What do mean by Dalits?
The situation of Dalits before the 20th century?
Steps taken for the ascent of Dalits in 20th century
The Ambedkar era: Real progress period of Dalits in
Ambedkar’s crucial step: Conversion from Hindu-
Mahar to Buddhist
Post Ambedkar movements
Literal meaning is broken people
At first Mahatma Jyotirao Phule used this
word for this class of people
They were untouchables
These people were exterior class people,
this was the depressed class of society
Now, the official name is Scheduled
Caste system in India based on Varnas.
i.e. Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and the Shudra.
The book named “Manusmriti” written by so
called Hindu saint also supported the Varna
system and gave it a follow-up.
In this caste system, basic rights and duties are
assigned based on birth and are not subject to
They were denied access to land and basic resources,
forced to work in degrading conditions
No access to temples and other public places.
Dalit children were made to sit at back or even out of
They were typically considered low, impure and
polluting based on their birth.
They were not allowed to live a standard life.
The worst thing is that they were untouchables in all
Mahatma Jyotirao Phule:
->First man who raised issue of Dalits.
->Founded “Society for promoting education for
Mahar, Mang & others” for Dalits.
->Wrote books, and worked very hard.
->He even worked for education of women who
faced triple burden: Class, Caste, and Gender.
->He himself defined the word Dalit for this
backward class of people.
-> King of Kolhapur. The father of reservation
system in India.
-> Introduced Reservation facility for Dalits for
-> Constructed special hostels for backwards.
-> Allowed Dalits to mix up with others and also
permitted them enter temples.
First matriculate from Dalit.
An Jurist, A Political leader,
An advanced thinker, A philosopher, An Orator, An
Anthropologist, An educationist, A social reformer, An
Economist… overall he was an Intellectual personality
from Dalit community only.
Cabinet minister in first Indian government, An
architect of The Constitution of India.
Yeola Speech: “I was born as a Hindu, but I will never
die as a Hindu”.
The Satyagriha of Kalaram temple of Nasik, and of the
lake of Mahad.
Demand for separate constituency for the Dalits.
Representations of backward classes/Dalits in Round
Invaluable contribution as the chairman of drafting
committee of The Constitution of India for Dalits.
Religion must mainly be a matter of principles only.
It cannot be a matter of rules. The moment it
degenerates into rules, it ceases to be a religion, as it
kills responsibility which is an essence of the true
I like the religion that teaches liberty, equality and
Dr. B R Ambedkar
Ambedkar saw no hope for Dalits being Hindu.
He chose Buddhism as a new religion for Dalits:
The Buddhism assures Equality, Liberty, Justice,
Fraternity for all irrespective
of one’s gender and birth.
He turned to Buddhism on
14th October 1956.
So thus, his followers turned.
Amedkar died on 6th december 1956; The end of
He formed Scheduled Caste Federation, Labour Party
for the ascent of Dalits.
The Idea of Republican Party of India was the
brainchild of Ambedkar itself.
He gave a credo for all: Learn, Unite and Fight!
Post Ambedkar movement can be classified in some
• For real progress, Dalit needs to be part
• For this, there is somehow active
political front of Dalits which includes
political parties such as Republican
Party of India, BSP.
• Literature contributes a lot for the ascent of the society.
• In post Ambedkar movements, many from Dalit rising as
writer and writing in the self defined Dalit Literature.
• This Literature may help them for upliftment to the
The movement may be in Transit period at this time.
Though not fully united, Dalits try to make their
position and acquire dignity in the mainstream society.
Despite their struggle, mainstream society is not yet
ready to accept them as equal common human being.
Laws are there, but Atrocities also there.
The responsibility of society is to accept Dalits as
A people and their religion must be judged by
social standards based on social ethics. No
other standard would have any meaning if
religion is held to be necessary good for the
well-being of the people.
Dr. B R Ambedkar
SY, B Tech in Information Technology
E-mail : email@example.com
Who were Shudras? By Dr. B R Ambedkar
The Constitution of India