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Pile load test Pile load test Document Transcript

  • < Security Level 2 > Sheet 1 of 14 ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION PILE LOAD TEST FOR CIVIL WORKS FOR HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION LTD. VISAKH REFINERY DHT PROJECT TEIL JOB NO. : 6261 DOCUMENT NO. : C - 001 A 29.12.2008 For Bid Enquiry UCM PRK SSVRev. Issue Date Description Prepared by Checked by Approved byno. TOYO ENGINEERING INDIA LIMITED MUMBAI INDIA
  • < Security Level 2 > Sheet 2 of 14 Revision historyRev. Date Description A 29.12.2008 For Bid Enquiry
  • < Security Level 2 > PILE LOAD TEST HPCL, Visakh TOYO ENGINEERING INDIA LTD.ISSUED : 29.12.2008 JOB NO. : 6261DOC.No. C-001 DHT PROJECT Sheet 3 of 14 CONTENTS PAGE1.0 GENERAL 41.1 PURPOSE 41.2 SCOPE 41.3 RELATED CODES AND STANDARDS 41.4 TEST REQUIREMENTS 42.0 TEST LOCATION 53.0 ESTIMATED BEARING CAPACITY 54.0 HANDLING, TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE 55.0 RESPONSIBILITY 56.0 TEST PILING 66.1 PILE SPECIFICATION 66.2 SETTING OUT 66.3 DRIVING OF TEST PILES 66.4 DYNAMIC PILE DRIVING FORMULA 77.0 PILE HEAD TREATMENT 78.0 TYPES OF TEST PILES 79.0 PILE LOADING TEST 79.1 VERTICAL / AXIAL LOAD TEST (COMPRESSION) 89.2 LATERAL LOAD 109.3 PULL OUT TEST 129.4 COMBINED VERTICAL AND LATERAL LOADING 1310.0 TEST RESULT 1411.0 REPORTING 14 ATTACHMENTS Appendix 1 Location of Test Pile in the Pile Layout Drawing Appendix 2 Summary of Pile Capacity Appendix 3 Pile Driving Record Appendix 4 Pile Load Test Report Appendix 5 Load & Settlement versus Time Curve Settlement versus Load Curve Appendix 6 RCC Details of Pile Appendix 7 Typical arrangement of load for testing of pile
  • < Security Level 2 > PILE LOAD TEST HPCL, Visakh TOYO ENGINEERING INDIA LTD.ISSUED : 29.12.2008 JOB NO. : 6261DOC.No. C-001 DHT PROJECT Sheet 4 of 141.0 GENERAL1.1 PURPOSE The purpose of this procedure is to specify the method for Test Piling and Pile loading Test which shall be carried out to interpret the followings. 1) Confirmation of pile driving depth 2) Confirmation of vertical bearing capacity of pile 3) Confirmation of lateral load capacity of the pile 4) Establishment of driving criteria (penetration Versus bearing capacity). 5) Confirmation of Pull Out load capacity of pile.1.2 SCOPE This procedure will be used for 1) Precast driven pile. 2) Cast-in-situ driven pile. 3) Bored cast-in-situ pile. 4) Under reamed Pile. This procedure covers the following works which shall be performed by the LSTK CONTRACTOR. 1. Test driving 2. Pile head treatment 3. Pile loading test 4. Reporting1.3 RELATED CODE AND STANDARD IS CODE - 2911 Part IV (Latest Revision) Code of Practice for Design and construction of Pile Foundations - Load test on Piles1.4 TEST REQUIREMENTS 1. The load test shall be required to provide data regarding the load deformation characteristics of the pile upto failure or otherwise specified and the safe design capacity. 2. Full details of the equipment proposed to be used and the test set up shall be submitted to TEIL Engineer with detailed sketches for approval. After the test set up is complete, approval from TEIL Site Engineer shall be obtained for the same prior to commencement of loading.
