Psa's and tapes  the mfgr process
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Psa's and tapes  the mfgr process Psa's and tapes the mfgr process Presentation Transcript

  • The ManufacturingProcessPSA’s and Tapes28-01-2013 1
  • IntroductionPSA Tapes were first introduced about 150 years ago.Initially medical tapeand dressing was developed and a U.S. Patent wasissued in 1846.PSA’s are widely used since the 19 th century.Industrial Tapes were introduced between the 1920 ,sand 1930,s .Hot Melt adhesives were introduced in the 1940,s .PSA Tapes are used for many different Applications.28-01-2013 2
  • What is pressure sensitiveadhesive ?Pressure sensitive adhesive, is adhesive which forms a bondwhen pressure is applied to bond it with the adherent. This is amaterial that holds two surfaces together solely by surface contact,which is achieved by slight initial external pressure. Theseadhesives require no activation with water, solvent or heat, andfirmly adhere to many dissimilar surfaces with minimal pressure.Aggressive and permanently tacky at room temperature, PSAs canbe used for bonding materials such as plastic, paper, metal, glass,and wood.As the name "pressure sensitive" suggests, the bond is influencedby the amount of pressure that is applied on the adhesive to thesurface.28-01-2013 3
  • Pressure sensitive adhesives are designed with a balance betweenflow andresistance to flow.The bond forms because the adhesive is soft enough to flow,or wet, the adherent.The bond has strength because the adhesive is hard enough toresist flow when stress is applied to the bond.PSAs exhibit viscoelastic (viscous and elastic) properties, both ofwhich are used for proper bonding.Pressure sensitive adhesives are characterized by their shearholding. The ability to hold in a shear mode is related to theformulation, coating thickness, rub-down, temperature, etc.28-01-2013 4
  • Factors affecting ?Surface factors , such as smoothness, surface energy, removal ofcontaminants, etc. also , play important role in proper bonding.PSAs are usually designed to form a bond and hold properly atroom temperatures. PSAs typically reduce or lose their tack at lowtemperatures and reduce their shear holding ability at hightemperatures; special adhesives are made to function at high or lowtemperatures. It is important to choose an adhesive formulationwhich is designed for its intended use conditions.Once the adhesive and the adherent are in contact, there aremolecular interactions such as , van der Walls forces , involved inthe bond, which contribute significantly to the ultimate bondstrength.28-01-2013 5
  • Common Adhesive Typesand Their Properties28-01-2013 6
  • Convenient & fast means of application.Ease of removability without damageof the substrate.Wide choice.Suitable for a number of applications.Easy printability.Easy laminate / bond abilityEasy cut ability , die- cut ability.Structural integrity.Dimensional stability.Shape retention.PSA TapesKey features28-01-2013 7
  • UniqueCharacteristicsProvide temporary and permanent holdingapplication.Provide insulation , thermal as well as electrical.Provide sound and vibration proofing.Cheaper packaging solution.Mounting.Assembling.SealingSplicing.Medical / surgical mounting.28-01-2013 8
  • For many years, rubber/resin formulations have been available that combinenatural or synthetic rubber with tackifying resins, oils, antioxidants, or otheringredients as needed. They are typically either solvent-based or used in hotmelts, and the aggressive nature of rubber adhesives makes excellentbonding easy to achieve.These adhesives are known for their high level of adhesion to a variety ofsubstrates and facestocks, as well as their high coatability. Rubber-basedadhesives provide high tack and peel, and make excellent general-purposeadhesives, because of their ability to adhere well to several non-polar, low-energy surfaces, including polyethylene and polypropylene. In general, rubber-based adhesives are often a more economical choice compared to mostacrylics.Disadvantages of rubber-based adhesives include limited effectiveness whenexposed to certain chemicals, UV rays, or high temperatures (over150°F/66°C). In addition, they are more susceptible to oxidation and maydarken, lose their tack, and become brittle if overexposed. Also, rubber/resinadhesives may turn soft and gummy if plasticizers, used in most polyvinylchloride films (PVC), migrate into the adhesive.Rubber Base28-01-2013 9
