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  • Everybody should stay well-informed about the various nature's threats.
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  • 1. Earthquakes Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  • 2. What is an earthquake? • Mobile crust • Stress • Pressure release • Focus (hypocenter) • Epicentre • Depth of focus…surface damage Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  • 3. • Focus: The point at which the stress is released • Epicentre: The point directly above that on the earth’s surface • Seismic waves: shockwaves released from the earthquake Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  • 4. 0-43 miles (0-70 km) below ground: shallow earthquakes 43-186 miles (70-300 km) below ground: intermediate earthquakes deeper than 186 miles (300 km) below ground: deep earthquakes Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  • 5. • An earthquake is a vibration of the earth caused by the rapid release of energy • Every year 3000 of moderate intensity earthquakes occur – most cause little damage • Tectonic forces slowly deform the crustal rocks on both sides of the fault, much like a stick being bent. • As the forces holding are overcome the rock slips at its weakest point (focus) allowing the rock to snap back into place. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  • 6. • Earthquakes are a result of the rapid release of elastic energy stored ion the rock. • Aftershocks occur after the events and are usually weaker they can cause significant destruction e.g. Armenia 1988. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
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  • 10. Seismic activity • Seismic Waves A seismic wave is an elastic wave generated by an impulse such as an earthquake or an explosion. Seismic waves may travel either along or near the earth's surface (Rayleigh and Love waves) or through the earth's interior (P and S waves). • A body wave is a seismic wave that moves through the interior of the earth, as opposed to surface waves that travel near the earth's surface. P and S waves are body waves. Each type of wave shakes the ground in different ways. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  • 11. Primary (P) waves are fastest and can move through solids and liquids. Secondary (S) waves move with a sideways motion and can not move through liquids. They make the ground move horizontally, hence they cause much damage. When P and S waves reach the surface, some of them are transformed into surface waves. These can cause the ground to move sideways (Love waves) and up and down (Rayleigh waves) Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
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  • 14. Earthquake waves Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
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  • 16. Seismic Waves When a sudden break or shift occurs in the earth's crust, the energy radiates out as seismic waves, just as the energy from a disturbance in a body of water radiates out in wave form. In every earthquake, there are several different types of seismic waves. Body waves move through the inner part of the earth, while surface waves travel over the surface of the earth. Surface waves -- sometimes called long waves, or simply L waves -- are responsible for most of the damage associated with earthquakes, because they cause the most intense vibrations. Surface waves stem from body waves that reach the surface. There are two main types of body waves. •Primary waves, also called P waves or compressional waves, travel about 1 to 5 miles per second (1.6 to 8 kps), depending on the material they're moving through. This speed is greater than the speed of other waves, so P waves arrive first at any surface location. They can travel through solid, liquid and gas, and so will pass completely through the body of the earth. As they travel through rock, the waves move tiny rock particles back and forth -- pushing them apart and then back together -- in line with the direction the wave is traveling. These waves typically arrive at the surface as an abrupt thud. •Secondary waves, also called S waves or shear waves, lag a little behind the P waves. As these waves move, they displace rock particles outward, pushing them perpendicular to the path of the waves. This results in the first period of rolling associated with earthquakes. Unlike P waves, S waves don't move straight through the earth. They only travel through solid material, and so are stopped at the liquid layer in the earth's core. Both sorts of body waves do travel around the earth, however, and can be detected on the opposite side of the planet from the point where the earthquake began. At any given moment, there are a number of very faint seismic waves moving all around the planet. Surface waves are something like the waves in a body of water -- they move the surface of the earth up and down. This generally causes the worst damage because the wave motion rocks the foundations of manmade structures. L waves are the slowest moving of all waves, so the most intense shaking usually comes at the end of an earthquake. In the next section, we'll see how scientists can calculate the origin of an earthquake by detecting these different waves. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
