Assigment of biochemistry about fatty acids


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Assigment of biochemistry about fatty acids

  2. 2. Group Members
  3. 3. Learning Objectives Understand Fats terminology and classifications Understand the digestion and absorption of Fats Learn about the function of Fats in the diet, and How they relate to health issues
  4. 4.  Fats are a group of chemical compounds that contain fatty acids.  Fatty acids are the building blocks of the fat in our bodies and in the food we eat.  During digestion, the body breaks down fats into fatty acids, which can then be absorbed into the blood.
  5. 5. Triglycerides Triglycerides All triglycerides are made up of a fork-like structure in which glycerol and 3 building blocks of fatty acids.
  6. 6. WHAT IS GLYCEROL? Glycerol a clear, colorless, viscous, sweet-tasting liquid belonging to the alcohol family of organic compounds glycerol was obtained as a by-product in making soaps from animal and vegetable fats and oils.
  7. 7. STRUCTURE OF FATTY ACID • Long-chain carboxylic acids • Typically 12-18 carbon atoms • Fatty acids vary in the length of their carbon atom chain (from 4 to 22) and the number of double bonds they contain.
  9. 9. TYPES OF FATTYACID Fatty acids are classified according to the number of double bonds they possess. There are two types of fatty acids. 1. Saturated fatty acids 2. Unsaturated fatty acids
  10. 10. Saturated FattyAcids Saturated = C–C bonds  Saturated fatty acids are long chains fatty acid which lack double bonds between carbon atoms in their structure. These bonds are highly saturated with hydrogen atoms Saturated fatty acids are fats that can not break down in body collect, in places in body and get stored.
  11. 11. EXAMPLE Some examples of saturated fatty acids  Acetic acid  Butyric acid  Caproic acid  Palmitic acids.
  12. 12. UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS Unsaturated = one or more C=C bonds • Unsaturated fatty acids are fatty acids with one or more double bonds between carbon atoms.They are unsaturated fatty acids because their double bond are unsaturated. • They can be saturated by adding hydrogen atoms and thus converting the double bonds into single bonds. The carbon atoms on bothside of double bond can occur in two different configuration namely CIS and ‘TRANS’.
  13. 13. UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS They are the ‘healthy’ fats and are encouraged as part of a healthy diet as they: o Reduce heart disease o Lower cholesterol levels o Replace saturated fat in the diet
  14. 14. EXAMPLE Some examples of unsaturated fatty acids  Palmitoleic  Oleic  Myristoleic acid
  16. 16. TYPES OF UNSATURATED FATTYACIDS Unsaturated fatty acids can be further categories in; Monounsaturated fatty acids Polyunsaturated fatty acids
  17. 17. TYPES OF UNSATURATED FATTYACIDS MONOUNSATURATED fatty acids have one double bond in the molecule, e.g. oleic acid plamitoleic acid found in most animal and plant fats and oils, especially olive oil
  18. 18. TYPES OF UNSATURATED FATTYACIDS POLYUNSATURATED fatty acids have more than one double bond in the molecule, e.g. linolenic acid, also known as Omega 3 and linoleic acid, also known as Omega 6.
  19. 19. OMEGA 3 FATTY ACIDS • Omega 3 fatty acids also called w-3 are poly unsaturated fatty acids with a double bond(c=c) at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain, refer to a group of three fats called ALA (found in plant oil) EPA and DHA both commonly found in marine oil.
  20. 20. OMEGA 3 FATTY ACIDS • ALA( a-linolenic acid 18 carbon and 3 double bond) to form a more important long chain • EPA(eicosapentaenoic acid) 20 carbons and 5 double bonds and then from EPA, the most crucial DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) 22 carbons and 6 double bonds with even greater inefficiency is formed.
  21. 21. OMEGA 6 FATTY ACIDS • OMEGA 6 fatty acids are also referred to as W-6 fatty acids or N-6 fatty acids are a family of unsaturated fatty acids that have a common carbon double bond in the n-6 position that is the sixth bond counting from the metyl end. • Dietary sources include poultry, egg, avocado, nuts, cereals and whole grains
  22. 22. SOURCE OF FATTY ACIDS • Fatty acids are found in oils and other fats that make up different foods. • Through animal sources we can also get fatty acids e.g. meat. • Fat also present in dairy products, like milk, egg yolk. • Also present in fish
  24. 24. Digestion • Mouth: chewing, lingual lipase present in mouth • Stomach: gastric lipase • Small Intestine: bile, Secretin = pancreatic juice (pancreatic lipase) • Micelles: tiny emulsified fat packets that can enter intestinal cells (enterocytes)
  25. 25. ABSORPTION • Most fat absorption takes place in the duodenum or jejunum – micelles carry monoglycerides and free fatty acids to the brush border where they diffuse into enterocytes • Bile salts are absorbed in the ileum
  26. 26. ABSORPTION • Once these lipoproteins leave the cell, they become CHYLOMICRONS and enter the lymph system • Short-chain fatty acids and glycerol are absorbed directly into bloodstream. They do not enter the lymph system. • Cholesterol and other sterols are poorly absorbed. Overall, about 50% of dietary cholesterol is absorbed.
  27. 27. Fatty acids Used to Regulate Blood Sugar Levels • Fatty acids are also important for controlling and regulating metabolic reactions. When your body experiences low blood glucose or increased metabolic demand due to physical activity, it needs more energy • When your energy balance shifts with variations in physical activity and your food intake, fatty acids metabolism is adjusted to accommodate the changes.
  28. 28. Risk of Diseases • Risks associated with high dietary fat intake: • ↑ fat intake Obesity Cancer
  29. 29. FUNCTIONS OF FATTY ACIDS  They are an important part of a healthy diet, because the body needs them for several purposes.  Fatty acids help move oxygen through the bloodstream to all parts of the body. They aid cell membrane development, strength, and function, and they are necessary for strong organs and tissue.  Fatty acids can also help keep skin healthy, help prevent early aging, and may promote weight loss by helping the body process cholesterol.
  30. 30. FUNCTIONS OF FATTY ACIDS  More importantly, they help rid the arteries of cholesterol build up. Another purpose of fatty acids is to assist thyroid glands, which may also help regulate weight.  Essential fatty acids assist in the development and function of the brain and nervous system, They also help you look good, as a diet low in these fatty acids has been shown to create skin problems, including eczema, dandruff, split nails and brittle hair