  • The other type of adhesive chemistry commonly used in PSAs is acrylic.Acrylic adhesives can either be solvent- or water-based, and are formulated byreacting monomers with the desired properties, which are then typicallycrosslinked to form the type of polymer needed. Monomers are the buildingblocks of polymers and are considered to be either “soft” or “hard.” Thecombination of hard and soft monomers can be adjusted based on the level ofadhesive (polymer) performance needed.Crosslinking polymers improves the cohesive strength (internal strength of theadhesive, or the ability to stick to itself) of the acrylic formulation and can beaccomplished in one of three ways: the use of thermal heat energy; by self-curing when a solvent is removed during the drying process; or through UV orEB non-thermal radiation.In general, acrylics are relatively firm and durable, but are not as aggressiveas rubber-based adhesives. An acrylic adhesive can be modified to alter itsadhesion properties based on the selection of monomers used, the level ofpolymerization created, or by adding tackifying resins or other chemicals.Acrylic base28-01-2013 10
  • The advantages of acrylic adhesives are typically the opposite of rubberadhesives. Acrylics provide excellent temperature, UV and oxidationresistance; therefore, they are often the preferred choice for outdoorapplications. They resist the negative plasticizing action that can occur withrubber and hold up well to chemical exposure. Acrylic-based adhesives arevery durable and have clarity and color stability. Acrylics bond well to polarsurfaces like metal, glass, polyesters and polycarbonates, and have high peel,tack, and shear.Disadvantages of acrylics usually include poor adhesion to low-energysurfaces, such as polyethylene and polypropylene, as well as lower overalladhesion compared to rubber unless the adhesive is highly engineered. Ingeneral, acrylics are often more expensive than rubber-based adhesives.Acrylic base28-01-2013 11
  • Silicone adhesives are another chemical option for PSAs but are less commonthan rubber or acrylic. These specialized adhesives consist of siliconepolymers that provide adhesion to silicon and other hard-to-adhere-tomaterials. Silicone-based adhesives can maintain adhesion over a range oftemperatures; however, beyond their ability to adhere to difficult surfaces, theiroverall adhesive strength is low. Silicone adhesives are also more expensive.Silicone base28-01-2013 12
  • Characteristics of pressuresensitive adhesive ?Adhesion : Tack, Peel Resistance, Cohesive strength /or Shear resistance.Converting Properties : Printability, ability toLaminate, Cut ability, Die-cut ability.End Use Application : Ageing Resistance, Chemicaland water resistance, bonding and de bonding properties,Process ability.28-01-2013 13
  • Adhesion :Tack, is the Wet ability of adhesiveis nothing but to form a bond in a short time , with little pressure . hence theadhesive needs to have good flow.Tack depends upon1. ViscosityThe ability of the adhesive to flow and cover the applied surface to form a bond.2. Modulus of elasticityThe modulus decided the de-bond ability of the adhesive without any kind ofadhesive failure , like leaving residue on the applied surface.3. Time , temperature and external strain.3.(a).Time and TemperatureHas direct effect on the performance of the PSA. Time and Temperature influencethe flow characteristics of the PSA3.(b).External strain.Tack depends on the peel off force and the speed of peel off. As the speed increasesthe tack value tends to increase.28-01-2013 14
  • Adhesion :Tack,Tack is the initial attraction of an adhesive to asubstrate—the instant grab of the adhesive, with noexternal pressure applied.Sometimes tack is referred to as "quick stick" or "thumbappeal."Tack properties are typically measured using the looptack test28-01-2013 15
