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Biochemistry Biochemistry Presentation Transcript

  • Biochemistry
  • Organic Vs Inorganic
    • Organic Compound: a compound that contains Carbon and Hydrogen.
    • Inorganic Compound: a compound that does not contain both carbon and hydrogen.
      • Organic or inorganic
        • CO 2
        • C 6 H 12 O 6
        • HCl
        • NaCl
  • Categories of Organic Compounds
    • 1) Carbohydrates (Sugars)
    • 2) Proteins
    • 3) Lipids (Fats)
    • 4) Nucleic Acids
  • Carbohydrates
    • Primary source of energy
    • Includes sugars and starches.
    • Made up of carbon,
    • hydrogen,
    • and oxygen.
    • In a ratio of 1:2:1.
  • Carbohydrates
    • The simplest Carbs are called Monosaccharides or simple sugars. Examples include Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose.
    • Complex carbohydrates are called either Disaccharides, or polysaccharides.
    • A disaccharide is two monosaccharides combined, and a polysaccharide is many combined. Starch is a polysaccharide and is used for food storage.
  • Carbohydrates
    • The chemical reaction that joins saccharides is called dehydration synthesis.
    • Dehydration synthesis is the formation of a bond and the removal of water
  • Dehydration Synthesis
  • Proteins
    • Made up of Amino Acids. They contain the elements Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen.
    • Amino Acids contain the -NH2 group which is called the amino group, and the COOH group or the Carboxyl group.
    • Amino Acids are defined by the side group or R- group.
  • Proteins
    • When two more amino acids are put together they become a polypeptide.
    • The bond that holds amino acids together between the carboxyl group of one Amino Acid and the amino group of another is called a peptide bond.
  • Proteins
    • The order in which amino acids are placed in the chain determines the structure of the protein.
    • The structure of the protein determines the function of the protein.
  • Enzymes
    • Enzymes are proteins that catalyze ( i.e. speed up) chemical reactions. Enzymes are catalysts.
    • In enzymatic reactions (enzyme controlled reactions), the molecules at the beginning of the process are called substrates, and the enzyme converts them into different molecules, the products.
  • Enzymes
    • Almost all processes in a cell need enzymes in order to occur at significant rates.
    • Enzymes are extremely specific for their substrates and speed up only a few reactions.
    • Each enzyme will work on a very few different molecules.
    • Lock and Key model
  • Enzymes
  • Enzymes
    • Like all catalysts, enzymes work by lowering the activation energy for a reaction, thus dramatically accelerating the rate of the reaction.
    • Most importantly;
      • Enzymes are not used up by the reaction. After they have done their work they release the products and are not changed.
  • Lipids
    • Lipids are a large class of hydrophobic (water hating) compounds that include:
      • Fats
      • Fatty acids
      • Oils
    • Lipids have many functions in living organisms including nutrients, energy storage, and structural components of cell membranes.
  • Lipids
    • We will be mostly concerned with the lipids in the class of triglycerides (fats).
    • All triglycerides have a glycerol backbone.
  • Lipids
    • A fatty acid is a chain of carbon and hydrogen, usually 12-24 carbons (only even numbers), with a carboxyl group at one end.
  • Triglyceride
    • A triglyceride is created when the process of dehydration synthesis chemically binds three fatty acids to a molecule of glycerol.
  • Nucleic acids
    • DNA
    • RNA
    • The building blocks of nucleic acids are called NUCLEOTIDES
  • Nucleic Acids
    • Nucleotides : monomers of nucleic acids.
    • All nucleic acids consist of many nucleotides bonded together.
  • Nucleotide
    • 1. Sugar: 5-carbon ribose or deoxyribose
    • 2. Phosphate group
    • 3. Nitrogen base
  • DNA Nucleotides
    • a) Sugar = deoxyribose
    • b) Double helix form: two intertwined chains (double stranded)
    • Specific base pairing, complementary
      • Guanine (G) - Cytosine (C)
      • Adenine(A) - Thymine (T)
  • RNA Nucleotides
    • a) Sugar = ribose
    • b) Uracil (U) replaces thymine (T) in RNA
      • Uracil (U) - Adenine (A)
      • Guanine (G) - Cytosine (C)
    • c) Single stranded helix