Report on Vocational Summer               Training at NTPC Tanda               Electrical Energy Generation           2011...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.comACKNOWLEDGEMENTWe hereby take this opportunity to thank NTPC Tanda for giving us this oppo...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com                                        Table of contents1.0   Introduction2.0   Brief des...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com      7.3   Boiler drum level control      7.4   Down comers      7.5   Water wall        ...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com     10.6 DC supply system     10.7 Switch gear     10.8 Switch yard11.0 Auxiliary system ...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com1. INTRODUCTIONNTPC is the largest power generation company in India, with     utility own...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com2. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF TANDA THERMAL PROJECT2.1 Geographical location:-The Tanda Thermal ...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.comü CHP(Coal Handling Plant) has been supplied by M/s TRFü Cooling Towers by Paharapur Cooli...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com   Description   A Rankine cycle describes a model of steam operated heat engine most comm...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.comThis gives a theoretical Carnot efficiency of about 63% compared with an actual efficiency...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com   In an ideal Rankine cycle the pump and turbine would be         steam tapped from the h...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.comTanda plant PLF:-A plant load factor is a measure of average capacity utilization. It is a...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com   5.0 PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICITYThe means and steps involved in the production of electric...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com   Ø   5.1 Coal handling plant:       The coal, brought to the station by train or other m...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com   Ø   5.2 Way of producing steam by the boiler:       Initially we maintain a certain tem...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com      As the steam strikes on the turbine blades, shaft of the turbine gets movement due t...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com      Why bother to change steam from the turbine back into water if it has to be heated u...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.comwater. Water follows the same path while the steam is sent to super heater for superheatin...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com6. EXPALANATION OF POWER PLANT CYCLES6.1 STEAM CYCLE:Steam coming out from super heater at...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com    From Final       S/H                            MAIN                            STEAM ...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com6.2 Feed water cycle:-This cycle deals with the flow of water to boiler feed pump from fee...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.comBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com           .Blog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com6.3 Condensate water cycle:      It deals with the water flowing through the condenser whi...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com.Blog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com                                     A STEAM GENERATOR IS A COMPLEX INTEGRATION OF THE7. B...
7.1 ECONOMISERØ      Boiler Economizers are feed-water heaters in which the heat from waste gases is recovered to raise th...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com      7.4 DOWN COMERS   Ø It carries water from boiler drum to the ring header.   Ø They a...
8. INTRODUCTION TO STEAM TURBINE                                4. According to the method of governing:The steam turbine ...
Blog:https:// way2sac.wordpress.com
8.2 PARTS OF STEAM TURBINE BLADE:                               b) Shroud blade: This type of blade is covered by a plate ...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com8.4 BEARING:                                                       b) Antifriction Bearing...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com9. Fundamentals of steam turbine systemsPrinciples of operation- The motive power in a ste...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com10. Electrical Equipment s      10.1 Generator:-      The generator is directly coupled wi...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.comBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com   10.1 Generator Transformer:-                                   10.2 Unit Transformer:-T...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com10.5 L.T Auxiliary Transformer:-                                  For      starting      u...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.comMajor components of 220 kV Switch yard is:·   Buses (Bus #1, Bus #2 & Transfer Bus).·   Is...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.comBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
11. Auxiliary systems:                                                600tons/hr. Crushed coal is either stacked in crushe...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com                                                                        11.2 Fuel Oil Syst...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com     11.3 Ash Handling System:-                                    11.4 Cooling Water Mana...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.comWater from the raw water reservoir is pumped through                   the ash disposal ar...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com                                                  12. FUTURE PROSPECTS OF NTPC TANDA      ...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.comThnakfull doer who co-operated in learningMr. Maurya (Supdt. Chemistry)Mr.Vinay Tiwari (Er...
Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com                                     THNAK                                      YOUBlog:ht...
