Delhi Metro, India:-
Stifling road traffic congestion in Delhi, population approximately 20 million, has become
an economic liability. With more motor vehicles than Mumbai, Calcutta and Chennai
combined, overcrowding and pollution was threatening the capital's ability to reach its
potential in the rapidly expanding Indian economy.
Calcutta/Kolkata opened India's first metro (16.5km) in 1984, but the project did not
inspire confidence in the Indian Government to promote further schemes.
Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) was established by the Government of India and
the Government of Delhi in March 1995 to build a new metro system in the capital. The
project is being carried out in phases - Phase I (65.11km) and Phase II (128km) have
The capital investment for Phases I and II was $2.7bn. Thirty percent of the total
investment was funded by Government of India (GoI) and Government of Delhi, while
another 60% was financed through a loan from Japan International Cooperation Agency
(JICA). DMRC paid back $100m to JICA by August 2010.
In 2011, the Delhi Metro project became the first railway project in the world to be
certified for carbon credits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, by the United
Nations. DMRC saved 112,500MW of power by using regenerative brakes in the trains,
and reduced carbon emissions by 630,000t yearly.
After more than 40 years of studies into a rail-based mass transit system, DMRC began
construction on 1 October 1998.
Funding principally came from a Japanese loan and Indian public funds, the latter in the
form of equity. ,Phase I and Phase 2 were fully operational by January 2013.
The Delhi Metro consists of six lines, with a total length of 190km with 142 stations
including 35 underground stations.
"Phase I and Phase II of Delhi Metro were fully operational by January
Delhi Metro was designed to be integrated with other public transport and DMRC signed
an agreement with bus operator Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) to integrate
management and through-ticketing. However, limited take-up has led DMRC itself to
supply around 200 buses of a quality consistent with Metro operations to work feeder
routes to stations. Selected private bus operators will pay back DMRC over five years.
There are 18 designated parking sites at Metro stations to further encourage use of the
In March 2010, DMRC partnered with Google India (through Google Transit) to provide
train schedule and route information to mobile devices with Google Maps. This free
service will allow the commuters to get the latest service information and plan their
Line 1 (Red Line) runs between Dilshad Garden and Rithala. It covers 25.1km, serves
21 stations and has a rolling stock of 26 trains. The first section of Line 1, from
Shahdara to Tis-Hazari, opened in December 2002. A Phase II extension from Inderlok
to Rithala opened in March 2004 and the Shahdara-Dilshad Garden section became
fully operational in June 2008.
Line 2 (Yellow Line) runs between Jahangirpuri and HUDA city centre. It covers
44.65km, serves 34 stations and has a rolling stock of 60 trains. The first section,
running between Vishwa-vidyalaya and Kashmere Gate, opened in December 2004.
Extensions opened between Kashmere Gate and Central Secretariat in July 2005, and
between Vishwa-vidyalaya and Jahangirpuri in February 2009.
The 14.47km QutabMinar to Gurgaon line extension and the HUDA City Centre to
QutubMinar extension of Line 2 were opened to public in June 2010. The 12.53km line
extension from Central Secretariat to QutabMinar opened in September 2010.
"Lines 2 and 3 pass through the city centre and business district at
Connaught Place, served by Rajiv Chowk station."
Line 3 (Blue Line) runs between Dwarka Sector 9 and Noida City Centre. It covers
49.93km, serves 44stations and has a rolling stock of 70 trains.. The first section of the
line opened in December 2005 and ran from Barakhamba to Dwarka. Subsequent
sections opened between Dwarka and DwarkaSubcity in March 2006; Barakhamba and
Indraprastha in November 2006; Indraprastha and Yamuna Bank in May 2009; and
Yamuna Bank and Noida City Centre in November 2009.
The 2.76km section from Dwarka Sector 9 to 21 was opened on 30 October 2010.
Operations on the 2.5km extension from AnandVihar ISBT to Vaishali and Ghaziabad
began in July 2011.
Lines 2 and 3 pass through the city centre and business district at Connaught Place,
served by Rajiv Chowk station.
Line 4 (Orange Line), which opened in January 2010, runs between Yamuna Bank and
AnandVihar. It covers 8.74km and serves seven stations.
Line 5 (Green Line) runs between Inderlok and Mundka, and is the first standard gauge
railway line in India. It covers 15.15km, serves 13 stations and has a rolling stock of 15
trains. The line opened in April 2010, and benefits 100,000 commuters residing in west
Delhi. The 3.32km Kirti Nagar to Ashok Park extension opened in June 2011.
