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Musculoskeletal System


Muscular and Skeletal system combined

Muscular and Skeletal system combined

Published in Health & Medicine , Spiritual
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  • 1. Musculoskeletal System
  • 2. Introduction
    • The Musculoskeletal system is made up of two different systems.
    • It is important to know how each system works.
  • 3. Three Types of Muscles
    • The three types of muscles tissues are:
      • Smooth
      • Skeletal
      • Cardiac
  • 4. Smooth Muscle
    • smooth (or visceral) muscle-
      • forms the muscle layers in the walls of the digestive tract, bladder, various ducts, arteries and veins, and other internal organs.
      • Smooth- muscle cells are elongated and thin, have only one nucleus, and form sheets rather than bundles of muscles.
      • Smooth muscle is controlled by the autonomic nervous system (ANS).
  • 5. Smooth Muscle
  • 6. Skeletal Muscle
    • skeletal (or voluntary/striated) muscle, is the most abundant tissue in the human body, it produces movement.
    • Each skeletal-muscle fiber is roughly cylindrical, contains many nuclei, and is crossed by alternating light and dark bands called striations .
    • Fibers bind together, via connective tissue , into bundles; and these bundles, in turn, bind together to form muscles.
    • Thus, skeletal muscles are composite structures composed of many muscle fibers, nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue.
    • Skeletal muscles are controlled by the somatic nervous system (SNS).
  • 7. Skeletal Muscle
  • 8. Cardiac Muscle
    • cardiac (or heart) muscle, a cross between the smooth and striated muscles, makes up the heart tissue.
    • Like smooth muscle, it is controlled by the autonomic nervous system   (ANS).
  • 9. Cardiac Muscle
  • 10. Muscle Function
    • There are two important proteins involved in muscle function.
      • Actin
      • Myosin
    • They overlap at an area called the sarcomere.
    • Video 1
    • Video2
  • 11. Muscle Function
  • 12. Skeletal System
    • Its 206 bones form a rigid framework to which the softer tissues and organs of the body are attached.
    • Vital organs are protected by the skeletal system.
    • They also function to move, support, produce red and white blood cells and store minerals.
  • 13. The parts of the skeleton
    • The human skeleton is divided into two distinct parts:
      • Axial
      • Appendicular
  • 14. Axial Skeleton
    • The axial skeleton consists of bones that form the axis of the body and support and protect the organs of the head, neck, and trunk.
      • The Skull
      • The Sternum
      • The Ribs
      • The Vertebral Column
  • 15. Appendicular Skeleton
    • The appendicular skeleton is composed of bones that anchor the appendages to the axial skeleton.
      • The Upper Extremities
      • The Lower Extremities
      • The Shoulder Girdle
      • The Pelvic Girdle --(the sacrum and coccyx are considered part of the vertebral column)
  • 16. Sacrum
  • 17. Composition of bones
    • Bone is not a uniformly solid material, but rather has some spaces between its hard elements.
    • Two types of bone tissue
      • Compact
      • Spongy
  • 18. Compact Bone
    • The hard outer layer of bones is composed of compact bone tissue, so-called due to its minimal gaps and spaces.
    • This tissue gives bones their smooth, white, and solid appearance, and accounts for 80% of the total bone mass of an adult skeleton.
  • 19. Spongy Bone
    • Filling the interior of the organ is the trabecular bone tissue (an open cell porous network also called cancellous or spongy bone) which is composed of a network of rod- and plate-like elements that make the overall organ lighter and allowing room for blood vessels and marrow.
    • Trabecular bone accounts for the remaining 20% of total bone mass, but has nearly ten times the surface area of compact bone.
  • 20. Bone Cells
    • Osteoblasts: are mononucleate bone-forming cells. Osteoblasts also manufacture hormones , to act on the bone itself.
    • Osteocytes originate from osteoblasts. Their functions include formation of bone, matrix maintenance and calcium homeostasis.
    • Osteoclasts are the cells responsible for bone resorption (remodeling of bone to reduce its volume).
  • 21. Five different types of bones
    • Long (femur)
    • Short (carpus)
    • Flat (sternum)
    • Irregular (vertebrae)
    • Sesamoid (embedded in tendon)
  • 22. Disorders
    • Bone fracture
    • Osteomyelitis
    • Osteoporosis
    • Osteosarcoma
    • Osteogenesis imperfecta
    • Arthritis
  • 23. How do they work together?
    • The musculoskeletal system consists of the skeletal system -- bones and joints and the skeletal muscle system. These two systems work together to provide basic functions that are essential to life, including:
    • Protection
    • Support
    • Blood cell formation
    • Mineral homeostasis
    • Storage: stores fat and minerals.
    • Leverage
  • 24. Tissues involved
    • There are 5 basic tissues comprising the musculoskeletal system: 
      • bones , 
      • ligaments (attaching bone to bone) 
      • cartilage (protective gel-like substance lining the joints and intervertebral discs), 
      • skeletal muscles
      • tendons (attaching muscle to bone). 
  • 25. How do our muscles and bones work together to cause locomotion?
    • Joint: where two bones meet
    • 2 types:
      • Structural
      • Functional
  • 26. Structural Joints
    • Fibrous
    • Cartilaginous
    • Synovial
  • 27. If you have a weak stomach look away now!!
  • 28. Functional Joints
    • Functional joints are classified by the range of movement they provide
      • synarthroses
      • amphiarthroses
      • diarthrosis
  • 29. Moveable joints
    • Ball and socket
    • Hinge
    • Pivot
    • Gliding
    • Saddle
    • Condyloid
  • 30. Categories of moveable joints
  • 31.  
  • 32. How do muscles work to move joints?
    • Flexor Vs Abductor
      • Flexor contracts
      • Abductor extends
  • 33. Homeostasis and muscles
    • Feedback loop
      • Cold weather
      • Reflex
    • Muscles help you respond to changes in your environment by enabling you to move.