Disaster in chernobyl

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It is all about the man made disaster that held in Chernobyl in Ukraine. It is the most destructive man made disaster till today.

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Disaster in chernobyl

  1. 1. Chernobyl disaster The worst manmade disaster in human history 1
  2. 2. Where is Chernobyl? Made By- Sachin Motwani 2
  3. 3. Chernobyl • Built in 19781979 • Chornobyl Made By- Sachin Motwani 3
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  5. 5. Background • Reaktor Bolshoy Moshehnosty Kipyashiy • RBMK, a Russian acronym translated roughly means “reactor (of) high power (of the) channel (type)” • reactor cooled by water and moderated by graphite Made By- Sachin Motwani
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  7. 7. RBMK Reactor Made By- Sachin Motwani
  8. 8. Fuel assemblies Made By- Sachin Motwani
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  10. 10. Reactor Plant Scenario 1. As the reaction occurs, the uranium fuel becomes hot 2. The water pumped through the core in pressure tubes removes the heat from the fuel 3. The water is then boiled into steam 4. The steam turns the turbines 5. The water is then cooled 6. Then the process repeats Made By- Sachin Motwani
  11. 11. Day of disaster • • • • 25 April 1986 01:00 The preparation for the test 13:47 Lowering of the reactor power halted at 1,600 MWt 14:00 The ECCS was isolated 23:10 The power reduction resumed Made By- Sachin Motwani
  12. 12. 26 April 1986 • 24:00 Operation shift change • 24:28 Power level is now 500 MWt and kept decreasing to 30 MWt • 24:40 The operator withdrew some control rods • 01:00 Power had risen to 200 MWt • 01:03 Connecting the fourth main cooling pump to the left loop of the system 200 MWt • 01:07 Connecting the fourth main cooling pump to the right of the loop system - this was a violation of NOP Made By- Sachin Motwani
  13. 13. 26 April 1986 (cont.) • 01:19 Increased feed water flow to the steam drums and removed more control rods -violation of NOP • 01:23 The test was started • 01:23:10 Automatic rods withdrawn from the core • 01:23:21 Two groups of automated control rods were back to the core Made By- Sachin Motwani
  14. 14. 26 April 1986 (cont.) • • • • • 01:23:30 01:23:40 01:23:44 01:23:48 01:23:55 Power kept increasing Emergency button pushed Power is at 300000 MWth 1st thermal explosion 2nd explosion Made By- Sachin Motwani
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  18. 18. Human Errors • • • Isolation of the emergency core cooling system Unsafe amount of control rods withdrawn Connection of the four main cooling pumps to the right and left of the system Made By- Sachin Motwani
  19. 19. Human Errors (cont.) • Mental model – The operator did not have a good mental model of the system itself • Overconfidence – By having an electrical engineer on site for an electrical test – No confirmation of cues obtained from the system • Beta too high – Many missed signals before the accident Made By- Sachin Motwani
  20. 20. Accident Prevention Made By- Sachin Motwani
  21. 21. System Analysis • Use of graphite as a moderator • Lack of a well-built containment structure • Inadequate instrumentation and alarms for an emergency situation • There were no physical controls that prevented the operators from operating the reactor in its unstable state Made By- Sachin Motwani
  22. 22. Summary of Facts • April 26, 1986: – Chernobyl nuclear power plant • Operator errors cause a reactor explosion • Explosion releases 190 tons of radioactive gasses into the atmosphere • Fire starts that lasts 10 days • People: – 7 million lived in contaminated areas; 3 million were children • Wind: – Carries radiation far distances Made By- Sachin Motwani
  23. 23. Far Reaching Radiation Made By- Sachin Motwani
  24. 24. Radioactive fallout Made By- Sachin Motwani
  25. 25. Direct Casualties • 5.5 million people still live in contaminated areas • 31 people died in 3 months of radiation poisoning • 134 emergency workers suffered from acute radiation sickness • 25,000 rescue workers died since then of diseases caused by radiation • Cancer afflicts many others • Increased birth defects, miscarriages, and stillbirths Made By- Sachin Motwani
  26. 26. Indirect Casualties – By the year 2000 there were 1800 case of thyroid cancer in children and adolescent – High number of suicide and violent death among Firemen, policemen, and other recovery workers Made By- Sachin Motwani
  27. 27. Environment Impact • Areas still impacted today: – – – – Soil Ground Water Air Food • Crops • Livestock Made By- Sachin Motwani
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  33. 33. Problems Today • The Sarcophagus – After the disaster, a huge cement box was built around the radioactive material – It is falling apart! – According to a 2003 report by the Russian Atomic Energy Minister, Alexander Rumyantsev, "the concrete shell surrounding the Chernobyl nuclear reactor is in real danger of collapsing at any time." – A new Sarcophagus is scheduled to be completed in 2009 Made By- Sachin Motwani
  34. 34. Recommendations • Have proper Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for both normal and emergency situations • Have scheduled trainings and practices for normal and emergency situations Made By- Sachin Motwani
  35. 35. Recommendations (cont.) • Always have a reactor expert on site • Have operators confirm any cues from the system before making hypothesis or take action • Have a team work kind of environment such that every body is involved Made By- Sachin Motwani
  36. 36. Made By- Sachin Motwani

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