  • < Security Level 2 > PILE LOAD TEST HPCL, Visakh TOYO ENGINEERING INDIA LTD.ISSUED : 29.12.2008 JOB NO. : 6261DOC.No. C-001 DHT PROJECT Sheet 5 of 14 3. All measuring devices shall be tested for satisfactory performances and accuracy at an approved institution and a certificate to that effect obtained and submitted to TEIL Site Engineer prior to use. 4. The Test pile shall be constructed using same equipment and technique as for the job piles. 5. A minimum time period of one week shall be allowed between the time of installation and testing in case of a precast pile and not less than four weeks from the time of casting in case of a cast-in-situ pile.2.0 TEST LOCATION Locations of testing piles shall be marked on the Plot Plan as Appendix 1. If it is found at work site that the given location is not suitable for test piling, then the test piling shall be carried out at an alternative location approved by TEIL engineer.3.0 ESTIMATED BEARING CAPACITY Estimated bearing capacity of piles shall be specified in the format attached in Appendix 2.4.0 HANDLING, TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE In case of Precast Piles, Handling, transportation and storage shall be executed according to specification. The cracks on the test piles shall be checked and marked during the handling, transportation and storing and they shall be reported to TEIL engineer with illustrations and photographs, if observed.5.0 RESPONSIBILITY5.1 The LSTK contractor shall arrange all the required equipment and accessories for pile load testing such as kentledge, instruments for measuring loads, deflection etc. hydraulic jacks, pressure gauges, deflectometers etc. All these instruments be calibrated for their accuracy from an approved laboratory and test certificates shall be kept in the custody of the engineer prior to taking up the test in hand.5.2 TEIL shall advise or instruct the LSTK contractor regarding preparation of test prior to commencement of pile load test work according to TEIL Construction Procedure.5.3 LSTK contractor shall prepare and submit all necessary records for reviewing and tests for obtaining the clearance from inspector for pile load test with information to client, if required.
  • < Security Level 2 > PILE LOAD TEST HPCL, Visakh TOYO ENGINEERING INDIA LTD.ISSUED : 29.12.2008 JOB NO. : 6261DOC.No. C-001 DHT PROJECT Sheet 6 of 145.4 All load tests shall be made under the supervision of the TEIL engineer.6.0 TEST PILING6.1 PILE SPECIFICATION - Concrete grade shall be as specified in the specifications. - The main reinforcement shall be hot rolled deformed bars grade 415 as per IS1786 and secondary reinforcement can be mild steel bars grade 250 as per IS432. - Concrete covering shall be not less than 40mm.6.2 SETTING OUT Setting out of test piling location shall be carried out by the LSTK CONTRACTOR from the survey pillars as indicated by TEIL engineer.6.3 DRIVING OF TEST PILES 1) Pile driving depth shall be terminated on the following criteria. a) For driven piles. In case the dynamic formula shows more than allowable capacity, pile shall be stopped at proposed depth. In case the formula shows less, pile shall be driven to a depth where the dynamic formula shows more than the allowable. b) For cast-in-situ piles. Pile shall be stopped on visual inspection of a sample collected from founding level of pile. 2) Pile driving machine shall be of diesel hammer / hydraulic hammer. 3) All driving data shall be reported to TEIL engineer next day after completion of each test pile. 4) If any crack on pile or damage is observed during the Test Piling, the LSTK CONTRACTOR shall stop the driving and shall ask the instruction of TEIL engineer. Crack or damage shall be recorded with illustration and photograph and be reported to TEIL engineer next day.