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Ntpc Report

  1. 1. Report on Vocational Summer Training at NTPC Tanda Electrical Energy Generation 2011 SACHIN VERMA Electrical & Electronics Engineering AEC AGRA Roll No. 0800121079Blog:https:// way2sac.wordpress.com
  2. 2. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.comACKNOWLEDGEMENTWe hereby take this opportunity to thank NTPC Tanda for giving us this opportunity to conduct our vocationaltraining in NTPC Tanda. We are grateful to Mr.V. P.Dubey (DGM EMD) & Mr. Pankaj Goel (Officer HR) forallowing us to conduct our training in the Electrical Maintenance Department .We are heartily indebted to ourproject guide Mr. S.C. Dwivedi (Sr.Supdt EMD) for providing us with detailed in depth knowledge and veryuseful information about the process and system used in the plant. His support was instrumental in our trainingbeing fruitful. We are also thankful to the entire officer and staff of NTPC Tanda for extending a helping handwhenever we need it. MR. SACHIN VERMA EN Department Roll No. 0800121079 AEC KEETHAM AGRABlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  3. 3. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com Table of contents1.0 Introduction2.0 Brief description of Tanda thermal power plant 2.1 Geographical location 2.2 Features3.0 Working of power plant 3.1 Rankine cycle 3.2 Regenerative Rankine cycle4.0 Plant load factor5.0 Production of electricity 5.1 Coal handling plant (CHP) 5.2 Way of producing steam by boiler 5.3 Steams to mechanical power 5.4 Mechanical power to electrical power6.0 Explanation of power plant cycles 6.1 Steam cycle 6.2 Feed water cycle 6.3 Condensate water cycle7.0 Boiler 7.1 Economiser 7.2 Boiler drumBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  4. 4. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com 7.3 Boiler drum level control 7.4 Down comers 7.5 Water wall 7.5.1 advantages8.0 Introduction to steam turbine 8.1 Classification of steam turbine 8.2 Parts of steam turbine 8.2.1 Blades 8.3 Rotors 8.4 Bearings 8.5 Coupling 8.6 Bearing pedestal 8.7 Balancing hole9.0 Fundamental of steam turbine system10.0 Electrical equipment 10.1 Generator 10.2 Generator transformer 10.3 Unit transformer 10.4 Start cum reserve transformer 10.5 LT Auxiliary transformerBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  5. 5. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com 10.6 DC supply system 10.7 Switch gear 10.8 Switch yard11.0 Auxiliary system 11.1 Coal handling process 11.2 Fuel oil system 11.3 Ash handling system 11.4 Cooling water management 11.5 Water treatment plant12.0 Future prospects of NTPC TandaBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  6. 6. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com1. INTRODUCTIONNTPC is the largest power generation company in India, with utility owns 7.9% of market share in terms of capacity andcomprehensive in-house capabilities in building and operating 8.12% of share in terms of units generated. NTPC s vision ispower projects. It is producing 28,644MW. Its family to become world class integrated power major, poweringconsists of 18 coal based power plant producing (23209 MW) India s growth, with increasing global presence. It alsoand 8 gas based power plant having a capacity of (5435 mw). develops and provides reliable power, related products andIt is also setting up a hydro based power plants having services at competitive prices, integrating multiple energycapacity of 2471MW. It is one of the largest Indian sources with innovative and eco-friendly technologies andcompanies with a market cap of more than US$50 BILLION contributes to society. NTPC stations are regular recipientsand has total assets of around US$ 20 BILLION. In this firm of CEA s meritorious performance awards. This firm is alsogovernment has 89.5% stake and 10.5% with public. NTPC is well concern about the environmental factors.ranked 463rd biggest company in the world, 5th biggest Indiancompany and 2nd largest Asian power generator. It produces26350MW which is 20.18% of the total 130,539MW of all It uses world s largest ESP s and also gives emphasis onIndia consumption. More than one-fourth of India s environmental monitoring along with efforts to increasegeneration with one-fifth capacity. The next largest power energy efficiency.Blog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  7. 7. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com2. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF TANDA THERMAL PROJECT2.1 Geographical location:-The Tanda Thermal Power Project is located about 185kms from Lucknow. It is nearly 55kms from Faizabad. The nearest railahead is Akbarpur (now called as Ambedkarnagar). The project lies in the Ambedkarnagar district and is about 22kms from thenearest railway station.The complete project is situated on the bank of Saryu River. The climate conditions are quite favourable with greenery all around.2.2 Features:-The installed capacity is 4 X 110 MWThe water requirement of the station is met from the Saryu River through Mehripur pumping Station constructed for feedingMehripur Pump Canal. The coal linkages for the station have been provided fromNorth Karnpura & BCCL. The power generation is evacuated through 220kV feeders connected to Sultanpur (2 feeders), Basti &Gorakhpur (1 each) 220kV substations.The total area of the power house including colony is 235 hectares and the land for ash disposal is 170hectares.ü The main plant equipment like boiler, turbine and generator have been supplied by M/s BHELü Generator-transformer has been supplied M/s NGEFBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  8. 8. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.comü CHP(Coal Handling Plant) has been supplied by M/s TRFü Cooling Towers by Paharapur Cooling Towersü C&I(Control & Instrumentation sets) have been supplied by M/s Instrumentation limited kota.