CITES(the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. It aims to ensure that International Trade in Specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Roughly 5,000 species of animals and 28,000 species of plants are protected. Bears, Dolphins, Cacti, Corals, Orchids and Aloes are some examples.
Natural Vegetation and Wild
Natural Vegetation and Animal Wild
depend on climate, relief & soil. The
of India’s climate & relief have made
vegetation & Animal Wild Life
interdependent on each other & the
single ecosystem. This ecosystem has
through thousands of years.
• What is Natural
• Tropical Evergreen
• Tropical Deciduous
• Tropical Thorn and
• Desert Vegetation
• Mangrove Forests
• Himalayan or Alpine
• Importance of Forests
What Is Natural Vegetation?
India has a wide variety of Natural Vegetation
ranging from Tropical Evergreen Forests to
Desert Vegetation. The Natural Vegetation of
India can be divided into six main type. They
are:1. Tropical Evergreen Forests
2. Tropical Deciduous Forests(Monsoon
3. Tropical Thorn and Shrub Forests
4. Desert Vegetation
5. Mangrove Forests
6. Himalayan Vegetation
Tropical inEvergreen Forests
This type of vegetation is found areas where rainfall is above
250cms and temperature ranges between 250oC and 270oC. Since
the trees are always green they are called Rain Forests. The
heavy rainfall, high temperature and humidity are responsible for
the growth of these dense forests. The trees grow about 60 meters
high. The branches of trees form a canopy and prevent the sun’s
rays from reaching the ground. In India, most of these forests are
found on the western side of the Western Ghats, in the NorthEastern hills and the Andaman and Nicobar islands. The Semi
Evergreen Forests are found in the lower rainfall areas of the
Western Ghats, Orissa and West Bengal. Ebony, Mahogany, rosewood and rubber are the Important trees. Bamboo bushes are also
Tropical Deciduous Forests(Monsoon
These forests are also called Monsoon Forests. They
cover a greater part of India. They are found in regions
where the rainfall is between 75cms, and 250cms. These
forests are found on the eastern slopes of the Western
Ghats, Jammu, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Orissa,
Bihar and Jharkhand. In these forests, the trees are
fewer and shorter. Bamboos and Canes are also grown
here. The trees shed their leaves at the beginning of
Summer. The important trees of these forests are Teak,
Sal and Sandal-Wood. They have great commercial
value. The Deciduous Forests of Karnataka have
Sandal-Wood trees. Wherever these forests are cut
down or burnt, bushes and grass have taken their place.
Tropical Thorn and Shrub Forests
These forests are found in the
central parts of the Deccan
Plateau, southern parts of the
Maharashtra, Bellary of
Karnataka, Cuddapha &
Kurnool of Andhra Pradesh,
where the annual rainfall is
between 60 &75cms.These forests
have short stemmed trees like
Babul and Kasavi trees &
Coarse grass. Palms & Kikar
trees are also found here.
This type of vegetation is found
in regions where the annual
is less than 50cms. Rajasthan’s
Desert, the borders of Punjab,
Haryana and Gujarat have this
vegetation. The trees, which grow
have deep roots, thick leaves and
thorns. Date Palms are common
These forests are formed due
to tides. They are
formed along the Deltas and
estuaries of rivers
that are subjected to tides.
those of Banyan tree) are the
Mangrove Forests. The Deltas
of rivers Ganges,
Godavari, Mahanadi and
Krishna have these
forests. In the Ganges
delta, there are plenty of
Sundari trees and the forests
Himalayan or Alpine
Different types ofVegetation
vegetation are found in the
Mountains. The vegetation changes with altitude &
The lower regions of the Himalayas have Tropical
Forests up to 1,500mts. Teak, Sal & Rose-Wood
important trees. Temperate forests are found
between 1,500 to
3,650mts. They are also called Coniferous
important trees of this vegetation are Silver
Fir, Oak, Spruce,
Laurels, Chestnut etc. Grasslands are found in
Importance of Forests
Forests are a very important Natural Resource. They provide
materials to industries such as
Timber, Bamboo, Cane, Gum, Medicinal
Plants, Shrubs, etc. They provide fodder to cattle. In addition
benefits, there are advantages which are of great importance.
as follows:1. Forests provide moisture and lower the temperature.
2. They prevent soil erosion and preserve the fertility of the
3. Forests provide home for many animals and birds, thus
4. Forests help to preserve the ecological balance.
Forests are depleted due to large-scale cutting of trees due to
industrial development, Cultivation of crops, over-grazing by
cattle, construction of railways and roadways, irrigation and
Conservation of forests
Forests are a natural gift to humankind.
Human beings first lived in
forests. Destruction of forests result in
Soil Erosion, Floods, Drought,
etc. Hence, realizing the importance of
forests, the Central
Government has formed a National Forest
Policy in 1952. It has a
three fold plan namely:
1. Nationalism of Forest Operations.
2. Protection and Operation of Wildlife and
Environment &Social Forestry.
3. Commercialization of Industrial Forest
Social Forestry aims at not only providing
• What is Wildlife?
• Where it can be found?