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  • 18. Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale • I. People do not feel any Earth movement. • II. A few people might notice movement if they are at rest and/or on the upper floors of tall buildings. • III. Many people indoors feel movement. Hanging objects swing back and forth. People outdoors might not realize that an earthquake is occurring. • IV. Most people indoors feel movement. Hanging objects swing. Dishes, windows, and doors rattle. The earthquake feels like a heavy truck hitting the walls. A few people outdoors may feel movement. Parked cars rock. • V. Almost everyone feels movement. Sleeping people are awakened. Doors swing open or close. Dishes are broken. Pictures on the wall move. Small objects move or are turned over. Trees might shake. Liquids might spill out of open containers. • VI. Everyone feels movement. People have trouble walking. Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall off walls. Furniture moves. Plaster in walls might crack. Trees and bushes shake. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. No structural damage. • Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  • 19. • VII. People have difficulty standing. Drivers feel their cars shaking. Some furniture breaks. Loose bricks fall from buildings. Damage is slight to moderate in well-built buildings; considerable in poorly built buildings. • VIII. Drivers have trouble steering. Houses that are not bolted down might shift on their foundations. Tall structures such as towers and chimneys might twist and fall. Well-built buildings suffer slight damage. Poorly built structures suffer severe damage. Tree branches break. Hillsides might crack if the ground is wet. Water levels in wells might change. • IX. Well-built buildings suffer considerable damage. Houses that are not bolted down move off their foundations. Some underground pipes are broken. The ground cracks. Reservoirs suffer serious damage. • X. Most buildings and their foundations are destroyed. Some bridges are destroyed. Dams are seriously damaged. Large landslides occur. Water is thrown on the banks of canals, rivers, lakes. The ground cracks in large areas. Railroad tracks are bent slightly. • XI. Most buildings collapse. Some bridges are destroyed. Large cracks appear in the ground. Underground pipelines are destroyed. Railroad tracks are badly bent. • XII. Almost everything is destroyed. Objects are thrown into the air. The ground moves in waves or ripples. Large amounts of rock may move. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
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  • 21. Why do some earthquakes cause more than others? Depth of focus - The more shallow the focus – deep earthquakes may occur up to 700km below ground level, but those less than 40km deep cause the most damage as the seismic waves as the seismic waves haven’t dissipated by the time they reach areas of human habitation. Magnitude – Earthquakes are measured using the Richter Scale (see below). The stronger the earthquake, the more likely it is to do damage. The Modified Mercalli Scale may also be used. Duration – Earthquakes may last a fraction of a second, or may go on for several minutes if you include aftershocks. Distance from epicentre – the further away, the less severe the seismic waves (in the same way as depth of focus). Underlying geology – softer rocks, muds and clays may cause more damage including liquefaction (see related hazards) Other factors – time of day may influence damage to people (night = more deaths as people are asleep and less likely to get out of falling buildings etc.). Quality of buildings, and other human factors, are of course equally important as any physical factors. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
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  • 24. Where do they occur? • Destructive plate boundaries • Conservative margins…faults – Normal – Reverse – Thrust – Strike-slip Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
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  • 31. Normal faults within the subducting slab can slip causing shallow earthquakes ‘thrusts’ at the plate crush past each other cause shallow earthquakes. Slab pull and mineral collapse at intermediate and deep levels can cause slippage. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  • 32. Pacific plate moves northwards at a rate of 6cm relative to the North American plate. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
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  • 35. OTHER CAUSES… • Underground subsidence • Lubrication of old faults by water / oil • Dam / reservoir construction (Lake Kariba in Zambia) – Extra weight – Seepage of water into groundwater zone • Windscreen effect of pressure at a margin spreading to the mid-plate regions Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  • 36. At least 9,500 people were killed, 30,000 injured, more than 100,000 people were left homeless, and severe damage was caused in parts of Mexico City and in several states of central Mexico. According to some sources, the death toll from this earthquake may be as high as 35,000. It is estimated that the quake seriously affected an area of approximately 825,000 square kilometers, caused between 3 and 4 billion U.S. dollars of damage, and was felt by almost 20 million people. Four hundred twelve buildings collapsed and another 3,124 were seriously damaged in Mexico City. The maximum Modified Mercalli intensity was IX at Mexico City, Ciudad Guzman and the Pacific Coast towns of Lazaro Cardenas, Ixtapa and La Union. Felt reports were received from Mazatlan, Sinaloa to Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, and as far away as Guatemala City, Landslides caused damage at Atenquique, Jalisco and near Jala, Colima. Rockslides were reported along the highways in the Ixtapa area and sandblows and ground cracks were observed at Lazaro Cardenas. A tsunami was generated which caused some damage at Lazaro Cardenas, Zihuatenejo and Manzanillo. Estimated wave heights were 3 meters at Zihuatenejo and 2.8 meters at Lazaro Cardenas. A large percentage of the buildings which were damaged in Mexico City were between 8 and 18 stories high, indicating possible resonance effects with dominant two-second period horizontal ground accelerations which were recorded in the area. