Testing Terms & DefinitionsAcceptance Testing: Conducted to enable a user/customer to determine whether toaccept a software product. Normally performed to validate that the software meets a setof agreed acceptance criteria.Accessibility Testing: Verifies that a product is accessible to the people havingdisabilities (deaf, blind, mentally disabled etc.).Ad Hoc Testing: Testing phase where a tester tries to break the system randomlytrying the systems functionality. Can include negative testing as well.Agile Testing: Testing practice for projects using agile methodologies, treatingdevelopment as the customer of testing and emphasizing a test-first design paradigm.Automated Testing: • Employs software tools which execute tests without manual intervention. Can be applied in GUI, performance, API, etc. testing. • Usage of software to control tests execution, the comparison of actual outcomes to predicted outcomes, the setting-up of test preconditions, and other test control and test reporting functions.B:Basis Path Testing: A white box test case design technique that uses the algorithmicflow of a program to design tests.Baseline: The point at which some deliverable produced during the softwareengineering process is put under formal change control.Benchmark Testing: Tests that use representative sets of programs and data designedto evaluate the performance of computer hardware and software in a givenconfiguration.Beta Testing: Testing of a release of a software product conducted by customers.Black Box Testing: Testing software without any knowledge of the inner workings,structure or language of the module being tested.Bottom-Up Testing: An approach to integration testing where the lowest levelcomponents are tested first, then used to facilitate the testing of higher levelcomponents. The process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy istested.Bug: A fault in a program which causes the program to perform in an unintended orunanticipated manner.Branch Testing: Testing in which all branches in the program source code are tested atleast once.Business Cycle Testing: Testing should verify main purposes of the application, itsbusiness logic implementation. This includes all daily, weekly, and monthly cycles and,events that are date-sensitive.C:
CAST: Computer Aided Software Testing.Capture/Replay Tool: A test tool that records test input as it is sent to the softwareunder test. The input cases stored can then be used to reproduce the test at a later time.Most commonly applied to GUI test tools.Cause Effect Graph: A graphical representation of inputs and the associated outputseffects which can be used to design test cases.Code Complete: Phase of development where functionality is implemented in entirety;bug fixes are all that are left. All functions found in the Functional Specifications havebeen implemented.Code Coverage: An analysis method that determines which parts of the software havebeen executed (covered) by the test case suite and which parts have not been executedand therefore may require additional attention.Code Inspection: A formal testing technique where the programmer reviews sourcecode with a group who ask questions analyzing the program logic, analyzing the codewith respect to a checklist of historically common programming errors, and analyzingits compliance with coding standards.Code Walkthrough: A formal testing technique where source code is traced by a groupwith a small set of test cases, while the state of program variables is manuallymonitored, to analyze the programmers logic and assumptions.Compatibility Testing: Testing to ensure compatibility of an application or Web sitewith different browsers, OSs, and hardware platforms. Compatibility testing can beperformed manually or can be driven by an automated functional or regression testsuite.Component Testing: See Unit Testing.Concurrency Testing: Multi-user testing geared towards determining the effects ofaccessing the same application code, module or database records. Identifies andmeasures the level of locking, deadlocking and use of single-threaded code and lockingsemaphores.Configuration Testing: Testing is aimed at assessing the product performance withinbroad range of hardware and peripheral configurations as well as under differentoperating systems and software.Conformance Testing: The process of testing that an implementation conforms to thespecification on which it is based. Usually applied to testing conformance to a formalstandard.Conversion Testing: Testing of programs or procedures used to convert data fromexisting systems for use in replacement systems.Cyclomatic Complexity: A measure of the logical complexity of an algorithm, used inwhite-box testing.D:Data Dictionary: A database that contains definitions of all data items defined duringanalysis.