ü DM(De-mineralized) plant has been set up by M/s. WATCO, HyderabadThe designed boiler efficiency, turbine heat rate and unit heat rate are 84.7% and 2172.8kcal/kWh & 2565.3kcal/kWhrespectively.The designed HHV of coal is 3850kcal/kg and the boiler is designed to work at worst quality of coal having HHV of 3400kcal/kg.3. WORKING OF POWER PLANTThe working of power plant is based on regenerative rankine cycle explained as below:3.1 Rankine cycleThe Rankine cycle is a cycle which converts heat into work. The heat is supplied externally to a closed loop, which usually useswater. This cycle generates about 80% of all electric power used throughout the world, including virtually all solar thermal, biomass,coal and nuclear power plants. It is named after William John Macquorn Rankine, a Scottish polymath.Physical layout of the four main devices used in the Rankine cycle is shown on next page.Blog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  9. 9. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com Description A Rankine cycle describes a model of steam operated heat engine most commonly found in power generation plants.Common heat sources for power plants using the Rankine cycle are the combustion of coal, natural gas and oil, and nuclear fission.The efficiency of a Rankine cycle is usually limited by the working fluid. Without the pressure reaching super critical levels for theworking fluid, the temperature range the cycle can operate over is quite small: turbine entry temperatures are typically 565°C (thecreep limit of stainless steel) and condenser temperatures are around 30°C. Blog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  10. 10. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.comThis gives a theoretical Carnot efficiency of about 63% compared with an actual efficiency of 42% for a modern coal-fired powerstation. This low turbine entry temperature (compared with a gas turbine) is why the Rankine cycle is often used as a bottoming cycle incombined cycle gas turbine power stations. Processes of the Rankine cycle · Process 1-2: The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure, as the fluid is a liquid at this stage the pump requires little input energy. · Process 2-3: The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where it is heated at constant pressure by an external heat source to become a dry saturated vapor. · · · Process 3-4: The dry saturated vapor expands through a turbine, generating power. This decreases TS diagram of a typical Rankine cycle operating between the temperature and pressure of the vapor, and some pressures of 0.06bar and 50bar condensation may occur. · Process 4-1: The wet vapor then enters a condenser There are four processes in the Rankine cycle; these states where it is condensed at a constant pressure to become are identified by number in the diagram to the right. a saturated liquid.Blog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  11. 11. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com In an ideal Rankine cycle the pump and turbine would be steam tapped from the hot portion of the cycle. On the isentropic, i.e., the pump and turbine would generate no diagram shown, the fluid at 2 is mixed with the fluid at 4entropy and hence maximize the net work output. Processes 1- (both at the same pressure) to end up with the saturated 2 and 3-4 would be represented by vertical lines on the T-S liquid at 7. This is called "direct contact heating". The diagram and more closely resemble that of the Carnot cycle. Regenerative Rankine cycle (with minor variants) is commonlyThe Rankine cycle shown here prevents the vapor ending up in used in real power stations. [1] the superheat region after the expansion in the turbine, which reduces the energy removed by the condensers Another variation is where bleed steam from between turbine stages is sent to feed water heaters to preheat the3.2 Regenerative Rankine cycle water on its way from the condenser to the boiler. These heaters do not mix the input steam and condensate, function as an ordinary tubular heat exchanger, and are named "closed feed water heaters". The regenerative features here effectively raise the nominal cycle heat input temperature, by reducing the addition of heat from the boiler/fuel source at the relatively low feed water temperatures that would exist without regenerative feed water heating. This improves the efficiency of the cycle, as more of the heat flow into the cycle occurs at higher The regenerative Rankine temperature.cycle is so named because after emerging from the condenser(possibly as a sub cooled liquid) the working fluid is heated byBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  12. 12. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.comTanda plant PLF:-A plant load factor is a measure of average capacity utilization. It is a measure of the output of a power plant compared to themaximum output it could produce.The two commonest definitions are: Ø Ratio of average load to capacity. Ø Ratio of average load to peak load in a period. 2000 2006 2008Blog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  13. 13. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com 5.0 PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICITYThe means and steps involved in the production of electricity in a coal-fired power station are described below. Ø Coal Handling Switch Gear & Switch Ø Plant, CHP Turbines & Yard Boil Ø Generators Ø Electrostatic Precipitator, ESPBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  14. 14. