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Juno launch

  1. 1. PRESS KIT/AUGUST 2011Juno Launch
  2. 2. Media ContactsDwayne Brown Policy/Program 202-358-1726NASA Headquarters Management dwayne.c.brown@nasa.govWashingtonDC Agle Juno Mission 818-393-9011Jet Propulsion agle@jpl.nasa.govLaboratoryPasadena, Calif.Maria Martinez Science Investigation 210-522-3305Southwest Research Institute maria.martinez@swri.orgSan AntonioGary Napier Spacecraft 303-971-4012Lockheed Martin Space Systems gary.p.napier@lmco.comDenverJuno Launch 2 Press Kit
  3. 3. ContentsMedia Services Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Quick Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Jupiter at a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Why Juno? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Mission Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Mission Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Spacecraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15Science Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21Missions to Jupiter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Program/Project Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24Juno Launch 3 Press Kit
  4. 4. Media Services InformationNASA Television Transmission Launch StatusThe NASA TV Media Channel is available on an MPEG-2 Recorded status reports will be available beginning twodigital C-band signal accessed via satellite AMC-6, at 72 days before launch at 321-867-2525 and 301-286-degrees west longitude, transponder 17C, 4040 MHz, NEWS.vertical polarization. In Alaska and Hawaii, it’s availableon AMC-7 at 137 degrees west longitude, transpon- Internet Informationder 18C, at 4060 MHz, horizontal polarization. A DigitalVideo Broadcast compliant Integrated Receiver Decoder More information on the Juno mission, including anis required for reception. For digital downlink information electronic copy of this press kit, news releases, statusfor NASA TV’s Media Channel, access to NASA TV’s reports and images, can be found at http://missionjuno.Public Channel on the Web and a schedule of program- swri.edu/ and http://www.nasa.gov/juno/ .ming for Juno activities, visit http://www.nasa.gov/ntv .Media CredentialingNews media representatives who wish to cover the Junolaunch must contact NASA Kennedy Space CenterPublic Affairs in advance at: 321-867-2468.BriefingsA pre-launch news conference will be held at theKennedy Space Center Press Site at 1 p.m. EDT onAug. 3, 2011. The news conference will be televised onNASA TV.Juno Launch 5 Press Kit
  5. 5. Quick FactsMission Name Juno Mission Milestones and Distances TraveledThe Juno spacecraft will, for the first time, see below Launch period: Aug. 5–26, 2011 (22 days)Jupiter’s dense cover of clouds. This is why the mis-sion was named after the Roman goddess, who was Launch location: Pad SLC-41, Cape Canaveral Air ForceJupiter’s wife, and who could also see through clouds. Station, Fla. Earth–Jupiter distance at time of launch: 445 millionSpacecraft miles (716 million kilometers)Dimensions: 11.5 feet (3.5 meters) high, 11.5 feet Time it takes light to travel from Earth to Jupiter on(3.5 meters) in diameter. Aug. 5, 2011: 39 minutes, 50 secondsSolar Arrays: length of each solar array 29.5 feet (9 me- Earth gravity assist flyby: October 9, 2013ters) by 8.7 feet (2.65 meters). Total surface area of Distance Juno travels launch to Earth gravity assist:solar arrays: more than 650-feet (60-meters) squared. 994 million miles (1,600 million kilometers)Total number of individual solar cells: 18,698. Totalpower output (Earth distance from sun): approximately Juno’s altitude over Earth’s surface at closest point dur-14 kilowatts; (Jupiter distance from sun): approximately ing gravity assist: 311 miles (500 kilometers)400 watts. Jupiter arrival: July 4, 2016, 7:29 p.m. (PDT)Weight: 7,992 pounds (3,625 kilograms) total at launch, Distance of Jupiter to Earth at time of Jupiter orbit inser-consisting of 3,513 pounds (1,593 kilograms) of space- tion: 540 million miles (869 million kilometers)craft, 2,821 pounds (1,280 kilograms) of fuel and1,658 pounds (752 kilograms) of oxidizer. One-way speed-of-light time from Jupiter to Earth in July 2016: 48 minutes, 19 secondsLaunch Vehicle Total distance traveled, launch to Jupiter orbit insertion:Type: Atlas V551 (Atlas first stage with five solid rocket 1,740 million miles (2,800 million kilometers)boosters, Centaur upper stage) End of mission (deorbit): October 16, 2017Height with payload: 197 feet (60 meters) Distance traveled in orbit around Jupiter: 348 million miles (560 million kilometers)Mass fully fueled: 1,265,255 pounds (574,072 kilo-grams) Total distance, launch through Jupiter impact: 2,106 mil- lion miles (3,390 million kilometers) Program The Juno mission investment is approximately $1.1 bil- lion in total. This cost includes spacecraft develop- ment, science instruments, launch services, mission operations, science processing and relay support for 74 months.Juno Launch 6 Press Kit