  • < Security Level 2 > PILE LOAD TEST HPCL, Visakh TOYO ENGINEERING INDIA LTD.ISSUED : 29.12.2008 JOB NO. : 6261DOC.No. C-001 DHT PROJECT Sheet 7 of 146.4 DYNAMIC PILE DRIVING FORMULA Pile bearing capacity shall be obtained from the formula of Hiley.7.0 PILE HEAD TREATMENT After the completion of test pile, pile head of each test pile shall be treated for pile Loading Test as 1 The height of pile shall be determined not to interfere with assembling of testing equipment. The height may be about G.L. ± 500mm. 2 Pile head shall be so treated as not to cause partial breakage and/or deformation which affect testing. 3 Pile head to be chipped to natural plane till sound concrete is met and a cap to be cast over the pile head for resting of jack.8.0 TYPES OF TEST There are 2 types of test for each type of loading namely the Initial Test and the Routine Test. The number of Initial Test may be one or more depending upon the number of piles required and the importance of structure. The Initial Test shall be carried out min. 2 or 2.5 times the estimated safe load and up to the pile destruction. The number of Routine Test may be 1.5% of the total number of piles required. The number of test may be increased to 2% in a particular case depending upon the nature, type of structure and strata conditions. The Routine Test shall be carried out to 1.5 times the estimated safe load.9.0 PILE LOADING TEST Load Test shall be performed when concrete has reached its required strength i.e. 28 days strength. There are mainly 3 types of loading test carried out on pile. 1) Vertical / Axial Load Test (Compression) 2) Lateral Load Test 3) Pull Out Test
  • < Security Level 2 > PILE LOAD TEST HPCL, Visakh TOYO ENGINEERING INDIA LTD.ISSUED : 29.12.2008 JOB NO. : 6261DOC.No. C-001 DHT PROJECT Sheet 8 of 149.1 VERTICAL / AXIAL LOAD TEST (COMPRESSION) Load Test shall be performed when concrete has reached its required strength i.e. 28 days strength. The axial compressive loads test should be done as per IS code 2911 part IV (latest revision).9.1.1 Testing Procedure The LSTK CONTRACTOR shall design the test beams, cross beams, weight, etc. and submit them to TEIL engineer for his approval. Pile Loading Test shall be performed by applying compression load to the pile top by means of a hydraulic jack against rolled steel joist (RSJ) or suitable frame capable of providing reaction and the settlement shall be recorded by suitably positioned dial gauges. The Kentledge consisting of RSJ or frame capable of providing reaction shall be used. The dead weight to be applied shall be 25% more than the maximum jacking force required. The C.G. of kentledge should be on the axis of the pile and the load applied by the jack should be co-axial with the pile. The dial gauges shall be positioned at equal distances around the piles and normally held by datum bars resting on immovable supports at least 5D (subject to a min. of 1.5m) away from the test piles periphery where D is the pile stem diameter of circular pile or diameter of the circumscribing circle in case of square pile. Settlement shall be recorded with preferably 3 dial gauges of 0.01/ 0.02mm sensitivity for single pile and 4 gauges for group.9.1.2 Test Load Unless failure occurs first, test pile shall be loaded at a successive incremental load of 20% of the design load. As explained in clause 8.0, unless failure occurs first, test pile shall be loaded up to 200% ~ 250% of the design load (Initial Test) and 150% of the design load (Routine Test) Loading sequence in percentage of design load shall be as follows. Cycle 1 0% ∧ 20% ∧ 40% ∧ 60% ∧ (Routine Test) 80% ∧ 100% ∧ 120% ∧ 140% ∧ 150% ∧ 140% ∧ 120% ∧ 100% ∧ 80% ∧ 60% ∧ 40% ∧ 20% ∧ 0%
  • < Security Level 2 > PILE LOAD TEST HPCL, Visakh TOYO ENGINEERING INDIA LTD.ISSUED : 29.12.2008 JOB NO. : 6261DOC.No. C-001 DHT PROJECT Sheet 9 of 14 Cycle 2 0% ∧ 20% ∧ 40% ∧ 60% ∧ (Initial Test) 80% ∧ 100% ∧ 120% ∧ 140% ∧ 160% ∧ 180% ∧ 200% ∧ 180% ∧ 160% ∧ 140% ∧ 120% ∧ 100% ∧ 80% ∧ 60% ∧ 40% ∧ 20% ∧ 0%9.1.3 Duration of Load and Intervals of Measurement 1. Settlement readings shall be taken before and after the application of each new load increment and at 2, 4, 6,8,10,15,30,60 minutes and at every 2 hours until application of the next load increment. 2. Each stage of loading in cycle 1 and cycle 2 shall be maintained till the rate of movement of the pile top is not more than 0.1mm per 30 minutes or 0.2mm per one hour or maximum of 2 hours which ever is earlier. 3. Further loading shall then be continued as in (1.) above till one of the following occurs; a) Yield of soil-pile system occurs causing progressive settlement of the pile exceeding a value of one tenth (1/10) of the pile diameter. b) The loading on the pile top equals twice the rated capacity or as specified in the case of a separate test pile and 1.5 times the rated capacity of the pile in case of a working pile. 4. Where yielding of the soil does not occur, the full test load shall be maintained on the pile head for 24 hours or more if necessary and settlement readings shall be observed for every hour during this period. 5. Unloading shall be carried out in the same steps as loading. A minimum of 1 hour shall be allowed to elapse between two successive stages of load decrements in cycle 1 and cycle 2. The final rebound shall be recorded 24 hours after the entire test load has been removed.