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com Ø 5.1 Coal handling plant: The coal, brought to the station by train or other means, we use wagon tripler for putting the coal on the conveying belt which consists of mechanical equipment and motor to drive it. Coal travels from the coal handling plant by conveyer belt to the coal bunkers. There are magnetic separator and magnet detecting device placed at conveyer to remove the magnetic element coming with coal and to indicate magnetic element by the two devices respectively. Now the coal is collected certain place which is called stacking, from where it is fed to the pulverizing mills which grinds it as fine as face powder. The finely powdered coal mixed with pre-heated air is then blown into the boiler by fan called Primary Air Fan where it burns, more like a gas than as a solid in convectional domestic or industrial grate, with additional amount of air called secondary air supplied by Forced Draft Fan. As the coal has been grounded so finely the resultant ash is also a fine powder. Some of this ash binds together to form lumps which fall into the ash pits at the bottom of the furnace. The water quenched ash from the bottom of the furnace is conveyed to pits for subsequent disposal or sale. Most of ash, still in fine particles form is carried out of the boiler to the precipitators as dust, where it is trapped by electrodes charged with high voltage electricity. The dust is then conveyed by water to disposal areas or to bunkers for sale while the cleaned flue gases pass on through ID Fan to be discharged up the chimney. To the boiler Coal Grinder through conveyer beltBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  15. 15. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com Ø 5.2 Way of producing steam by the boiler: Initially we maintain a certain temperature inside the boiler. We pass mixture of oil and air which is ignited by igniter placed at the corner of the boiler. Oil used in this purpose may be HSD, HFO and LSHS. After reaching a certain temperature we pass powdered coal inside the boiler. This produces lots of heat which helps in producing steam. The steam super-heated in further tubes (Super Heater) and reaches a temperature about 540 degree centigrade and about 135 kg per square centimetre pressure and then it passes to the turbine where it is discharged through the nozzles on the turbine blades.Blog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  16. 16. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com As the steam strikes on the turbine blades, shaft of the turbine gets movement due to so it starts rotation and reaches a speed about 3000 rpm. Then we control the speed of shaft by controlling the passes of powdered coal to the boiler. The shaft of turbine is mechanically coupled with the shaft of the generator due to so generator s shaft also rotates with a speed about 3000 rpm. The rotor is housed inside the stator having heavy coils of copper bars in which electricity is produced through the movement of the magnetic field created by movement of shaft i.e. rotor. The electricity passes from the stator winding to the step-up transformer which increases its voltage so that it can be transmitted efficiently over the power lines of the grid. The steam which has given up its heat energy is changed back into water in the condenser so that it is ready for re-use. The condenser contains many kilometres of tubing through which the colder is constantly pumped. The steam passing around the tubes loses the heat and is rapidly changed back to water. But the two lots of water (i.e. boiler feed water & cooling water) must NEVER MIX. The cooling water is drawn from the river, but the boiler feed water must be absolutely pure, far purer than the water we drink, if it is not to damage the boiler tubes. To condense the large quantities of steam, huge and continuous volume of cooling water is essential. In most of the power stations the same water is to be used over and over again. So the heat which the water extracts from the steam in the condenser is removed by pumping the water out to the cooling towers. The cooling towers are simply concrete shells acting as huge chimneys creating a draught (natural/mechanically assisted by fans) of air. The water is sprayed out at the top of towers and as it falls into the pond beneath it is cooled by the upward draught of air. The cold water in the pond is then circulated by pumps to the condensers. Inevitably, however, some of the water is drawn upwards as vapours by the draught and it is this which forms the familiar white clouds which emerge from the towers seen sometimes.Blog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  17. 17. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com Why bother to change steam from the turbine back into water if it has to be heated up again immediately? The answer lies in heat law of physics which states that the boiling point of water is related to pressure. The lower the pressure, the lower the temperature at which water boils. The turbine designer want as low boiling point of water as possible because he can only utilize the energy of the steam when the steam changes back into water he can get NO more work out of it. So a condenser is built, which by rapidly changing the steam back into water creates a vacuum. This vacuum results in a much lower boiling point which, in turns, means he can continue getting work out of the stem well below 100 degree Celsius at which it would normally change into water. 1. COAL TO STEAM Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded in the coal handling plant. This coal is transported up to the raw coal bunkers with thehelp of belt conveyors. Coal is transported to mills by coal feeder. The coal is pulverized into powder form. This crushed coal is taken away to the furnace through coal pipes with the help of hot and cold air mixture from P.A. fans.P.A. fans taken atmospheric air, a part of which is sent to atmosphere for heating while a part goes directly to the mill fortemperature control. Atmospheric air F.D. fan is heated in the air heaters and sent to the furnace as combustion air. Water from the boiler fed pump passes through economizer and reaches the boiler drum. Water from the drum passesthrough down comers and goes to bottom ring header. Water from the bottom ring header is divided to all the four sides of thefurnace. Due to heat and the density difference the water rises up in the water well tubes Water is partly converted to steamas it rises up in the furnace. This steam and water mixture is again taken to boiler drum where the steam is separated fromBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  18. 18. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.comwater. Water follows the same path while the steam is sent to super heater for superheating. The super heaters are locatedinside the furnace and the steam is superheated (540 C) and finally it goes to turbine . 5.3 STEAMS TO MECHANICAL POWER From the boiler saturated superheated steam enters the high pressure turbine where it passes through its various stages.The steam leaving the high pressure turbine goes back to the boiler for reheating and returns by a further pipe to theintermediate pressure turbine. Here it passes through another series of blades. Finally the steam is taken to the low pressure turbines, each of which it enters at the center flowing outwards in oppositedirections through the rows of turbine blades. As the steam gives up its heat energy to drive the turbine, its temperature andpressure fall and it expands. Because of this expansion the blades are much larger and longer towards low pressure ends ofturbine. When as much energy as possible is extracted from the steam it is exhausted directly to the condenser and furthercondensate cycle and feed water cycle take place. It is passed through further boiler for reconversion into steam.5.4 MECHANICAL POWER TO ELECTRICAL POWERLP turbine end is connected to generator. Generator converts mechanical energy to electrical energy.Turbine shaft usuallyrotates at 3,000 rpm. This speed determined by the frequency of the electrical system used in this country and is the speed atwhich a 2-pole generator must be driven to generate alternating current frequency of 50 cycles per second.Blog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  19. 19. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com6. EXPALANATION OF POWER PLANT CYCLES6.1 STEAM CYCLE:Steam coming out from super heater at 540degree C and 139kg per square cm. Three cylinders of 2 set of main stop and governingvalve arrangement on either side of HP casing and each set consist of one stop valve and 2 governing valve assembling series. Thesteam from the boiler is admitted the reheater where it heated at original temp. The reheated steam is taken to IP casingthrough combined stop and interceptor valve arrangement at either of IP casing. The exhaust from the IP casing has takendirectly the LP casing. The steam expanded in the LP turbine to a very low blade pressure which is maintained by the condenserbelow atmospheric pressure about 3% of makeup water is required to condensate the losses of cooling water due to evaporation incooling tower. Finally steam exhausted by LP turbine is condensed in the surface type condenser type cooling water followingthrough a large no. of tubes. The HP, IP &LP turbine coupled in series and mechanical power generated from steam transmitted togenerator.Blog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  20. 20. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com From Final S/H MAIN STEAM Hp 130Ksc By- 535 `C LP pass GENERATOR HP MP TURBINE 34 Ksc,370 `C 32 Ksc,535 `C condenser R/H Hot well STEAM CYCLEBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  21. 21. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com6.2 Feed water cycle:-This cycle deals with the flow of water to boiler feed pump from feed storage tank ,which is later fed to the boiler drum passingthrough high pressure heater and economizer This system plays an important role in the supply of feed water to the boiler atrequisite pressure and steam/water ratio. This system starts from boiler feed pump to feed regulating station via HP heaters.Boiler feed pump: this pump is horizontal and barrel design driven by an electric motor through a hydraulic coupling. all thebearings of the pump and motor are forced lubricated by oil lubricating system.The feed pump consists of pump barrel into which is mounted the inside starter, together with rotor. Water cooling and oillubricating are provided with their accessories. The brackets of the radial bearing of the suction side and the radial and thrustbearing of the discharged side are fixed to low pressure cover.High pressure heater: these are regenerative feed water heater operating at high pressure and located by the side of turbine. Itis connected in series on feed water side and by such arrangement the feed water after feed pump enters the hp heater. Thesteam supply to these heaters from the bleed point of the turbine through motor operated valves.Blog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  22. 22. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.comBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  23. 23. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com .Blog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  24. 24. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com6.3 Condensate water cycle: It deals with the water flowing through the condenser which plays an important role in increasing the efficiency of the plant. It consists of a feedback path from main ejector to hot well. The steam after condensing in the condenser known as condensate is extracted out of the condenser hot well by condensate pump and taken to the de-aerator through ejectors, gland steam cooler and series of LP heaters. HEIGHT D/A 42M 3 CE PUMP 15 LP 0° HOT M LP LP LP 40 C WELL /E H3 H4 H5 °C 45 FEEDBACK PATHBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  25. 25. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com.Blog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  26. 26. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com A STEAM GENERATOR IS A COMPLEX INTEGRATION OF THE7. BOILER FOLLOWING ACCESSORIES: 1. ECONOMISER 7. DIV PANEL 2. BOILER DRUM 8. PLATEN SH 3. DOWN COMERS 9. REHEATER 4. CCW PUMPS 10. BURNERS 5. BOTTOM RING HEADER 11. APHs 6. WATER WALLSBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  27. 27. 7.1 ECONOMISERØ Boiler Economizers are feed-water heaters in which the heat from waste gases is recovered to raise the temperature of feed-water supplied to the boiler.Ø It preheats the feed water by utilizing the residual heat of the flue gas.Ø It reduces the exhaust gas temperature and saves the fuel. 7.2 BOILER DRUM It is an enclosed Pressure Vessel Heat generated by Combustion of Fuel is transferred to water to become steam Ø Serves two main functions. Ø Separating heat from the mixture of water and steam. Ø It consists of all equipment used for purification of the steam after being separated from water. 7.3 BOILER DRUM LEVEL CONTROL Ø Important for both plant protection and equipment safety. Ø Maintain drum up to level at boiler start-up and maintain the level at constant steam load. Ø Decrease in this level will uncover boiler tubes and get overheated and damaged. Ø Increase in this level will make separation between steam and moisture difficult within drum. Ø Controlled circulation is required to maintain the difference in the density between water and steam with increase in pressure.Blog:https:// way2sac.wordpress.com