  6. 6. Jupiter at a GlanceIf you take everything else in the solar system (not including the sun), it would all fit insideJupiter…The largest and most massive of the planets was tapers into a windsock-shaped tail extending more thannamed after the king of the gods, called Zeus by the 600 million miles (1 billion kilometers) behind Jupiter, asGreeks and Jupiter by the Romans; he was the most far as Saturn’s orbit.important deity in both pantheons. On Jan. 7, 1610, using his primitive telescope, astrono-As the most massive inhabitant of our solar system, mer Galileo Galilei saw four small “stars” near Jupiter.and with four large moons of its own and many smaller He had discovered Jupiter’s four largest moons, nowmoons, Jupiter forms its own kind of miniature solar called Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. These foursystem. In fact, Jupiter resembles a star in composi- moons are known today as the Galilean satellites. Nottion, and if it had been about 80 times more massive, it including the “temporary” moons, Jupiter has 64 con-would have become a star rather than a planet. firmed moons. (Temporary moons are comets that have been temporarily captured by Jupiter’s massive gravityJupiter’s appearance is a tapestry of beautiful colors field. These temporary satellites may circle Jupiter forand atmospheric features. Most visible clouds are years before continuing on their way through the solarcomposed of ammonia. Water clouds exist deep below system or burn up as they enter its atmosphere.) Jupiterand can sometimes be seen through clear spots in the has three thin rings around its equator, which are muchclouds. The planet’s “stripes” are created by strong fainter than the rings of Saturn. Jupiter’s rings appear toeast-west winds in Jupiter’s upper atmosphere. Within consist mostly of fine dust particles and may be formedthese belts and zones are storm systems that can rage by dust kicked up as interplanetary meteoroids smashfor years. The Great Red Spot, a giant spinning storm, into the giant planet’s four small inner moons. They werehas been observed for more than 300 years. In recent discovered in 1979 by NASA’s Voyager 1 spacecraft.years, three storms merged to form the Little Red Spot,about half the size of the Great Red Spot.The composition of Jupiter is similar to that of the sun — Significant Dates in Jovian Historymostly hydrogen and helium. Deep in the atmosphere,the pressure and temperature increase, compressing • 1610: Galileo Galilei makes the first detailedthe hydrogen gas into a liquid. At depths of about a third observations of Jupiter.of the way down, the hydrogen becomes a liquid that • 1973: NASA’s Pioneer 10 becomes the firstconducts electricity like a metal. It is in this metallic layer spacecraft to cross the asteroid belt and flythat scientists think Jupiter’s powerful magnetic field is past Jupiter.generated by electrical currents driven by Jupiter’s fast • 1979: NASA’s Voyager 1 and 2 discoverrotation. At the center, the immense pressure may sup- Jupiter’s faint rings, several new moons andport a core of heavy elements much larger than Earth. volcanic activity on Io’s surface.Jupiter’s enormous magnetic field is nearly 20,000 • 1994: Astronomers and NASA’s Galileo space-times as powerful as Earth’s. Trapped within Jupiter’s craft observe as pieces of comet Shoemaker-magnetosphere (the vast area of space that the planet’s Levy 9 collide with Jupiter’s southern hemi-magnetic field dominates) are swarms of charged par- sphere.ticles. The magnetic field traps some of these electrons • 1995: The Galileo spacecraft and probe arriveand ions in an intense radiation belt that bathes Jupiter’s at Jupiter to explore Jupiter’s atmosphererings and moons. The Jovian magnetosphere, compris- directly for the first time and to conduct aning these particles and fields, balloons 600,000 to 2 mil- extended study of the giant planet system.lion miles (1 to 3 million kilometers) toward the sun andJuno Launch 7 Press Kit