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  • 37. At least 9,500 people were killed, 30,000 injured, more than 100,000 people were left homeless, and severe damage was caused in parts of Mexico City and in several states of central Mexico. According to some sources, the death toll from this earthquake may be as high as 35,000. It is estimated that the quake seriously affected an area of approximately 825,000 square kilometers, caused between 3 and 4 billion U.S. dollars of damage, and was felt by almost 20 million people. Four hundred twelve buildings collapsed and another 3,124 were seriously damaged in Mexico City. The maximum Modified Mercalli intensity was IX at Mexico City, Ciudad Guzman and the Pacific Coast towns of Lazaro Cardenas, Ixtapa and La Union. Felt reports were received from Mazatlan, Sinaloa to Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, and as far away as Guatemala City, Landslides caused damage at Atenquique, Jalisco and near Jala, Colima. Rockslides were reported along the highways in the Ixtapa area and sandblows and ground cracks were observed at Lazaro Cardenas. A tsunami was generated which caused some damage at Lazaro Cardenas, Zihuatenejo and Manzanillo. Estimated wave heights were 3 meters at Zihuatenejo and 2.8 meters at Lazaro Cardenas. A large percentage of the buildings which were damaged in Mexico City were between 8 and 18 stories high, indicating possible resonance effects with dominant two-second period horizontal ground accelerations which were recorded in the area. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  • 38. The Mw7.4 earthquake that struck western Turkey on August 17, 1999 (also known as the Kocaeli, Turkey, earthquake) occurred on one of the world's longest and best studied strike-slip (horizontal motion) faults: the east-west trending North Anatolian fault. This fault is very similar to the San Andreas fault in California. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  • 39. At least 9,500 people were killed, 30,000 injured, more than 100,000 people were left homeless, and severe damage was caused in parts of Mexico City and in several states of central Mexico. According to some sources, the death toll from this earthquake may be as high as 35,000. It is estimated that the quake seriously affected an area of approximately 825,000 square kilometers, caused between 3 and 4 billion U.S. dollars of damage, and was felt by almost 20 million people. Four hundred twelve buildings collapsed and another 3,124 were seriously damaged in Mexico City. The maximum Modified Mercalli intensity was IX at Mexico City, Ciudad Guzman and the Pacific Coast towns of Lazaro Cardenas, Ixtapa and La Union. Felt reports were received from Mazatlan, Sinaloa to Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, and as far away as Guatemala City, Landslides caused damage at Atenquique, Jalisco and near Jala, Colima. Rockslides were reported along the highways in the Ixtapa area and sandblows and ground cracks were observed at Lazaro Cardenas. A tsunami was generated which caused some damage at Lazaro Cardenas, Zihuatenejo and Manzanillo. Estimated wave heights were 3 meters at Zihuatenejo and 2.8 meters at Lazaro Cardenas. A large percentage of the buildings which were damaged in Mexico City were between 8 and 18 stories high, indicating possible resonance effects with dominant two-second period horizontal ground accelerations which were recorded in the area. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  • 40. The Mw7.4 earthquake that struck western Turkey on August 17, 1999 (also known as the Kocaeli, Turkey, earthquake) occurred on one of the world's longest and best studied strike-slip (horizontal motion) faults: the east-west trending North Anatolian fault. This fault is very similar to the San Andreas fault in California. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
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  • 42. The Kobe earthquake struck at the edge of the densely populated Osaka-Kyoto corridor in southwest Japan. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
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  • 46. Effects of an earthquake Primary Secondary The ground shaking…  Soil liquefaction  Landslides / avalanches Depends on…  Tsunamis  Magnitude  Effects on people and  Depth the environment  Distance from focus Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  • 47. Effects on people and the environment Short-term Long-term •People killed or injured •Homelessness – lack of shelter •Buildings collapse •Communication / infrastructure damage •Bridges / roads / railways collapse •Disruption to key services (little •Water / gas / electricity pipes clean water…disease) rupture •Long-term emotional impact •Fires break out •Orphans •Landslides in mountainous areas •Cost of rebuilding •Tsunami impact coastal regions •Loss of income (economic impact) •Worry / trauma / anxiety •Refugees / out-migration Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  • 48. COUNTRY GDP PER CAPITA (PPP) PAKISTAN $2,600 TURKEY $8,900 JAPAN $33,100 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  • 49. Why do people live in hazard zones? • Perceptions of the hazard Based on… • Prediction • Prevention • Preparation Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
  • 50. SEISMIC GAP THEORY Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
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