effects: Children whose mothers were working as maids or in o...
Findings: School-Level PredictorsSpearman’s rho   * significant at .05                 ** significant at .01
Findings: School-Level PredictorsSpearman’s rho   * significant at .05                 ** significant at .01
Outcome-outcome correlationsSpearman’s rho   * significant at .05                 ** significant at .01
Discussion Limits of drawing causal inferences from correlational data; however, it is important to examine the characteri...
DiscussionDifferent predictors of access (enrollment and attendance) versuspredictors of learning achievement  Enrollment ...
Discussion Next steps:   Multi-level regressions on quantitative data   Analysis of qualitative data Developing a conceptu...
AcknowledgementsChildren, teachers, parents, and education officials inPakistanAga Khan Foundation (AKF) Geneva and Pakist...
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School readiness in Pakistan: School environment factors and children's outcomes in early primary

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Shallwani, S., & Corter, C. (April, 2012). School readiness in Pakistan: School environment factors and children’s outcomes in early primary. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, San Juan.

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School readiness in Pakistan: School environment factors and children's outcomes in early primary

  1. 1. School readiness in Pakistan:School environment factors andchildren’s outcomes in early primarySadaf Shallwani & Carl Corter – April 26, 2012Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of TorontoShallwani, S., & Corter, C. (April, 2012). School readiness in Pakistan: Schoolenvironment factors and children’s outcomes in early primary. Paper presentedat the Annual Conference of the Comparative and International EducationSociety, San Juan.Summary: http://sadafshallwani.net/2012/05/04/school-readiness-in-pakistan/Contact: Sadaf Shallwani, Department of Human Development and AppliedPsychology, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education / University of Toronto.http://sadafshallwani.net
  2. 2. Pakistan
  3. 3. Pakistan: Education Context Challenges facing primary schools School facilities Availability of learning materials Teaching / learning methodologies System issues Inequity, poverty, natural disasters, political insecurity
  4. 4. Pakistan: Education Context Access to primary education (UNESCO, 2009) 1 out of 3 children will never enroll in primary 1 out of 2 children who do enroll will drop-out from primary Most will do so in Grades 1 & 2 Learning outcomes in primary education (ASER Pakistan, 2011) 43% of C4 students unable to do 2-digit addition/subtraction 55% of C3 students unable to read English words 59% of C3 students unable to read a C1-level Sindhi/Urdu sentence Outcomes are worse in government schools
  5. 5. School Readiness: Ready Schools Education system not working for too many children Much research and programming in ECD/ECE has focused on the child and the family – but the role of the primary school is perhaps more critical Assessments of children’s ‘readiness’ may predict only about 20% of the variability in children’s academic performance and 10% of the variability in children’s social performance in later school years (Pianta & La Paro, 2003) Rights-based perspective Schools must be ‘ready’ for children (whether or not children are deemed ‘ready’ for school)
  6. 6. School Readiness: Ready Schools Research suggesting high-quality classrooms contribute positively to student outcomes in primary school (Pianta & colleagues) In the Majority world, the school environment seems to have an even greater impact on children’s outcomes (UNESCO, 2005) Note: The term “Majority world” is used in preference to terms such as “developing world” or “Third world” due to the negative connotations associated with these terms. The term highlights the fact that the majority of the world’s population lives in these countries.
  7. 7. School Readiness: Ready Schools What makes ‘ready schools’ – schools that are ready to receive children and enable their success? Little conceptual and empirical work Readiness of schools (Myers & Landers, 1989; CGECCD, 1991) Availability and accessibility of school Quality Recognition of and adaptation to local needs and circumstances
  8. 8. School Readiness in Pakistan Need a contextually grounded, culturally valid, and socially relevant (Kağitçibasi, 1996) conceptualizations in child development and education Necessary to inform and monitor change and progress at micro- and macro-levels Developing a contextually-grounded evidence-based understanding of school readiness in Pakistan What is a ready school in Pakistan? What kinds of school environments enable childrens success in early primary?Research study: What school-level factors are associated with children’s successful entry and adjustment to primary school in Pakistan? (Primary 1) Mixed methods: quantitative data from 35 schools, and qualitative data from 5 schools in Sindh, Pakistan
  9. 9. MethodologyData collected as part of larger research study with theReleasing Confidence and Creativity (RCC) programme of theAga Khan FoundationSample: 35 government schools in Sindh, Pakistan – includedschools with and without RCC interventionData collected Year 1 Year 2 2009-2010 2010-2011School-level factors and aggregate 35 schools 35 schoolsoutcomesClassroom observations (Primary 1) 29 classrooms 33 classroomsChild outcomes in Primary 1 286 children 259 childrenChild background information 155 children
  10. 10. Outcome indicatorsOutcome indicator Indicator of the following(Primary 1) aspects of transition:(1) Enrollment Access(2) Attendance rates Access and adjustment(3) Retention rates Adjustment(4) Promotion rates Adjustment and success(5) Learning achievement Adjustment and successscores (literacy and numeracy)
  11. 11. PredictorsLevel Data Child characteristics (gender, age, pre-primaryChild and experience, etc.)family Family characteristics (parent education, occupation, etc.) School characteristics (size, area, school management committee, etc.)School and School facilities (toilet, water, electricity, etc.)classroom Class 1 teacher Class 1 classroom environment
  12. 12. Findings: Child and Family PredictorsNote: Mother occupation effects: Children whose mothers were working as maids or in otherforms of manual labour performed worse on learning achievement and had lower promotionrates.Spearman’s rho * significant at .05 ** significant at .01
  13. 13. Findings: School-Level PredictorsSpearman’s rho * significant at .05 ** significant at .01
  14. 14. Findings: School-Level PredictorsSpearman’s rho * significant at .05 ** significant at .01
  15. 15. Outcome-outcome correlationsSpearman’s rho * significant at .05 ** significant at .01
  16. 16. Discussion Limits of drawing causal inferences from correlational data; however, it is important to examine the characteristics of ‘effective’ schools Limits of outcome data: Learning achievement tests only looked at written literacy and numeracy No quantitative data collected on other outcomes (e.g., social and emotional adjustment and well-being, executive functions, problem-solving, etc.)
  17. 17. DiscussionDifferent predictors of access (enrollment and attendance) versuspredictors of learning achievement Enrollment and attendance Area RCC Classroom: learning activities, interactions Learning achievement School facilities, community involvement, school/class size RCC intervention Classroom environment and processes… learning activities Child’s pre-primary experience, attendance level Unclear retention and promotion trends In fact, at the child-level – small but significant negative correlation between learning achievement and promotion
  18. 18. Discussion Next steps: Multi-level regressions on quantitative data Analysis of qualitative data Developing a conceptualization of ready schools in Pakistan Ongoing iterative process
  19. 19. AcknowledgementsChildren, teachers, parents, and education officials inPakistanAga Khan Foundation (AKF) Geneva and PakistanHealth and Nutrition Development Society (HANDS)Releasing Confidence and Creativity Programme – fundedby the Royal Netherlands Embassy

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