  7. 7. Why Juno?Jupiter is by far the largest planet in the solar system. Juno’s primary goal is to reveal the story of the formationHumans have been studying it for hundreds of years, and evolution of the planet Jupiter. Using long-provenyet still many basic questions about the gas world technologies on a spinning spacecraft placed in an el-remain. In 1995, NASA’s Galileo mission made the voy- liptical polar orbit, Juno will observe Jupiter’s gravity andage to Jupiter. One of its jobs was to drop a probe into magnetic fields, atmospheric dynamics and composi-Jupiter’s atmosphere. The data returned from that probe tion, and the coupling between the interior, atmosphereshowed us that Jupiter’s composition was different than and magnetosphere that determines the planet’s prop-scientists thought, indicating that our theories of plan- erties and drives its evolution. An understanding of theetary formation were wrong. Today, there remain major origin and evolution of Jupiter, as the archetype of giantunanswered questions about this giant planet and the planets, can provide the knowledge needed to help usorigins of our solar system hidden beneath the clouds understand the origin of our solar system and planetaryand massive storms of Jupiter’s upper atmosphere. systems around other stars.• How did Jupiter form?• How much water or oxygen is in Jupiter?• What is the structure inside Jupiter?• Does Jupiter rotate as a solid body, or is the rotating interior made up of concentric cylinders?• Is there a solid core, and if so, how large is it?• How is its vast magnetic field generated?• How are atmospheric features related to the move- ment of the deep interior?• What are the physical processes that power the auroras?• What do the poles look like?Juno Launch 8 Press Kit
  8. 8. Mission OverviewThe Juno spacecraft is scheduled to launch aboard an To accomplish its science objectives, Juno orbits overAtlas V551 rocket from Cape Canaveral, Fla., in Aug. Jupiter’s poles and passes very close to the planet.2011, reaching Jupiter in July 2016. Juno needs to get extremely close to Jupiter to make the very precise measurements the mission is after. ThisFollowing launch from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, orbital path carries the spacecraft repeatedly throughFla., the Juno spacecraft is scheduled to use its main hazardous radiation belts — but avoids the most power-rocket motor twice (for an Aug. 5 launch, it would be ful radiation belts. Jupiter’s radiation belts are analogousused on Aug. 30, and Sept. 3, 2012) to modify its to Earth’s Van Allen belts — but far more deadly.trajectory towards Jupiter. During cruise, there are also13 planned trajectory correction maneuvers to refine its The spacecraft will orbit Jupiter 33 times, skimming toorbital path. An Earth flyby 26 months after launch will within 3,100 miles (5,000 kilometers) above the planet’sprovide a boost of spacecraft velocity, placing it on a cloud tops every 11 days, for approximately one year.trajectory for Jupiter. The transit time to Jupiter followingthe Earth flyby is about three years, including the periodof the initial capture orbit. The 30-minute orbit insertionburn will place Juno in orbit around Jupiter in early July2016.Juno Launch 9 Press Kit
  9. 9. Mission Phases Pre-Launch Phase Thirteen mission phas- es have been defined The Flight System is mated to the launch vehicle at to describe the differ- L-10 days. Juno uses Space Launch Complex 41 ent periods of activity (SLC-41) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the during Juno’s travels. same launch pad used by NASA’s New Horizons mis- These phases are: sion and other Atlas V launch vehicles. Pre-Launch, Launch, Inner Cruise 1, Inner The Pre-Launch mission phase lasts from spacecraft Cruise 2, Inner Cruise power-up at L-3 days to final spacecraft configuration 3, Quiet Cruise, Jupiter at L-45 minutes. Juno’s launch period lasts 22 days Approach, Jupiter (Aug. 5–26, 2011) with a launch window at least 60 Orbit Insertion, Capture minutes in duration every day of the launch period. The Orbit, Period Reduction launch period has been optimized to maximize injected Maneuver, Orbit 1-2, mass into Jupiter science orbits. Science Orbits and Deorbit.  JunoLaunch Vehicle SpacecraftThe Atlas V551 is a two- Forward Loadstage launch vehicle that Reactor (FLR)uses a standard Atlasbooster with five solidrocket boosters in the firststage and a Centaur upper RL 10A Centaur 5-m Engine Payloadstage for the second. The FairingCentaur upper stage has Launcha restartable engine and Vehicleis three-axis stabilized. Atlas V Booster AdapterGuidance and navigationare provided by the Centaur Centaurfollowing launch. The Juno Solid Rocket Boosters Boattailspacecraft is enclosed forthe flight through Earth’s Centauratmosphere in the Atlas’s Interstage16.4-foot (5-meter) diam- Booster Adaptereter, 68-foot (20.7-meter) Cylindrical Interstagelong payload fairing. Adapter RD-180 Engine Launch vehicleJuno Launch 10 Press Kit