  • < Security Level 2 > PILE LOAD TEST HPCL, Visakh TOYO ENGINEERING INDIA LTD.ISSUED : 29.12.2008 JOB NO. : 6261DOC.No. C-001 DHT PROJECT Sheet 10 of 149.1.4 The safe load on single pile for the Initial test should be least of the following a) Two-third of the final load at which the total displacement attains a value of 12mm unless otherwise required in a given case on the basis of nature and type of structure in which case, the safe load should be corresponding to the stated total displacement permissible. b) 50 percent of the final load at which the total displacement equal to 10 percent of the pile diameter in case of uniform diameter piles and 7.5 percent of bulb diameter in case of under-reamed piles. However, routine test shall be carried for a test load of at least one and half times the working load; the maximum settlement of test loading in position being not exceeding 12 mm.9.2 LATERAL LOAD Load Test shall be performed when concrete has reached its required strength i.e. 28 days strength. The Pile head to be chipped off upto 300mm above Cut-off- Level. The test to be conducted at cut-off level. The lateral loads test should be done as per IS2911 Part IV 1985.9.2.1 Testing Procedure Pile Loading Test shall be performed in conformity with IS 2911 Part IV. The test may be carried out by the LSTK contractor by introducing a hydraulic jack of adequate capacity with pressure gauge abutting the pile horizontally and reacting against a suitable system. The reaction shall be suitably obtained from the adjacent pile if it is conducted by jack located between two piles. The full load imposed by the jack shall be taken as the lateral resistance of each pile. Lateral load applied on the pile shall be measured by a calibrated pressure gauge mounted on the jack and supported by the datum bar arrangement.9.2.2 Test Load Unless failure occurs first, test pile shall be loaded at a successive incremental load of 20% of the design load. As explained in clause 8.0, unless failure occurs first, test pile shall be loaded up to 200% of the design load (Initial Test) and 150% of the design load (Routine Test) Loading sequence in percentage of design load shall be as follows.
  • < Security Level 2 > PILE LOAD TEST HPCL, Visakh TOYO ENGINEERING INDIA LTD.ISSUED : 29.12.2008 JOB NO. : 6261DOC.No. C-001 DHT PROJECT Sheet 11 of 14 Cycle 1 0% ∧ 20% ∧ 40% ∧ 60% ∧ (Routine Test) 80% ∧ 100% ∧ 120% ∧ 140% ∧ 150% ∧ 140% ∧ 120% ∧ 100% ∧ 80% ∧ 60% ∧ 40% ∧ 20% ∧ 0% Cycle 2 0% ∧ 20% ∧ 40% ∧ 60% ∧ (Initial Test) 80% ∧ 100% ∧ 120% ∧ 140% ∧ 160% ∧ 180% ∧ 200% ∧ 180% ∧ 160% ∧ 140% ∧ 120% ∧ 100% ∧ 80% ∧ 60% ∧ 40% ∧ 20% ∧ 0% The maximum test load shall be observed to the total displacement increased to 12 mm9.2.3 Duration of Load and Intervals of Measurement 1. The loading should be applied in increments of about 20 percent of the estimated safe load. 2. The next increment should be applied after the rate of displacement is nearer to 0.1mm per 30 minutes or 0.1mm per hour or 2 hours which ever is later. The deflection is at the cut-off level of the pile. 3. Displacements shall be read by using at least two dial gauges, fixed to datum bars and having least count of 0.01 mm sensitivity spaced at 30 cm and kept horizontally one above the other on the test pile. The datum bars shall be provided with rigid supports of steel sections, embedded well into the ground. The supports shall be located more than 3 times the diameter of pile. The dial gauge to be fitted on the pile surface by chipping off concrete on the side of pile and fix a piece of glass 25mm square. The dial tips shall rest on the central position of the glass plate. 4. Loading shall be continued till one of the following occurs :
