• Packing is the science, art, and
technology of enclosing or
protecting products for
distribution, storage, sale, and use
• Packing has at least three functions:
(a) To protect the goods;
(b) To keep a consignment together;
(c) To prevent the goods from
damaging the environment.
i. Physical protection
ii. Barrier protection
vi. Information transmission
vii. Portion control
Nature and type of goods
Number of packages
Types of packages
Mode of transport
A shipping container is a container with strength suitable
to withstand shipment, storage, and handling.
Containers are built to standardised dimensions, and can
be loaded and unloaded, stacked, transported efficiently
over long distances, and transferred from one mode of
transport to another
(a)THE GENERAL CARGO CONTAINER:
This is the most representative type for general cargo( packed cargo)
that does not require temperature.
Thermal container are classified into three types:
(i)Refrigerated(or reefer)Container (for cooled
(ii)Insulated containers for fruit,vegetables etc. Here dry ice is used
as the cooling medium.
(iii)The ventilated container allows for the passage o
f air by means of apertures on sides or ends. This type is used for
cargo such as fruit or vegetable which requires respiration.
The third category of containers is “Special Containers”. Prominent types in
this head include:
Bulk containers, Open top containers, side open containers, flat tracks, Car
containers, Pen containers.
• used to carry fluids cargo
• Tank containers must be at least 80% full, to
prevent dangerous surging of the liquids in
• Packaging has to be designed and constructed to United
Nations (UN) specification standards
• UN approved packaging is marked with the prefix 'UN' and
followed by codes that are listed
• The Vehicle Certification Agency Dangerous (VCA)
* Bulk commodities - heavy equipment, machinery, etc
*Goods of high value-Direct delivery to the vessel and direct collection upon arrival of the vessel
*Perishables and refrigerated cargo-Perishables and refrigerated cargo like fruits, fresh
vegetables, cheese and meat, are usually carried in suitable ventilated packages
*Live animals-Possible quarantine regulations in the countries of origin and destination
must be taken into consideration.
*Dangerous/Hazardous cargo-This kind of cargo requires special packing, marking and
labelling, which is a task undertaken by the shippers themselves. There is a separate
section on the carriage of dangerous goods later in this manual.