• Influence of various
factors on wildlife.
• Wild Life maintaining the
balance in the Ecosystem
• Species included in wild
• Bird life of India
• Evil Human
• Measures to protect Wild
What is Wildlife?
Wildlife traditionally refers to non-Domesticated animal
species, but has come to include all plants, fungi and
other organisms which grow or live wild in an area without
being introduced by humans. Domesticating wild plant &
animal species for human benefit has occurred many times
all over the planet, and has a major impact on the
environment, both positive and negative.
Where it can be found?
Wildlife can be found in all
Ecosystems. Deserts, forests, rain
forests, plains, grasslands, other
areas including the most developed
urban sites, all have distinct forms
of wildlife. While the term in
popular culture usually refers to
animals that are untouched by
human factors, most scientists agree
that wildlife around is affected by
Influence of various factors on
Humans have historically tended to separate
civilization from wildlife in a number of ways
including the legal, social, & moral sense. Some
animals, however, have adapted to suburban
environments. This includes such animals as
domesticated cats, dogs, mice, & gerbils. Religions
have often declared certain animals to be
sacred, & in modern times concern for the
natural environment has provoked activists to
protest the exploitation of wildlife for human
benefit or entertainment.
Wild Life maintaining the balance in the
Wild Life includes animals, birds, insects as well
as the aquatic life forms. They provide us milk, meat,
hides & wool. Insects like bees provide us honey, help
in pollination, of flowers & have an important role to
play as decomposers in the ecosystem. The birds fed on
Insects & act as decomposers as well. Vulture due to
its ability to feed on dead livestock is a scavenger &
considered a vital cleanser of the environment. So
animals big or small, all integral to maintaining
balance in the ecosystem.
Species included in wild life.
India has a variety of wildlife because of its varied relief
features such as climate & natural vegetation. There
are about 80,000 species of wild animals, birds & fishes.
India has some rare animals which are not found in any
other part of the world. Eg:- Swamp Deer,
Chausinga(four-horn antelope),Kashmir stag, Black Buck
& Neelgai. The stopped deer of India is very beautiful.
Horned Rhinoceros is found only in India and Nepal.
Some of the Carnivores animals such as lions, tigers and
leopards are found in our forests. The Gir Forests of
Saurashtra is the natural habitat of Lions. The famous
Bengal Tiger is found in theSunderbans. The national
animal of India is the Tiger. The Himalayas are the home
of several interesting animals like the Wild Sheep, Yak,
the Mountain Goats, the Ibex, the Shrew, the Tapu, the
Panda & the Snow-Leopard. Of the many species of
monkeys, the languar is the most common.
India has a variety of Bird Life. The
Falcon(hawk), Geese, Mynahs, Parrots,
Pigeons, Cranes, Hornbills, Sunbirds &
Kingfishers are found in forests & marshy
lands. The Peacock is our national bird.
Birds are very beautiful to see and various
bird sanctuaries are full crowded with
tourists and these bird sanctuaries help India
in foreign exchange.
Forests are our wealth. Plants give shelter to the animals & together they
maintain the ecosystem. Changes of climate & human interferences can cause
the loss of natural habitats for the plants & animals. Many species have
become vulnerable or endangered & some are on the verge of extinction.
Deforestation, Soil Erosion, Constructional Activities, Forest Fires, Tsunami &
Landslides are some of the human & natural factors which accelerate the
process of extinction of these resources. One of the major concerns is the
poaching which result in a sharp decline in the number of particular species.
The animals are poached for collection & illegal trade of hides, skins, nails,
teeth, horns as well as feathers. Some of these animals are Tigers, Loin,
Elephant, Deer, Black Buck, Crocodile, Rhinoceros, Snow Leopard, Ostrich &
Peacock. These can be conserved by increasing awareness. Humans are
adversely using Wild Life & its uses. So, we have to protect our Animal Life
&Bird Life. That means there is a need protect our Wide Wild Life.
Measures to protect Wild
Special efforts are made
the endangered species of
National Parks and Wildlife
Sanctuaries have been
order to preserve Wildlife.
73 National Parks, 447
Sanctuaries and 17 Tiger
Conservation of Wild Life
National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Biosphere Reserves are made
to protect our Natural Vegetation and Wild Life. Conservation of
Creeks, Lakes, and Wetlands is necessary to save the precious resource
from depletion. There is a balance in the environment if the relative
number of species is not disturbed. Human Activities in several parts
of the world have disturbed the natural habitats of many species.
Due to indiscriminate killings, several birds and animals have
either become extinct or are on the verge of extinction. Awareness
Programmes like Social Forestry & Vanamohatasava should be
encouraged at the regional and community level. School children
should be encouraged to bird watch and visit nature camps so that
they appreciate the habitat of varied species. Many countries have
passed laws against the trade as well as killing of birds and animals.
In India, killing Lions, Tigers, Dears, Great Indian Bustards &
Peacocks is illegal. An International Convention CITES* has been
established that lists several species of animals and birds in which
trade is prohibited. Conservation of Plants and Animals is an ethical
duty of every citizen.