  10. 10. Boost Profile and Injection The launch vehicle is throttled to maintain 2.5 g’s for Payload Fairing Jettison, which occurs a little under The boost phase begins with the ignition of the booster three-and-a-half minutes after launch. Following jet- engine system. Liftoff occurs when the Atlas’s five solid tison of the payload fairing, acceleration is maintained rocket boosters are ignited. at 5.0 g’s until booster engine cutoff. The Atlas/Centaur separation occurs approximately six seconds after Upon burnout of the solid rocket boosters (at ap- booster engine cutoff. The first burn of the second stage proximately 104 seconds after launch) they are stagger of the Centaur rocket begins 10 seconds after the sepa- jettisoned: first solids 1 and 2, then 1.5 seconds later, ration. The first Centaur burn lasts about six minutes solids 3, 4 and 5. and completes when the vehicle has achieved its target parking orbit.Launch profile Juno Launch 11 Press Kit
  11. 11. During the parking orbit coast period (approximately Following the completion of its second burn, the30 minutes in length), the Centaur turns itself and the Centaur turns to a pre-planned separation attitude andspacecraft to the required attitude for the start of its initiates a 1.4 revolutions per minute roll rate. The Junosecond burn. The Centaur’s second burn (approximate- spacecraft is scheduled to separate from its Centaurly nine minutes in length) places Juno on the desired booster about three-and-a-half minutes after thedeparture trajectory. Centaur completes its burn. At the time of separation, a clampband releases and push-off springs push the Juno spacecraft from the Centaur.Solar Array DeploymentJuno’s massive solar arrays are scheduled to begin de- Transition to the Cruise mission phase is expected toployment about five minutes following separation. The occur three days after launch.length of time it takes for deployment is expected to beless than three minutes.  Solar array deployment sequenceCruise PhasesJuno’s trajectory to Jupiter consists of five phases overfive years and one-and-a-half loops of the sun.There are four cruise phases: Inner Cruise 1 (61 days),Inner Cruise 2 (598 days), Inner Cruise 3 (161 days), andQuiet Cruise (791 days).During cruise, the spacecraft is usually oriented so thatits high-gain antenna is Earth-pointed. However, closeto the sun there are times where thermal and powerrequirements do not allow for Earth-pointing of the an-tenna. At these times the spacecraft is pointed off-sunin such a way that thermal requirements can be met.Inner Cruise Phase 1The Inner Cruise 1 phase spans the interval from L+3 toL+63 days. It is characterized by initial spacecraft andinstrument checkouts, deployment of the Waves instru-ment antenna, Juno’s first trajectory correction maneu-ver, and the location of the spacecraft far enough fromthe sun to allow Earth-pointing instead of sun-pointing. Earth–Jupiter trajectoryJuno Launch 12 Press Kit
  12. 12. Inner Cruise Phase 2 phase ends at Jupiter Orbit Insertion minus four days, which is the start of the critical sequence that will resultThe Inner Cruise 2 phase spans the period from L+63 in the spacecraft orbiting Jupiter.days until L+661 days (1.6 years in length). The mis-sion’s two deep space maneuvers occur during this This phase is characterized by instrument checkouts asphase, prior to the spacecraft’s one Earth flyby. Other well as initial science observations of Jupiter. Calibrationsspacecraft activities during the Inner Cruise 2 phase in- and science observations performed during this phaseclude calibrations and alignments associated with using go a long way toward validating instrument performancethe high-gain antenna for the first time. The spacecraft’s in the Jupiter environment, testing the data processingscience instruments are also checked out again. pipeline, and preparing the team for successfully return- ing baseline Jupiter science data starting in Orbit 3.Inner Cruise Phase 3 Jupiter Orbit Insertion PhaseThe Inner Cruise 3 phase spans the interval from L+661days to L+822 days. During this time, the Juno flight The Jupiter Orbit Insertion phase begins four daysteam is focused on performing the required maneuvers, before the start of the orbit insertion maneuver and endsas well as an integrated operations exercise around one hour after the start of the insertion maneuver. JupiterEarth flyby. Orbit Insertion occurs at closest approach to Jupiter, and slows the spacecraft enough to let it be captured byThe Earth flyby occurs as the spacecraft is completing Jupiter into a 107-day-long orbit. The insertion maneu-one elliptical orbit around the sun. It