  28. 28. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com 7.4 DOWN COMERS Ø It carries water from boiler drum to the ring header. Ø They are installed from outside the furnace to keep density difference for natural circulation of water & steam. Ø Heating and evaporating the feed water supplied to the boiler from the economizer. 7.5 WATER WALLS These are membrane walls, no. of tubes are joined. Vertical tubes connected at the top and bottom of the Headers. Receives water from the boiler drum by down comers. 7.5.1 ADVANTAGES Increase in efficiency Better load response simpler combustion control. Quicker starting and stopping Increased availability of boiler. Heat transfer is better Weight is saved in refractory and structure Erection is made easy and quickBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  29. 29. 8. INTRODUCTION TO STEAM TURBINE 4. According to the method of governing:The steam turbine is the prime mover in which the pressure a) Throttle with turbine,energy of the steam is transformed into the kinetic energy of b) Turbine with nozzle governing.the rotor and later it is converted into electrical energy.8.1 CLASSIFICATION OF STEAM TURBINE 5. According to steam condition at inlet to turbine:1. According to the no. of pressure stages: a) Low Pressure Turbine: Using steam at a pressure below 5a) Single stage turbine, atm. b) Medium Pressure Turbine: Using steam at a pressureb) Multistage turbine. between 5 atm. to 40 atm.2. According to the direction of steam flow: c) High Pressure Turbine: Using steam above 40 atm.a) Axial turbine,b) Radial turbine. 6. According to action of turbine:3. According to the no. of cylinder: a) Impulse turbine,a) Single cylinder turbine, b) Reaction turbine.b) Double cylinder turbine,c) Three cylinder turbine,d) Four cylinder turbine.Blog:https:// way2sac.wordpress.com
  30. 30. Blog:https:// way2sac.wordpress.com
  31. 31. 8.2 PARTS OF STEAM TURBINE BLADE: b) Shroud blade: This type of blade is covered by a plate of iron on the tip of the blade.8.2.1 BLADE: Blades of turbine are classified in followingmanner: c) Laeed wined blade: When the blade is tightened by thick wire, it is called Laeed wined blade. It is also called8.2.1. 0 According to steam action: ribbon wined or Damping wined or Laeing wined blade.a) Impulse turbine,b) Reaction turbine. 8.3 ROTORS:In case of Impulse turbine blade, pressure drop does not take The three rotors of turbine are supported on only fiveplace in moving blades. bearings, the thrust cum journal bearing being common to HP and MP rotates. It is the rotating part of turbine. It is alsoWhile in case of Reaction blade, pressure drop takes place in termed as Shaft. It has following classification:moving blades. a) Flexible Shaft: The working speed of such type of rotor is8.2.1.2 According to Position: below their critical speed.a) Fixed Blade b) Rigid Shaft: The working speed of such type of rotor is more than their critical speed.b) Moving Blade.8.2.1.3 According to construction:a) Free standing blade: This type of blade is not coveredby anything and freely stands on the shaft of turbine.Blog:https:// way2sac.wordpress.com
  32. 32. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com8.4 BEARING: b) Antifriction Bearing: In such type of bearing there is a point contact between contacting surfaces.Bearings are classified in following manner: In NTPC Tanda, journal bearing which a type of friction isa) Friction Bearing: In such type of bearings there is a line of earing is used to support parts. There are 7 journal bearingscontact between contacting surfaces. among which second one is thrust cum journal bearing8.5 COUPLING : and front HP bearings. The rear bearing pedestal carries the thrust bearing and its protection equipment.Rigid type of coupling is used in NTPC Tanda to connect theshaft of turbine. 8.7 BALANCING HOLE:8.6 BEARING PEDESTAL: Balancing hole is provided in blade for the passage of steam. In NTPC Tanda, it exits in HP&IP turbine.Two bearing pedestals, front and rear. The front bearingpedestal carries all the governing system components, MOPBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  33. 33. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com9. Fundamentals of steam turbine systemsPrinciples of operation- The motive power in a steam turbine is obtained by the rate of change in momentum of a high velocity jet of steam impinging on a curved blade which is free to rotate.- The steam from the boiler is expanded in a nozzle, resulting in the emission of a high velocity jet. This jet of steam impinges on the moving vanes or blades, mounted on a shaft. Here it undergoes a change of direction of motion which gives rise to a change in momentum and therefore a force.- Principle of operation is shown below:- The relationship between work, force and blade velocity can be expressed in the other graph.- Steam turbines are mostly axial flow types; the steam flows over the blades in a direction parallel to the axis of the wheel. Radial flow types are rarely used.STAGE: Pair of moving and fixed wheel is called a stage.No. of stages in each turbine:HP: 8 stagesIP: 12 stagesLP: 2x4 stagesBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  34. 34. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com10. Electrical Equipment s 10.1 Generator:- The generator is directly coupled with its respective turbine normally rated for 110 MW at 0.88 power factor (i.e. 125 MVA), 11kV, 3 phases, 50Hz. The hydrogen cooling mechanism is used for the generator. The neutral point of the generator is earthed through a single phase Distribution Transformer, the secondary of which is shunted through a suitable resistance. The excitation system consists of high frequency AC mains and pilot exciters directly driven from the main shaft, silicon rectifying unit and associated control gears.Blog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  35. 35. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.comBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  36. 36. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com 10.1 Generator Transformer:- 10.2 Unit Transformer:-The generation voltage of 11kV is stepped up to 220kV bygenerator-transformer (in short GT) whose low voltages side The bus-duct leading from the generator to the GT is tapped off conveniently for connection to high voltage side of Unitis directly connected with the generator through an isolated Auxiliary Transformer used for stepping down the voltage tophase bus duct. The rating of generator-transformer is 6.6kV for supplying power to the unit auxiliary loads of the125MVA, 11/220kV, 3 phase, 50 Hz having an ON/OFF power station. The rating of the UAT is 15MVA, 11/6.6kV, 3-cooling. The high voltage side of the transformer is phase, 50 Hz.connected to the 220kV system in 220kV switchyard. 10.3 Start-up cum Reserve Transformer:- Each of the four units draw its start-up power from the 220kV system through two/three windings common start-up cum reserve transformer rated for 30/10/20 MVA, 220/33/6.6 kV, 3 phase, 50Hz. The transformer supplies the 33kV load requirements. This transformer also meets the requirement of station loads like coal & ash handling, compressed air and water treatment plant, station lightening and other common services as well as act as a standby source of power to unit auxiliaries.Blog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  37. 37. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com10.5 L.T Auxiliary Transformer:- For starting up of these motors suitable switchgears/starters are provided.For further step down of 6.6kV power from the reserve 1. 6.6 kV Switchgearsà 6.6 kV power received from eithersystem for utilization at medium voltage 16 nos. 1000kVA, Unit Auxiliary Transformer or Reserve Transformer are6.6kV/415V, 3-phase, 50Hz transformers have been connected to respectively 6.6kV switchgear bank throughenvisaged. The actual requirement is assessed after detail suitable breakers for further distribution to motors anddesign of the system. to transformers for further step down to 415V. 2. 415 V Switchgearà The 415V supply from each 1000kVAPower for station illumination, unit wise is provided by five transformer are connected to a suitable 415V bus having300kVA, 6.6kV/415V, 3-phase, 4 wire transformers. its distribution for different motors and starters. Motors capacity above 90kW are controlled by a 415V breaker10.6 DC Supply System:- Charger and control & from respective bus and that of lower capacity bydistribution system is installed as required for supply to all magnetic contractors grouped together in a sheet metalloads either for normal operation A station battery unit, cubicle for a number of motors, termed MCC. Protection and control for individual motors is provided there.complete with battery or during any emergency conditions. 10.8 220kV Switch Yard: Generator TransformerExact rating is however determined after the detail study of step-up the 11 kV voltage generated by the Generator to 220all loads and their durations. kV. This voltage is used to charge the three buses in the Switch yard which follows Double Bus Bar with Transfer Bus10.7 Switchgear:- The drives for auxiliary equipment Scheme.rated 150kW and above are operated at 6.6kV and driveshaving a rating below 150kW are operated at 415V, 3-phase, Switch yard provides protection between generatorand 4-wire system having a provision for single phase 230V. transformer and transmission lines.Blog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  38. 38. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.comMajor components of 220 kV Switch yard is:· Buses (Bus #1, Bus #2 & Transfer Bus).· Isolators.· Circuit breaker.(Air Blast Circuit Breaker)· Current Transformer (CT).· Capacitor Voltage Transformer (CVT).· Wave Tape.· Potential Transformer (PT).· Bays(4-Transmission line , 4-GT , 2-Station transformer , 1-Bus coupler , 1- Transfer Bus) Switch yard at NTPC tandaBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  39. 39. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.comBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  40. 40. 11. Auxiliary systems: 600tons/hr. Crushed coal is either stacked in crusher coal yard or conveyed straight to power house. Duplicate conveyorThe following auxiliary systems for the 4X110 MW as system carries coal to the top of boiler bunkers. Toenvisaged is described below:- stackers/re-claimers are there for stacking and re-claiming of coal each rated 600 tons/hr. 11.1 Coal Handling System:-Railway is only the means of transport of coal to this powerstation. Annual coal requirement for 4X110 MW units isestimated to be approximately 13.70 lakhs mega tonnes. Thecoal yard in the layout is adequate for about 30 days storagewith two coal stock piles and considering 3800 MT of coalrequirement daily.Considering inadequate & irregular coal movement by railwaysit is adequate to have a marshalling yard capable of handlingtwo rakes a day normally & three rakes occasionally. Railwaysiding and marshalling yard is capable of meeting thisrequirement.The coal handling system consists of two wagon tipplers withintegral weight bridge and marshalling equipment forunloading coal into hoppers. Duplicate belt conveyor systemeach rated 600 tons/hr feeds coal from the tippler hoppersto Crusher House. There are two crushers, each rated CHP system with wagonBlog:https:// way2sac.wordpress.com