  • < Security Level 2 > PILE LOAD TEST HPCL, Visakh TOYO ENGINEERING INDIA LTD.ISSUED : 29.12.2008 JOB NO. : 6261DOC.No. C-001 DHT PROJECT Sheet 12 of 14 a) Deflection of the pile head exceeds 12 mm. b) The applied load on the pile is twice the assumed lateral load capacity of the pile in case of a separate test pile and 1.5 times the rated capacity in the case of working pile.9.2.4 The safe lateral load on the pile shall be taken as the least of the following : a) Fifty percent of the final load at which the total displacement increases to 12 mm; b) Final load at which the total displacement corresponds to 5 mm Note : The deflection is at cut-off level of the pile.9.3 PULL OUT TEST Load Test shall be performed when concrete has reached its required strength i.e. 28 days strength The axial pull out load test should be done as per IS code 2911 part IV ( latest revision ).9.3.1 Testing Procedure Pile Loading Test shall be performed in conformity with IS2911 Part IV.(latest revision). The LSTK CONTRACTOR shall design the test beams, cross beams, weight, etc. and submit them to TEIL engineer for his approval. Pile head to be chipped to natural plane till sound concrete is met and a cap to be cast over the pile head for resting of Jack. One rolled steel joist (R.S.J.) to rest over jack which shall be kept on pile cap. The two ends on R.S.J. shall rest either on ground, for good and sound soil or concrete block or two numbers dummy piles to be cast at a minimum distance of 2.5 times the diameter of pile. The jack reacts against the R.S.J. frame attached to the top of pile cap such that when the Jack is operated, the pile gets pulled up and the reactions is transferred to the ground through Soil/ Concrete Blocks/Dummy Piles. The frame work can be attached to the pile top with the reinforcement bars which may be threaded or to which threaded bolt may be welded. Load applied by jack shall be measured by a calibrated pressure gauge. Movement of the pile shall be measured by dial gauges, fixed to datum bar and having least count of 0.01 mm, a minimum of two dial gauges, placed diametrically opposite shall be used. Datum bars shall be provided with rigid supports.
  • < Security Level 2 > PILE LOAD TEST HPCL, Visakh TOYO ENGINEERING INDIA LTD.ISSUED : 29.12.2008 JOB NO. : 6261DOC.No. C-001 DHT PROJECT Sheet 13 of 149.3.2 Test Load Unless failure occurs first, test pile shall be loaded at a successive incremental load of 20% of the design load. As explained in clause 8.0, unless failure occurs first, test pile shall be loaded up to 200% of the design load (Initial Test). Loading sequence in percentage of design load shall be as follows. Cycle 2 0% ∧ 20% ∧ 40% ∧ 60% ∧ (Initial Test) 80% ∧ 100% ∧ 120% ∧ 140% ∧ 160% ∧ 180% ∧ 200% ∧ 180% ∧ 160% ∧ 140% ∧ 120% ∧ 100% ∧ 80% ∧ 60% ∧ 40% ∧ 20% ∧ 0%9.3.3 Duration of Load and Intervals of Measurement. The pull out load increments and consequent displacement reading shall be read as in the case of vertical load test.9.3.4 The safe load on single pile for the Initial test should be least of the following a) Two-third of the final load at which the total displacement attains a value of 12mm or the load corresponding to a specified permissible uplift. b) Half of the load at which the load displacement curve shows a clear break (downward trend).9.4 COMBINED VERTICAL AND LATERAL LOADING9.4.1 Equipment and Test Set-up The equipment and test set up shall be same as Clause 9.2.1. In addition a platform shall be constructed on the pile top and loaded to 1.0 times the pile capacity in vertical loading.