  • Adhesion :Peel Resistance,Peel is the force required to pull off the Adhesive from the applied surfaceThe peel strength depends upon ,1.ViscosityViscosity has a direct effect on the peel strength. As the viscosity increases the peelstrength increases.2.Modulus of elasticityThe modulus decided the de-bondability of the adhesive. Lower the modulus ,easier is the removability of the product.3.Time , temperature and external strain.3.(a ).Time and TemperatureHas direct effect on the performance of the PSA. Time and Temperature influencethe peel str . of the PSA. More the dwell time more is the peel , but the peeldecreases as the temp increases.3.(b).External strain.Peel depends on the speed of peel off . As the speed increases the peel valuetends to increase.28-01-2013 16
  • Adhesion :Peel Resistance,The measure of bond strength between an adhesiveand a substrate is defined as adhesion.It is important to note that this is the measure of bondstrength after pressure is applied to the adhesive,allowing for wet-out onto the substrate.Adhesion properties are typically measured using the180° or 90° peel adhesion test method28-01-2013 17
  • Adhesion :Cohesive strength or Shear resistance.Shear/cohesive is the holding power of adhesive is nothing but the resistanceto shear stress.The shear depends upon1.ViscosityIncrease in Mol.wt of a polymer increases the viscosity .The increase in viscosityincreases the shear strength.2.Modulus of elasticityThe modulus decided the de-bond ability of the adhesive without any kind ofadhesive failure , like leaving residue on the applied surface. masticated rubberposses a lower elastic modulus as compared to raw rubber obtained fromcoagulated latex. The mastication processes reduces the modulus of the polymer butdoes not alter the Glass Transition Temp. the reduction is modulus , results inlowering the shear str.3.Time , temperature and external strain.Shear resistance of an adhesive depends on it’s internal cohesion , which is afunction of the inherent viscosity or modulus. Shear resistance is thus dependent onthe factors affecting the viscosity and modulus.28-01-2013 18
  • Adhesion :Cohesive strength orShear resistance.The internal or cohesive strength of an adhesive film isknown as shear. This is not a measure of the bondbetween the adhesive and a substrate, but rather ameasure of the internal strength of the adhesive itself.Shear properties are typically quantified using the staticshear test method28-01-2013 19
  • The adhesive plays a very crucial rolein terms of performance of theproduct. The real technology lies instriking a balance of the three mainproperties of adhesive , like the Peelstrength , the tack and the shearstrength.28-01-2013 20
  • Co-related toAdhesives , likeWB Acrylic / GPHMPSAFor application , suchasPackaging Tapes28-01-2013 21
  • Co-related toAdhesives , likeSB AcrylicFor application , suchasApplication Tapes,holding Tapes,Foam Tapes28-01-2013 22
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  • Further classification of pressuresensitive adhesive ?Water-based PSA (WB PSA) – a PSA applied in aqueousemulsion form and dried to form the adhesive filmSolvent-based PSA (SB PSA) – a PSA applied in solventsolution form and dried to form the adhesive filmHot-melt PSA (HM PSA) – a PSA applied as a 100% solids,thermoplastic composition in the molten stateCalendered PSA – a PSA applied as a 100% solidscomposition in a calendering operation28-01-2013 26
  • Water-based PSA (WB PSA)RubberLatexAcrylicNat. RubberLatexSyn. RubberLatexReady toUseModified /compounded28-01-2013 27
  • Solvent-based PSA (SB PSA)RubberSiliconeNat. RubberSyn. RubberSBRButylAcrylicSiliconeReady touseAcrylicReady touse28-01-2013 28
  • Hot-melt PSA (HM PSA)SISEVASBSSIBSPU28-01-2013 29
  • Calendered PSARubberNat. RubberSyn. RubberSBRButyl28-01-2013 30
  • PS AdhesiveCompounding28-01-2013 31
  • Water-based PSA (WB PSA)Rubber BaseIngredients Parts per 100 Adhesive ApplicationNat ./ Syn. RubberLatex100Packaging TapesSurface protection TapesSponge Rubber TapesTackifing AgentDispersion100Rheology Modifier 001Anti Foaming Agent 000.5Cross Linking Agent28-01-2013 32
  • Water-based PSA (WB PSA)Acrylic Ready to Usefor BOPP / Paper Packaging TapesModified AcrylicIngredients Parts per 100 Adhesive ApplicationAcrylic PSA 100Surface protection TapesFoam TapesHvAc Tapes , like Alu Foil ,FSK , Alu GlassTackifing AgentDispersion100Rheology Modifier 001Anti Foaming Agent 000.5Cross Linking Agent 00128-01-2013 33