Data Flow Diagram: A modeling notation that represents a functional decomposition ofa system.Data Driven Testing: Testing in which the action of a test case is parameterized byexternally defined data values, maintained as a file or spreadsheet.Debugging: The process of finding and removing the causes of software failures.Defect: Nonconformance to requirements or functional / program specification.Dependency Testing: Examines an applications requirements for pre-existingsoftware, initial states and configuration in order to maintain proper functionality.Depth Testing: A test that exercises a feature of a product in full detail.Dynamic Testing: Testing software through executing it. See also Static Testing.E:Emulator: A device, computer program, or system that accepts the same inputs andproduces the same outputs as a given system.Endurance Testing: Checks for memory leaks or other problems that may occur withprolonged execution.End-to-End Testing: Testing a complete application environment in a situation thatmimics real-world use, such as interacting with a database, using networkcommunications, or interacting with other hardware, applications, or systems ifappropriate.Equivalence Class: A portion of a components input or output domains for which thecomponents behaviour is assumed to be the same from the components specification.Equivalence Partitioning: A test case design technique for a component in which testcases are designed to execute representatives from equivalence classes.Exhaustive Testing: Testing which covers all combinations of input values andpreconditions for an element of the software under test.F:Functional Decomposition: A technique used during planning, analysis and design;creates a functional hierarchy for the software.Functional Specification: A document that describes in detail the characteristics of theproduct with regard to its intended features.Functional Testing: See also Black Box Testing. • Testing the features and operational behaviour of a product to ensure they correspond to its specifications. • Testing that ignores the internal mechanism of a system or component and focuses solely on the outputs generated in response to selected inputs and execution conditions.G:
Gray Box Testing: A combination of Black Box and White Box testing methodologies:testing a piece of software against its specification but using some knowledge of itsinternal workings.GUI Testing: The goal of GUI testing is to ensure that the Graphical User Interface (GUI)provides the user with the appropriate access and navigation through the functions ofthe application. In addition, GUI testing ensures that the objects within the GUI functionis expected and conform to corporate or industry standards.I:Integration Testing: Testing of two or more modules or functions together to discoverpossible defects. Usually performed after unit and functional testing. This type of testingis especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems.Installation Testing: Confirms that the application under test recovers from expectedor unexpected events without loss of data or functionality. Events can include shortageof disk space, unexpected loss of communication, or power out conditions.L:Load Testing (Performance Testing): is used to verify performance behaviors forbusiness functions under the normal and heavy work conditions (e.g. for CLI applicationit could be the situation when many tasks are assigned to one particular time). Thesuccess criteria of this test are completion of all the test cases without any failures andwithin acceptable time allocation.Localization Testing: Tests that use to assess the quality of product localization forparticular cultural and geographical conditions.Loop Testing: A white box testing technique that exercises program loops.M:Metric: A standard of measurement. Software metrics are the statistics describing thestructure or content of a program. A metric should be a real objective measurement ofsomething such as number of bugs per lines of code.Monkey Testing: Testing a system or an Application on the fly, i.e just few tests hereand there to ensure the system or an application does not crash out.Mutation Testing: Testing done on the application where bugs are purposely added toit.N:Negative Testing: Testing aimed at showing software does not work. Also known as"test to fail".N+1 Testing: A variation of Regression Testing. Testing conducted with multiple cyclesin which errors found in test cycle N are resolved and the solution is retested in testcycle N+1. The cycles are typically repeated until the solution reaches a steady state andthere are no errors.
P:Path Testing: Testing in which all paths in the program source code are tested at leastonce.Performance Testing (Load Testing): Testing is aimed at assessing the speed at whichthe product addresses different events under different conditions.Positive Testing: Testing aimed at showing software works. Also known as "test topass".Q:Quality Assurance: All those planned or systematic actions necessary to provideadequate confidence that a product or service is of the type and quality needed andexpected by the customer.Quality System: The organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes,and resources for implementing quality management.R:Race Condition: A cause of concurrency problems. Multiple accesses to a sharedresource, at least one of which is a write, with no mechanism used by either to moderatesimultaneous access.Ramp Testing: Continuously raising an input signal until the system breaks down.Recovery Testing: Confirms that the program recovers from expected or unexpectedevents without loss of data or functionality. Events can include shortage of disk space,unexpected loss of communication, or power out conditions.Regression Testing: Testing to find out if bug fixes are successful and create no newproblems.S:Scalability Testing: Performance testing focused on ensuring the application undertest gracefully handles increases in work load.Security Testing: Testing is used to confirm the design and /or performance of securitycontrols implemented within a system.Smoke Testing: A quick-and-dirty test that the major functions of a piece of softwarework without bothering with finer details. Originated in the hardware testing practice ofturning on a new piece of hardware for the first time and considering it a success if itdoes not catch on fire.Soak Testing: Running a system at high load for a prolonged period of time. Forexample, running several times more transactions in an entire day (or night) thanwould be expected in a busy day, to identify and performance problems that appearafter a large number of transactions have been executed.Software Requirements Specification: A deliverable that describes all data, functionaland behavioral requirements, all constraints and all validation requirements forsoftware.Software Testing Outsourcing is subcontracting of Software Testing & QualityAssurance functions to a third-party company not directly involved in the process of