  41. 41. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com 11.2 Fuel Oil System:-In the power house, over the bunkers, duplicate belt The fuel oil is made available to the power station in tankconveyors run, each provided with a travelling tippler. wagon. The lighter grade oil such as light diesel oil is madeSuitable arrangements are made for magnetic separation of available for starting of boiler from cold condition & furnaceiron particles from coal at the inlet to the crusher house. An oil is made available for flame stabilisation purpose during lowautomatic belt weighing system is provided at the power load operation and during any other period when flamehouse entry point to register the amount of coal fed into the stability is not satisfactory. The oil received from the tankbunkers. wagon is pumped into the storage tank. The railway siding facilities provided is able to accommodate on the rake of tankFor emergency, manual arrangements are made for unloading wagons. Two storage tanks for heavy oil and one for light oil isthe coal from wagons and conveying the same to the crusher provided. Provision is made for heating the tanks, steamhouse. tracing the piping and supply of heating steam to tank wagons.Necessary dust suppressing equipment and ventilation Oil from storage tank is pumped into day oil tanks. The day oilequipment is provided as a part of the coal conveying system. tank is located near the boiler. Pumps and heaters sets ofThe operation of the entire system is controlled and suitable design then pump the oil from day storage to thesupervised from control room. The system also has necessary burner. Return oil is fed back into the day tank. Similarinterlock & safety features. For the purpose of shunting, it installation is provided for the light oil but the day tank is nothas three diesel locomotives. present.Blog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  42. 42. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com 11.3 Ash Handling System:- 11.4 Cooling Water Management:-The ash disposal area is within the distance of 4~5kms from The general arrangement & the system have been discussedthe power station and this is a low lying area. The ash from earlier in the report. Only the equipment s involved in thethe boiler hoppers is conveyed to the ash disposal area either mechanical system are described below:-by direct sluicing or hydro-pneumatic system. Boilersmanufactured by M/s. BHEL or AVB are so designed that itwas possible to adopt either of the system for both fly aswell as bottom ash.The ash disposal area has adequate capacity for storage ofash for a 640 MW station for over 15 yrs withoutreclamation. This area is now being used by Jaypee cementfactory for production of cement and ash bricks. Howeverthis area may also be used for agriculture purposes bycovering it with a layer of silt brought from the raw waterreservoir in future. Water cooling plantBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  43. 43. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.comWater from the raw water reservoir is pumped through the ash disposal area but this continues the part of coolingclariflocculators. The clarified water from these water blow-down as well and therefore forms the part ofclarifloccolator flows to the cooling water basin by gravity. A total make-up water of the cooling tower.clarified pump is present which pumps the clarified water tothe DM plant. For this, three pumps are involved. The outlets 11.5 Water Treatment Plant:-from the cooling water tower basins are connected to thecommon tunnel which takes the water back to the power A demineralising plant is provided for supplying make-uphouse. From this tunnel water is drawn through the following water for the heat cycle. Clarified water is pumped from thepumps to the various equipment s as follows:- clarified water storage pit which passes through pressure filter, activated carbon filter, caution exchanger, degassifier,1. ) CW Pumps for circulating cooling water through turbine, anion exchanger and mixed bed exchanger. There are four condenser and discharging the same to the op of the streams each rated 30m3/hr. Adequate facilities are respective cooling towers. Two CW Pumps each rated 50% provided for unloading, handling and storage of chemicals. capacity is installed. Waste effluent is neutralised before it is discharged to2. ) Auxiliary Cooling Water Pumps for supplying cooling outside drain. water to various auxiliary equipment for their cooling. This water after circulation through various bearings and heat exchangers leads to the CW discharge pipe from the condenser for cooling through the cooling tower. The number of pumps in this case is also two, each of 50% capacity.3. ) Ash Water Pumps for supplying water for ash handling. There are two pumps per unit. Ash water is discharged toBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  44. 44. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com 12. FUTURE PROSPECTS OF NTPC TANDA NTPC Tanda is providing electricity to 3 different cities (Gorakhpur, Basti & Sultanpur).At present time, plant is delivering electricity up to PLF 102% i.e. generating power more than specified. In near future, generating capacity of plant is going to be increased by two units of 660MW each. So NTPC is playing a major role in development of INDIA. Water treatment tankersBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  45. 45. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.comThnakfull doer who co-operated in learningMr. Maurya (Supdt. Chemistry)Mr.Vinay Tiwari (Er. Operation Department)Mr. Pankaj Goel (Sr. officer HR)Mr. Sushil kumar (Er. EM Department)Blog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
  46. 46. Mail : way2sachinverma@gmail.com THNAK YOUBlog:https://way2sac.wordpress.com
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