will boost Juno’s ver also sets up the orbital geometry for future 11-dayvelocity by 16,330 miles per hour (about 7.3 kilometers science orbits.per second), placing the spacecraft on its final trajectoryfor Jupiter. Closest approach to Earth occurs on Oct. 9, The Jupiter Orbit Insertion burn is performed on the2013, at an altitude of 310 miles (500 kilometers). The main engine (the third large main engine burn of theexact time of closest approach will vary by about eight mission). The burn will last 30 minutes and is designedhours on this date, depending on launch date. to be performed in view of Earth. After the burn, the spacecraft is in a polar orbit around Jupiter.During the flyby, Juno will pass behind Earth as seenfrom the sun, causing an interval when Earth blocks the Capture Orbit Phasesun’s rays from reaching the spacecraft’s solar panels,The time in eclipse is about 20 minutes, and represents The Capture Orbit phase starts at Jupiter Orbit Insertionthe only time after Launch Phase when Juno will not plus one hour and ends 18 hours before the Periodreceive direct sunlight. Reduction Maneuver 106 days later. The 107-day Capture Orbit provides substantial propellant savingsThree trajectory correction maneuvers are planned be- with respect to a direct Jupiter Orbit Insertion entry intofore and one after Earth flyby to refine Juno’s trajectory. an 11-day orbit.Quiet Cruise Phase A cleanup maneuver 7.6 days after the beginning of this phase is performed to ensure the timing of the largeThe Quiet Cruise phase lasts from L+822 days until burn in the upcoming phase. Instruments are on forthe start of Jupiter Approach at L+1,613 days. During most of the Capture Orbit, and there are routine check-the tail end of the Quiet Cruise phase, which lasts for outs and science observations.26 months, the Juno project team will be staffed up tolevels anticipated as needed for upcoming operations The Capture Orbit is an opportunity to gain valuablearound Jupiter. early orbital operations experience with the spacecraft as well as the instruments. The team plans to have allJupiter Approach Phase the instruments on and taking data beginning 50 hours after Jupiter Orbit Insertion.The Jupiter Approach phase lasts the final six monthsof cruise (178 days) before Jupiter Orbit Insertion. TheJuno Launch 13 Press Kit
  13. 13. As with Jupiter Approach observations, calibrations and Juno’s Highly Elliptical Polar Orbitsscience observations performed during the CaptureOrbit go a long way toward validating instrument perfor- Orbiting Jupiter around the poles carries Juno repeated-mance in the Jupiter Environment. ly over every latitude. As the planet rotates beneath the spacecraft, the entire surface can be covered by Juno’sPeriod Reduction Maneuver Phase suite of instruments.During the Period Reduction Maneuver phase, Juno For many of the instruments to do their job, the space-transitions from an orbit that takes 107 days to cir- craft has to get closer to Jupiter than any previous mis-cumnavigate Jupiter to one that takes only 11 days. sion. To avoid the highest levels of radiation in the beltsThe phase starts 18 hours before the maneuver and surrounding Jupiter, mission navigators have designedconcludes 11 hours after the maneuver is complete. a highly elongated orbit that approaches the gas giantThe rocket firing that takes place during this maneuver from the north. Flying south, the spacecraft’s point ofis a larger burn in duration (37 minutes) than the Jupiter closest approach will be about 3,100 miles (5,000 ki-Orbit Insertion burn. The Period Reduction Maneuver lometers) above the cloud tops. As Juno exits over theburn is performed on the main engine (the fourth and south pole, its orbit carries it far beyond even the Jovianlast large main engine burn of the mission). No science moon Callisto’s orbit.observations are planned during this phase. Juno’s elliptical orbit around Jupiter has another benefit.Orbits 1–2 Phase It allows the spacecraft’s three massive solar panels to be constantly bathed in sunlight. This is important be-The Orbits 1–2 phase starts 11 hours after the Period cause the amount of sunlight that reaches Jupiter is onlyReduction Maneuver burn — near the beginning of the 1/25th that which reaches Earth. To keep the space-first 11-day orbit. This phase ends 20 days later with craft’s instruments and operating systems poweredthe commencement of the mission’s first science orbit. requires the solar panels to have an almost constant exposure to the available sunlight.Orbit 2 and Planned Science Deorbit PhaseIn addition to calibrations and other instrument prepara-tions for the science orbits, preliminary Orbit 2 