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    Biochemistry Biochemistry Presentation Transcript

    • Biochemistry
    • Organic Vs Inorganic
      • Organic Compound: a compound that contains Carbon and Hydrogen.
      • Inorganic Compound: a compound that does not contain both carbon and hydrogen.
        • Organic or inorganic
          • CO 2
          • C 6 H 12 O 6
          • HCl
          • NaCl
    • Categories of Organic Compounds
      • 1) Carbohydrates (Sugars)
      • 2) Proteins
      • 3) Lipids (Fats)
      • 4) Nucleic Acids
    • Carbohydrates
      • Primary source of energy
      • Includes sugars and starches.
      • Made up of carbon,
      • hydrogen,
      • and oxygen.
      • In a ratio of 1:2:1.
    • Carbohydrates
      • The simplest Carbs are called Monosaccharides or simple sugars. Examples include Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose.
      • Complex carbohydrates are called either Disaccharides, or polysaccharides.
      • A disaccharide is two monosaccharides combined, and a polysaccharide is many combined. Starch is a polysaccharide and is used for food storage.
    • Carbohydrates
      • The chemical reaction that joins saccharides is called dehydration synthesis.
      • Dehydration synthesis is the formation of a bond and the removal of water
    • Dehydration Synthesis
    • Proteins
      • Made up of Amino Acids. They contain the elements Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen.
      • Amino Acids contain the -NH2 group which is called the amino group, and the COOH group or the Carboxyl group.
      • Amino Acids are defined by the side group or R- group.
    • Proteins
      • When two more amino acids are put together they become a polypeptide.
      • The bond that holds amino acids together between the carboxyl group of one Amino Acid and the amino group of another is called a peptide bond.
    • Proteins
      • The order in which amino acids are placed in the chain determines the structure of the protein.
      • The structure of the protein determines the function of the protein.
    • Enzymes
      • Enzymes are proteins that catalyze ( i.e. speed up) chemical reactions. Enzymes are catalysts.
      • In enzymatic reactions (enzyme controlled reactions), the molecules at the beginning of the process are called substrates, and the enzyme converts them into different molecules, the products.
    • Enzymes
      • Almost all processes in a cell need enzymes in order to occur at significant rates.
      • Enzymes are extremely specific for their substrates and speed up only a few reactions.
      • Each enzyme will work on a very few different molecules.
      • Lock and Key model
    • Enzymes
    • Enzymes
      • Like all catalysts, enzymes work by lowering the activation energy for a reaction, thus dramatically accelerating the rate of the reaction.
      • Most importantly;
        • Enzymes are not used up by the reaction. After they have done their work they release the products and are not changed.
    • Lipids
      • Lipids are a large class of hydrophobic (water hating) compounds that include:
        • Fats
        • Fatty acids
        • Oils
      • Lipids have many functions in living organisms including nutrients, energy storage, and structural components of cell membranes.
    • Lipids
      • We will be mostly concerned with the lipids in the class of triglycerides (fats).
      • All triglycerides have a glycerol backbone.
    • Lipids
      • A fatty acid is a chain of carbon and hydrogen, usually 12-24 carbons (only even numbers), with a carboxyl group at one end.
    • Triglyceride
      • A triglyceride is created when the process of dehydration synthesis chemically binds three fatty acids to a molecule of glycerol.
    • Nucleic acids
      • DNA
      • RNA
      • The building blocks of nucleic acids are called NUCLEOTIDES
    • Nucleic Acids
      • Nucleotides : monomers of nucleic acids.
      • All nucleic acids consist of many nucleotides bonded together.
    • Nucleotide
      • 1. Sugar: 5-carbon ribose or deoxyribose
      • 2. Phosphate group
      • 3. Nitrogen base
    • DNA Nucleotides
      • a) Sugar = deoxyribose
      • b) Double helix form: two intertwined chains (double stranded)
      • Specific base pairing, complementary
        • Guanine (G) - Cytosine (C)
        • Adenine(A) - Thymine (T)
    • RNA Nucleotides
      • a) Sugar = ribose
      • b) Uracil (U) replaces thymine (T) in RNA
        • Uracil (U) - Adenine (A)
        • Guanine (G) - Cytosine (C)
      • c) Single stranded helix