  • Solvent-based PSA (SB PSA)Ingredients Parts per 100 Adhesive ApplicationNat ./ Syn. Rubber 100Electrical insulation TapesSurface protection TapesSponge Rubber TapesTackifing Agent 1 100Tackifing Agent 2 080Filler 030Plasticizer 005Cross Linking Agent 002Suitable Solvent 10028-01-2013 34
  • Suitable SolventsSolvent Chemical formula Boiling pointDielectricconstantDensityDipolemomentNon-polar solventsHexaneCH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH369 °C 1.88 0.655 g/ml 0.00 DBenzene C6H6 80 °C 2.3 0.879 g/ml 0.00 DToluene C6H5-CH3 111 °C 2.38 0.867 g/ml 0.36 DPolar aprotic solventsEthylacetateCH3-C(=O)-O-CH2-CH377 °C 6.02 0.894 g/ml 1.78 DAcetone CH3-C(=O)-CH3 56 °C 21 0.786 g/ml 2.88 DPolar protic solventsEthanol CH3-CH2-OH 79 °C 24.55 0.789 g/ml 1.69 DWater H-O-H 100 °C 80 1.000 g/ml 1.85 D28-01-2013 35
  • Hot-melt PSA (HM PSA)SIS ready to useEVA ready to useSBS ready to useSIBS ready to usePU ready to use28-01-2013 36
  • Calendered PSARubberNat. RubberSyn. RubberSBRButyl28-01-2013 37
  • Characteristic Rubber-Based Acrylic ModifiedAcrylicSiliconeCost Lowest Medium/high Medium/high Very highTack Medium/high Medium/low High LowTemperature resistance Low High Low/moderate Very highAdhesion Medium/high Moderate/high High Medium/lowShear Medium/high Moderate/high Low ModerateSolvent resistance Poor Good Low/moderate ExcellentUltraviolet resistance Poor Excellent Poor ExcellentPlasticizer resistance Poor Moderate/good Poor/moderate ExcellentLow-surface-energymaterialsExcellent Poor/moderate Excellent PoorHigh-surface-energymaterialsExcellent Excellent Excellent Moderate28-01-2013 38
  • Types of PSA’ coatedproductsTapesLabelsMisc.Products28-01-2013 39
  • Types of PSA’ TapesWe are going to talk more about Tapes inthis presentationSingle SideDouble SideReinforcedUnsupportedWith linerWithoutliner28-01-2013 40
  • Construction ofPSA’ Tapes28-01-2013 41
  • PSA’ TapesSingle side adhesiveWithout linerAdhesive SubstrateWith linerAdhesiveSubstrateliner28-01-2013 42
  • PSA’ TapesDouble side adhesiveAdhesive SubstrateAdhesive Release Liner28-01-2013 43
  • PSA’ TapesreinforcedAdhesive Release LinerReinforcement28-01-2013 44
  • PSA’ TapesunsupportedAdhesive ReleaseLiner28-01-2013 45
  • variety of PSA’ TapesPackaging TapesIndustrial TapesAutomobile TapesMounting TapesSurface protection TapesElectrical insulation TapesSurgical TapesThermal insulation Tapes28-01-2013 46
  • variety of PSA’ TapesFabrics basedFoam basedNon woven basedMetal foil basedFilm BasedBOPPPVCPoly EsterPoly EthylenePoly AmideCottonNylonRayonFiber GlassAluminumCopperPaper basedKraftCrepePoly EsterPPPUEVANitrileEPDM28-01-2013 47
  • Double CoatedAdhesive TapesUnsupportedAdhesive TapesFoam MountedTapes & SealingProductsLabel Base Stocks& Single CoatedAdhesive Tapes28-01-2013 48
  • Pressure sensitive adhesive tapemanufacturing process ?Prior to the tape manufacturing process ,it is necessaryto understand the characteristics of the PSAs , and thebacking material / face stock / substrate and theconditions under which they will be usedto satisfy end-use requirements without causingprocess ability concerns ,And this will lead to a successful product.28-01-2013 49
  • Surface Contour. The contour of the substrate will influence productselection (see Figure 3). For uses requiring conformability around irregularangles, more flexible materials should be employed. Regardless of thestrength of the formulation, it is virtually impossible for an adhesive toovercome a continuous stress placed onit by a rigid material trying to return to its original form (memory). For suchapplications, one should choose a conformable product with a tissue ornonwoven carrier facestock or consider adding stress relief to the convertedpart via scoring or perforation.critical Issues are28-01-2013 50
  • Surface Energy. The ability of an adhesive to wet out over the surface of amaterial is related to its surface energy. Low-surface-energy (LSE) materialsdo not allow the adhesive to wet out, whereas high-surface-energy materialsallow excellent wet-out and provide the best adhesion. Rubber-basedadhesives generally offer better adhesion to LSE substrates—a softer, betterflow. Some materials require special treatment—corona treatment, primers,topcoats—to promote better adhesion. On some LSE materials, adhesionlevels will improve with longer adhesive dwell times.critical Issues are28-01-2013 51