science The Deorbit phase occurs during the final orbit of theplans include: remote sensing movies and atmospheric mission. The 5.5-day phase starts several days after thedynamics measurements, water abundance observa- Orbit 33 science pass and ends with impact into Jupitertions and fields and particles observations like those during the following orbit.planned for the science orbits. The deorbit maneuver was designed to satisfy NASA’sScience Orbits Phase planetary protection requirements and ensure that Juno does not impact Europa (as well as Ganymede andThe Science Orbits phase includes Orbit 3 through Callisto).Orbit 33 and lasts 336 days. Small orbital trim maneu-vers are planned about four hours after each set of By orbit 34, a deorbit burn will be executed, placing theperijove (closest approach to Jupiter) science observa- spacecraft on a trajectory that will reset its point of clos-tions. These maneuvers target the longitude required est approach to the planet to an altitude that is belowfor science observations in the next orbit. the cloud tops at 34 degrees North Jupiter latitude on Oct. 16, 2017. Juno is not designed to operate inside an atmosphere and will burn up.Juno Launch 14 Press Kit
  14. 14. SpacecraftJuno uses a spinning, solar-powered spacecraft in a The 12 reaction control system thrusters are mountedhighly elliptical polar orbit that avoids most of Jupiter’s on four rocket engine modules. They allow translationhigh-radiation regions. The designs of the individual and rotation about three axes. They are also used forinstruments are straightforward and the mission did not most trajectory correction maneuvers.require the development of any new technologies. Command and Data HandlingWhy A Rotating Spacecraft? Command and data handling includes a RAD750 flightFor Juno, like NASA’s earlier Pioneer spacecraft, spin- processor with 256 megabytes of flash memory andning makes the spacecraft’s pointing extremely stable 128 megabytes of DRAM local memory. It providesand easy to control. Just after launch, and before its 100 Mbps total instrument throughput, more thansolar arrays are deployed, Juno will be spun-up by enough for payload requirements.rocket motors on its still-attached second-stage rocketbooster. Juno’s planned spin rate varies during the mis- Electronics Vaultsion: 1 RPM for cruise, 2 RPM for science operationsand 5 RPM for main engine maneuvers. To protect sensitive spacecraft electronics, Juno will carry the first-of-its-kind radiation shielded electronicsTo simplify and decrease weight, all instruments are vault, a critical feature for enabling sustained explorationfixed. While in orbit at Jupiter, the spinning spacecraft in such a heavy radiation environment. Each of the tita-will sweep the fields of view of its instruments through nium cube’s eight sides measures nearly a square meterspace once for each rotation. At two rotations per min- (nearly 9 square feet) in area, about a third of an inchute, the instruments’ fields of view sweep across Jupiter (1 centimeter) in thickness, and 4 pounds (18 kilograms)about 400 times in the two hours it takes Juno to fly in mass. This titanium box — about the size of an SUV’sfrom pole to pole. trunk — encloses Juno’s command and data handling box (the spacecraft’s brain), power and data distributionStructure unit (its heart) and about 20 other electronic assemblies. The whole vault weighs about 500 pounds (200 kilo-The spacecraft’s main body measures 11.5 feet grams).(3.5 meters) tall and 11.5 feet (3.5 meters) in diameter.The spacecraft’s hexagonal two-deck structure uses Powercomposite panel and clip construction for decks, centralcylinder and gusset panels. Polar mounted off-center Juno’s Electrical Power Subsystem manages the space-spherical tanks provide spinning spacecraft designs with craft power bus and distribution of power to payloads,high stability. propulsion, heaters and avionics. The power distribution and drive unit monitors and manages the spacecraftPropulsion System power bus, manages the available solar array power to meet the spacecraft load and battery state of charge,For weight savings and redundancy, Juno uses a dual- and provides controlled power distribution.mode propulsion subsystem, with a bi-propellant mainengine and mono-propellant reaction control system Power generation is provided by three solar arraysthrusters. consisting of 11 solar panels and one MAG boom. Two 55 amp-hour lithium-ion batteries provide power whenThe Leros-1b main engine is a 645-Newton bi-pro- Juno is off-sun or in eclipse, and are tolerant of thepellant thruster using hydrazine–nitrogen tetroxide. Jupiter radiation environment. The power modes duringIts engine bell is enclosed in a micrometeoroid shield science orbits are sized for either data collection duringthat opens for engine burns. The engine is fixed to the an orbit emphasizing microwave radiometry or gravityspacecraft body firing aft and is used for major maneu- science.vers and flushing burns.Juno Launch 15 Press Kit