software development. The benefits provided by external testing experts are includeindependent assessment, specialized and skilled resources, reduced time to market,lower infrastructure investment and increased time to focus on core development tasks.Static Testing: Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program.Storage Testing: Testing that verifies the program under test stores data files in thecorrect directories and that it reserves sufficient space to prevent unexpectedtermination resulting from lack of space. This is external storage as opposed to internalstorage.Stress Testing: Testing is aimed at assessing the product performance when systemresources are busy near or above capacity. Often this is performed using the sameprocess as Performance Testing but employing a very high level of simulated load.Structural Testing: Testing based on an analysis of internal workings and structure ofa piece of software.System Testing: Testing of integrated system to verify if it meets specifiedrequirements.T:Testability: The degree to which a system or component facilitates the establishment oftest criteria and the performance of tests to determine whether those criteria have beenmet.Testing: • The process of exercising software to verify that it satisfies specified requirements and to detect errors. • The process of analyzing a software item to detect the differences between existing and required conditions (that is, bugs), and to evaluate the features of the software item. • The process of operating a system or component under specified conditions, observing or recording the results, and making an evaluation of some aspect of the system or component.Test Case: • Test Case is a commonly used term for a specific test. This is usually the smallest unit of testing. A Test Case will consist of information such as requirements testing, test steps, verification steps, prerequisites, outputs, test environment, etc. • A set of inputs, execution preconditions and expected outcomes developed for a particular objective, such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement.Test Driver (Test Harness): A program or test tool used to execute a tests.
Test Environment: The hardware and software environment in which tests will be run,and any other software with which the software under test interacts when under testincluding stubs and test drivers.Test Plan: A document describing the estimation of the test efforts, approach, requiredresources and schedule of intended testing activities.Test Procedure: A document providing detailed instructions for the execution of one ormore test cases.Test Protocol: A document presents the results of the particular application testingperformed according to the developed test survey document. Test protocol tracks theresult of each test case. Failed test cases are also registered in the bug tracking system.Test Scenario: Definition of a set of test cases or test scripts and the sequence in whichthey are to be executed.Test Script: Commonly used to refer to the instructions for a particular test that will becarried out by an automated test tool.Test Specification: A document specifying the test approach for a software feature orcombination or features and the inputs, predicted results and execution conditions forthe associated tests.Test Survey: A document contains detailed test cases list and describes the exact testprocedures performed in different types of testing of the different applications.Test Tools: Computer programs used in the testing of a system, a component of thesystem, or its documentation.Top Down Testing: An approach to integration testing where the component at the topof the component hierarchy is tested first, with lower level components being simulatedby stubs. Tested components are then used to test lower level components. The processis repeated until the lowest level components have been tested.Traceability Matrix: A document showing the relationship between test requirementsand test cases.U:Usability Testing: Scientific assessment and measurement of user experience ofinteraction with product (e.g. software application, electronic toy or any interactivedevice).Use Case: The specification of tests that are conducted from the end-user perspective.Use cases tend to focus on operating software as an end-user would conduct their day-to-day activities.Unit Testing: Testing of individual software components.V:Validation: (by CMMI-SW) confirms that the product, as provided, will fulfill itsintended use. In other words, validation ensures that “you built the right thing”.
Verification: (by CMMI-SW) confirms that work products properly reflect therequirements specified for them. In other words, verification ensures that "you built itright".Volume Testing: Testing is used to check if values growing over time (e.g. logs or datafiles), will be accepted by the program and it will not stop or deteriorate performance inany way.W:Walkthrough: A review of requirements, designs or code characterized by the author ofthe material under review guiding the progression of the review.White Box Testing: Testing in which the software tester has knowledge of the innerworkings, structure and language of the software, or at least its purpose.Workflow Testing: Scripted end-to-end testing which duplicates specific workflowswhich are expected to be utilized by the end-user.