  • PSA Tapes mainly consist of two main components , the carrier /backing material and the Adhesive.Generally Tapes are produced by coating a carrier ( or backingmaterial ) , such as plastic films , fabrics, paper or foil with a adhesive ,which is normally in liquid form. These adhesives contain solvents ,such as water, or organic chemicals such as toluene, ethyl acetate etc,as carriers.The solvent is evaporated with help of hot air impregnation , so that adry adhesive film is formed , above the backing material with a firmbond .In some cases the back-side of the tape is coated for non adhesive orrelease properties, which helps to have easy unwind property , with noadhesive transfer.28-01-2013 52
  • The Backing materialThe backing material is the most important component of PSA Tapes . Thebacking or carrier provided the necessary strength and body to tape product.The backing has to be sufficiently strong . the backing needs to havereasonably good tensile strength , elongation , conformability, moderate heatresistance , chemical resistance, abrasion resistance etc.The various backing materials that are common in use are shown above.The backing materials need a primer coat or chemical or physical , surfacepreparation / treatment before adhesive coating.28-01-2013 53
  • Surface TreatmentPlastics Films are widely used in Packaging applications such as Self AdhesiveTapes, Laminates, Printing etc.As we know all these films are chemically inert and have very low surfaceenergy. The below mentioned table gives an idea about the surface tension ofvarious polymers.Sr.No. Polymer Surface Tension ofHomo polymer inDynes/Cm21 Poly Ethylene PE 312 Poly Propylene PP 323 Poly iso butylene PIB 274 Polystyrene PS 335 Poly Tetra Fluro Ethylene PTFE 1928-01-2013 54
  • Surface TreatmentFrom the above tables it is very clear that the polymer surfaces need treatmentto enhance the wettability , printability , and adhesion properties. Or in otherwords the surface tension has to match that of the coating materials.The common methods of surface treatment for films arechemical etchingflame treatmentcarona treatmentplasma treatmenthowever chemical etching method is outdated.28-01-2013 55
  • Surface TreatmentFlame treatmentIn this process propane or butane flame is used to treat the polymer surface.Here the electron density is lower and therefore the ionization rate .The higher temp in the flame poses a problem for most polymer surfaces.Carona treatmentHere the atmospheric air is ionized by help of high voltage transformer.The mechanism is like this. Two idler rollers form the two electrodes. Highvoltage of high frequency is produced with the help of a transformer. The highvoltage applied to the two electrodes . one electrode ( Idler is insulated withsilicone rubber coating , which is a perfect di electric.28-01-2013 56
  • Surface TreatmentPlasma TreatmentRadio frequency ( rf) glow discharge ( Cold gas plasma) of hydrogen incombination with vapourised liquid provides unique sueface modification.In this method gas molecules are excited by subjecting to an electric field ,typically radio frequency energy.The radio frequency creates free electrons . these electrons gain energy fromimposed field and collide with Nat gas molecules. The collision and transfer ofenergy form no of reactive species.These particles interact with solid surfaces placed in the plasma.This leads to dramatic modification of the molecular structure.Hydrogen in composition with liquid oxygen contributing co-reactant is used asthe plasma. This creates stable oxygen moieties which is chemically reactive.This reactivity is ideal for forming tenacious bonds with selected adhesives.28-01-2013 57
  • Advantages of plasma.get higher treatment levels , upto 60 dynes/ cm2.no surface degradationlow temp processthe surface treatment has a long lifeback side treatment is eliminatedtreatment is permanentviable alternative for carona treatment is ineffective especially on PTFEelectronic bombardment is 100% greater than carona.treatment is uniform through out the surfacetreatment on higher thickness , thicker than 0125 inch is possible.28-01-2013 58