Delhi Airport Express Rail Link, India
The Delhi airport express rail link is a 22.7km long high speed metro rail operating
between the New Delhi Railway Station and Dwarka Sector 21 in the suburbs of India's
capital city New Delhi. It passes through the Indira Gandhi International (IGI) Airport
before terminating at Dwarka Sector 21. It was opened to the public in February 2011
after 27 months of construction.
The section has two stations: Kirti Nagar (at grade) and Satguru Ram Singh Marg
(elevated).Line 6 (Violet Line) runs between Central Secretariat and Badarpur. It covers
20.16km, serves 15 stations and has a rolling stock of 30 trains. The section between
Central Secretariat and SaritaVihar was opened in October 2010. The SaritaVihar to
Badarpur extension was opened in January 2011.
New Delhi Railway Station to Dwarka Sector 21 Airport Express Line was opened in
February 2011. This 22.7km line has six stations with a rolling stock of eight trains.
Line 2 is underground for its entire 11km length. All-but-one of its 15 stations have been
built nearly 13m below ground using by cut-and-cover methods; Chawri Bazar, which
lies some 20m down, needed tunnelling to be built.
All stations have escalators, elevators and tactile tiles to guide the visually impaired
from station entrances to trains. Many of the stations are equipped for rainwater
collection as part of their environmental policy.
One of the more challenging construction projects was Mandi House station on Line 3,
managed by British company Mott Macdonald. As the station is located under a busy
thoroughfare, much of the station had to be built top-down, with the diaphragm wall
panels built from ground level to form the permanent walls of the station.
DMRC also provides subway facilities in all the underground metro stations as part of
Phase II. Bicycle rental is also available at the Vishwa-vidyalaya, PragatiMaidan, Patel
Chowk and Indraprastha metro stations.
The first wave of rolling stock was manufactured by a consortium comprising Hyundai
Rotem, Mitsubishi Corporation and Mitsubishi Electric Corporation. Initial sets were built
by ROTEM in South Korea, with later examples completed in India by public sector
undertaking Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML). BEML is also responsible for the
manufacturing coaches under technology transfer agreement. The manufacturing is
The air-conditioned trains consist of four 3.2m-wide, stainless steel, lightweight,
although eight is possible. The trains have automatic doors, secondary air suspension
and brakes controlled by microprocessor.
"Delhi Metro has a fleet of 280 coaches, which DMRC runs as 210
trains every day."
Delhi Metro has a fleet of 280 coaches, which DMRC runs as 210 trains every day.
Each train can accommodate about 2,290 people, 240 seated. Maximum speed is
80km/h (50mph), with a 20-second dwell time at stations. Train depots are located at
Khyber Pass, Najafgarh, Shastri Park and Yamuna Bank.
In May 2011, BEML received a contract worth Rs9.2bn ($205m) from DMRC to supply
136 intermediate metro cars. The delivery is expected to be completed by the end of
In March 2008 Bombardier Transportation announced an €87m ($137m) contract for 84
MOVIA metro cars, a follow-on to an order for 340 placed in July 2007. The new
vehicles were deployed as part of the Phase II expansion.
In September 2011, Bombardier received a $120m order for 76 additional MOVIA metro
cars. This was a follow-on contract to an order placed for 114 vehicles in the middle of
2010. Deliveries under the new order were completed in 2012.
DMRC received the first MOVIA metro car from Germany in February 2009. The first 36
vehicles were manufactured in Goerlitz, Germany, and the remaining 388 cars were
built at Bombardier's Indian manufacturing facility in Savli, South Gujarat.
In October 2012, Bombardier delivered the 600th MOVIA metro car to the DMRC.
Signalling and communications
The trains use centralised automatic train control (CATC) comprising automatic train
operation (ATO), automatic train protection (ATP) and automatic train signalling (ATS)
Intercoms are provided for emergency communication between the passengers and the
driver in each coach, and on-train announcements are in Hindi and English. There are
also route maps and LCD display systems in every coach.
Fare collection is through contactless, stored-value smartcards. The metro has its own
police force, and a training school at Shastri Park is run in association with Hong Kong
MTR for operational and maintenance staff. Security is supported by about 5,200 CCTV
cameras at stations.
In October 2007 DMRC awarded Bombardier Transportation a $43m contract for the
design, manufacture, supply, installation and testing of signalling equipment. The
CITYFLO 350 system was installed on 37km of two of new line sections of the Phase II
The electronic interlocking, operation and automation control systems for the third line
were supplied by Siemens Transportation Systems.