  • < Security Level 2 > PILE LOAD TEST HPCL, Visakh TOYO ENGINEERING INDIA LTD.ISSUED : 29.12.2008 JOB NO. : 6261DOC.No. C-001 DHT PROJECT Sheet 14 of 14 The pile shall be first subjected to the full vertical load. The lateral load shall commence after all settlements due to the vertical load have ceased and while the full vertical load is in position.9.4.2 Test Load The loading system, measuring system and recording of results shall be same as described in Clause 9.210.0 TEST RESULT The test result shall comprise of the following : 1. Tabulation of test data; load and movement of test pile head, reference beam and reaction piles. 2. Load-Settlement curve 3. Time-Load curve 4. Limit Load Analysis (if pile has failed within maximum test load) 5. Conclusion11.0 REPORTING Measured data shall be reported in the manner submitted to TEIL engineer within 3 days after completion of each pile Loading Test.
  • APPENDIX – 1LOCATION OF PILE TEST IN THE PILE LAYOUT DRAWING / PLOT PLAN
  • APPENDIX – 2SUMMARY OF PILE CAPACITY
  • SUMMARY OF PILE CAPACITY ITEM FRICTION PILE END BEARING PILEPILE LENGTH (M)ALLOWABLE COMPRESSION BEARINGCAPACITY IN VERTICAL TENSION DIRECTION (KN)ALLOWABLE FIXED HEAD HORIZONTAL BEARING DEFLECTIONCAPACITY IN 5 MMHORIZONTAL FREE HEAD HORIZONTAL DIRECTION DEFLECTION (KN) 5 MM
  • APPENDIX – 3PILE DRIVING RECORD
  • FORM NO. C-005 TOYO ENGINEERING INDIA LTD.FIELD INSPECTION REPORTFIR NO : DATE : JOB NO : LOCATION :DESCRIPTION CLIENT TEIL LSTK CONTRACTORInspectorSignatureDateINSPECTION TYPE:PILE DRIVING RECORD TYPE OF DRIVING WEIGHT OF HAMMER FORMULA OF BEARING MACHINE (RAM) CAPACITY Ra = FACTORS FOR DYNAMIC FORMULA DEVIATIONPIL DIMENSIONS OF FINAL Height of Penetration Amount Weight of Allowable E PILE DEPTH OF Hammer per One of Bearing Positio Verticality PileNO. (O.D X THK X L) PILE TIP Drop Drive Rebound Capacity n (cm) (cm) (mm) (tf) (tf) 0° 90° 180° 270° PILE 1.0 mREMARKS PILE REBOUND RECORD E.G.L. TO BE ATTACHED HEREWITH DEVIATION OF VERTICALITY
  • APPENDIX – 4PILE TEST REPORT
  • FORM NO. C-006 TOYO ENGINEERING INDIA LTD.FIELD INSPECTION REPORTFIR NO : DATE : JOB NO : LOCATION :DESCRIPTION CLIENT TEIL LSTK CONTRACTORInspectorSignatureDateINSPECTION TYPE: PILE LOADING TESTTESTING METHOD TEST PILE NO.DATE TESTED LOADING JACK TYPEPILE TYPE & SIZE DESIGN LOAD (TON)KENTILEDGE (for Axial Test) (min 25% x Test Load) TEST LOAD (TON)FINAL SET (mm) RAM DIA OF HYD. JACK (cm) AREA OF RAM (cm2) 2LOAD = AREA x PRESSURE (Pressure gauge reading 1 division = ______________ kg / cm )Therefore, 1 division of Pressure Gauge = _________________ MT Load.Sno Increment Date & Time Pressure Pressure Load Settlement (mm) of Load kg/cm2 Gauge MT Av. Start Finish Division Gauge A Gauge B Settlement Read Read Sa Sb S (x 0.01mm) (x 0.01mm)LEGEND N.A. : Not Applicable
  • APPENDIX – 5LOAD AND SETTLEMENT VERSUS TIME CURVE SETTLEMENT VERSUS LOAD CURVE
  • APPENDIX – 6RCC DETAILS OF PIPE
  • APPENDIX – 7TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF LOAD FOR TESTING (FOR REFERENCE ONLY)