  • Surface Contamination. The presence of surface contamination such asskin oils and bodily fluids can prevent contact of the adhesive with thesubstrate. There are many different types of surface contamination, most ofwhich are not visible to the eye but can be identified analytically. It may notbe possible to obtain an acceptable bond without cleaning the surface (e.g.,through washing or flame treating). Surface contamination may be present ifone can detect loose material on the surface of a substrate or the materialfeels slippery, greasy, or slimy. Contamination may also be suspected iftesting indicates poor bond strength and the adhesive feels "dead" afterremoval from the substrate.critical Issues are28-01-2013 59
  • Pressure sensitive adhesive tapemanufacturing process ?Adhesive CoatingRewinding and slitting or slicingTestingPackingDrying28-01-2013 60
  • Adhesive CoatingForWater borne /Solvent borneadhesives28-01-2013 61
  • Adhesive CoatingForPVC Tape28-01-2013 62
  • Adhesive CoatingForHot meltadhesives28-01-2013 63
  • Coating machineGravureCoating Method Can handleViscosity upto (CPS )Coating speedmtr/minCoating Weight (gm/Sq.mtr.)Myer Bar 10-200 200 3.-25.Kiss 100-2000 700 3.-20.Gravure 100-2000 700 3.-20.28-01-2013 64
  • Coating Method Can handleViscosity upto (CPS )Coating speedmtr/minCoating Weight (gm/Sq.mtr.)Hot Melt 500-20000 300 10-30028-01-2013 65
  • Coating machine withOnline Priming28-01-2013 66
  • Coating machineComma / reverse rollCoating Method Can handleViscosity upto (CPS )Coating speedmtr/minCoating Weight (gm/Sq.mtr.)Comma /Reverse Roll1000-6000 300 10-20028-01-2013 67
  • Foam or LeatherSheet feed adhesivecoating MachineCoating Method Can handleViscosity upto (CPS )Coating speedmtr/minCoating Weight (gm/Sq.mtr.)Comma /Reverse Roll1000-6000 300 10-20028-01-2013 68
  • Foam or LeatherSheet feed laminationMachine28-01-2013 69
  • Hot Melt adhesiveCoating McRoller TypeCoating Method Can handleViscosity upto (CPS )Coating speedmtr/minCoating Weight (gm/Sq.mtr.)Hot Melt 500-20000 300 10-30028-01-2013 70
  • Hot Melt adhesiveCoating McNozzle TypeCoating Method Can handleViscosity upto (CPS )Coating speedmtr/minCoating Weight (gm/Sq.mtr.)Hot Melt 500-20000 300 10-30028-01-2013 71
  • PVC Tapecoating Machine28-01-2013 72
  • DryingDrying of coatings removes the inert inactive solvent used tosuspend , dissolve or disperse the active ingredients (polymer , binder, pigments, slip agent, hardener , coatingaids etc. ) ,so that only the desired coating remains on the desiredsurface / substrate.Solvents could be water , or active organic materialsUsually the drying process is a thermal one , in which heatis supplied , to the coated fluid and the solvent in it isvaporised.28-01-2013 73
  • DryingCoating - Drying InteractionsThe purpose of drying process is to produce a uniform dry coatingfrom the applied wet coating , by evaporation of solvent .If wet coating applied is uniform then the dryer must immobilizeit and maintain its uniformity throughout the drying process.Drying and Coating processes are interdependent and interactive.The requirements of coating process determine the dryingparameters.The needs and limitations of dryer influence the coating process.28-01-2013 74
  • DryingA dryer designed to evaporate water differs significantly from oneintended for use with volatile organic solvent.The bonder system influences the drying temp and air velocity.A low viscosity formulation is far more susceptible to damage in thedryer than a high viscosity one.Lower air viscosity must be used in the drying process to avoidmoving the coating and damaging it.28-01-2013 75
  • Drying28-01-2013 76
  • Drying28-01-2013 77
  • Drying28-01-2013 78
  • RewindingRewinding Machine28-01-2013 79
  • Slitting / slicingThe three most common slittingmethods used are Razor , Shear , and Crush (score)28-01-2013 80
  • Slitting / slicingRazer Cutting28-01-2013 81
  • Slitting / slicing28-01-201382
  • Slitting / slicing28-01-2013 83
  • Slitting / slicingMachinesSlitting Machine28-01-2013 84
  • Salvage RewindingSalvage Rewinder28-01-2013 85
  • PackingShrink PackBox Seal28-01-2013 86
  • TestingThicknessCoating weight Test28-01-2013 87
  • TestingPeel strength /Tensile StrengthShear test28-01-2013 88
  • Please feel free to contact usFor more InformationOur website : www.psadhesive.comPersonal Email : psatechno@gmail.comCell : 00 91 985024228228-01-2013 89