Although the system operated at below projected passenger levels in 2007, partly
ascribed to train capacity proving lower than anticipated, it has achieved an operating
profit. About 2.2 million people daily used the Metro in 2012. It carries 5% of the city's
commuters, and the project is not only meeting its aims in terms of attracting former
road users and reducing road casualties, but it is stimulating economic development
near to stations. Low-cost cycle hire and a secure parking trial was launched to further
reduce road use.
Phase III and IV extensions, which will expand the network to413.8km, are scheduled to
open in 2016 and 2021 respectively.
Phase III was approved in August 2011. It involves construction of 140km line with 92
stations and 17 interchange points. It is scheduled to be completed by 2016, carry about
four million passengers and cost about Rs77.01bn ($1.4bn).
"Phase III and IV extensions will expand the network to 413.8km."
In addition to the expansions planned in these four phases, a new line is being
constructed to link Noida Sector 62 and Greater Noida. It will cross the Indraprastha-
Noida Sector 32 line.
The Ghaziabad Development Authority also has plans for a fifth phase, which could
extend the Vaishali line (Blue Line) to Mehrauli via Indirapuram (Ghaziabad).
A welcome part of the system for overseas visitors is the 19.5km extension to Indira
Gandhi International Airport. Journey times to the centre are cut to 16 minutes from the
present one hour by road. The 135km/h (84mph) link will be extended as the airport
adds new terminal facilities.
The first construction contracts, covering 7.5km of line, were awarded to Alpine-
Samsung-HCC and Afcons in October 2007.
Delhi Metro is thought to have inspired greater support for mass transit systems; India
has many projects now in the planning stage.
The burgeoning transport problem of Kolkata drew the attention of the city planners,
the State Government and also the Government of India. It was soon realised that
something had to be done and done fast to cope up with the situation. It was Dr. B.C.
Roy, the then Chief Minister of West Bengal, who for the first time conceived the idea in
1949 of building an Underground Railway for Kolkata to solve the problems to some
extent. A survey was done by a team of French experts but nothing concrete came out.
Efforts made to solve the problem by augmenting the existing fleet of public transport
vehicles barely touched the fringe of the problem as the roads account for only 4.2% of
the surface area in Calcutta as compared to 25% in Delhi and even 30% in other cities.
With a view to finding out an alternative solution to alleviate the suffering of the
Kolkatans, the Metropolitan Transport Project (Rlys) was set up in 1969. After detailed
studies, the MTP (Rlys) came to the conclusion that there was no other alternative but
to construct a Mass Rapid Transit System. The MTP (Rlys) had prepared a Master Plan
in 1971 envisaging construction of five rapid transit lines for the city of Kolkata ,totalling
to a route length of 97.5km. Of these, the highest priority was given to the busy North-
South axis between Dum Dum and Tollygunge over a length of 16.45 km and the work
on this project was sanctioned on 1.6.72. The foundation stone of the project was laid
by Smt. Indira Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India, on December 29, 1972 and the
construction work started in 1973-74.
Since the commencement of construction, the project had to contend with several
problems such as non-availability of sufficient funds till 1977-78, shifting of
underground utilities, court injunctions, irregular supply of vital materials and others.
But overcoming innumerable hurdles and crossing all barriers of disbelief, Calcutta
Metro, India's first and Asia's fifth, became a reality on OCTOBER 24, 1984 with the
commissioning of partial commercial service covering a distance of 3.40 km with five
stations between Esplanade and Bhowanipur. This was quickly followed by commuter
services on another 2.15 km stretch in the north between Dum Dum and Belgachia on
NOVERMBER 12, 1984. The commuter service was extended uptoTollygunge on APRIL
29, 1986 covering a further distance of 4.24 km making the service available over an
overall distance of 9.79 km and covering 11 stations. However, the services on the
north section were suspended w.e.f. 26.10.92 as this isolated small section was not
attractive to commuters. After a gap of over eight years, the 1.62 km Belgachia-
Shyambazar section, along with Dum Dum -Belgachia stretch, was opened on AUGUST
13,1994. Another 0.71 km stretch from Esplanade to ChandniChowk was commissioned
shortly thereafter, on OCTOBER 2, 1994. The Shyambazar-Shovabazar-Girish Park (1.93
km) and ChandniChowk-Central (0.60 km) sections were opened on FEBRUARY 19,
1995. Services on the entire stretch of Metro were introduced from September 27, 1995
by bridging the vital gap of 1.80 km in the middle. A dream thus came true.