  15. 15. Solar Power Thermal ControlJupiter’s orbit is five times farther from the sun than Juno’s thermal control subsystem uses a passive de-Earth’s, so the giant planet receives 25 times less sign with heaters and louvers. The main component ofsunlight than Earth. Juno will be the first solar-powered the thermal control subsystem consists of an insulated,spacecraft designed to operate at such a great distance louvered electronics vault atop an insulated, heated pro-from the sun, thus the surface area of solar panels re- pulsion module. This design accommodates all missionquired to generate adequate power is quite large. thermal environments from Earth orbit to Jupiter orbital operations. During cruise, while the spacecraft is closeJuno benefits from advances in solar cell design with to the sun, the high-gain antenna is used as a heatmodern cells that are 50 percent more efficient and shield to protect the vault avionics.radiation-tolerant than silicon cells available for spacemissions 20 years ago. The mission’s power needs are Most instrument electronics are contained within themodest. Juno has energy-efficient science instruments. radiation vault and are thermally managed as part of theSolar power is possible on Juno due to the energy- vault thermal control system. Science sensors are exter-efficient instruments and spacecraft, a mission design nally mounted to the deck and are individually blanketedthat can avoid Jupiter’s shadow and a polar orbit that and heated to maintain individual temperature limits.minimizes the total radiation. TelecommunicationsThe spacecraft’s three solar panels extend outwardfrom Juno’s hexagonal body, giving the overall space- The gravity science and telecom subsystem providescraft a span of more than 66 feet (20 meters). The solar X-band command uplink and engineering telemetry andpanels will remain in sunlight continuously from launch science data downlink for the entire post-launch, cruisethrough end of mission, except for a few minutes dur- and Jupiter orbital operations. The subsystem also pro-ing the Earth flyby. Before deployment in space, the vides for dual-band (X- and Ka-band) Doppler trackingsolar panels are folded into four-hinged segments so for gravity science at Jupiter.the spacecraft can fit into the launch vehicle’s payloadfairing.Science Instruments Juno is spin-stabilized. Because of the spacecraft mis- sion design and the fact that its science instrumentsThe Juno spacecraft carries a payload of 29 sensors, were all developed together, and there is no need for awhich feed data to nine onboard instruments. Eight scan platform to point instruments in different directions.of these instruments (MAG, MWR, Gravity Science, Gravity science and microwave sounding of the atmo-Waves, JEDI, JADE, UVS, JIRAM) are considered the sphere observations are obtained through orientation ofscience payload. One instrument, JunoCam, is aboard the spacecraft’s spin plane. All other experiments utilizeto generate images for education and public outreach. ride-along pointing and work in either one or both orien- tations. This design allows for very simple operations.Primary science observations are obtained within threehours of closest approach to Jupiter, although calibra-tions, occasional remote sensing and magnetosphericscience observations are planned throughout the sci-ence orbits around Jupiter.Juno Launch 16 Press Kit
  16. 16.  Juno spacecraftGravity Science Magnetometer (MAG)The Gravity Science experiment will enable Juno Juno’s Magnetometer creates a detailed three-to measure Jupiter’s gravitational field and reveal dimensional map of Jupiter’s magnetic field.the planet’s internal structure. Juno’s Magnetometer instrument is a flux gate typeTwo transponders operating on different frequencies magnetometer, which measures the strength and direc-(Ka- and X-band) will detect signals sent from NASA’s tion of Jupiter’s magnetic field lines. An Advanced StellarDeep Space Network on Earth and immediately send Compass images stars to provide information on thesignals in return. Small changes in the signal’s frequen- exact orientation of the magnetometer sensors. This en-cies (as they are received on Earth) provide data on ables Juno’s very precise magnetic field measurement.how much Juno’s velocity has been modified due to Magnetometer sensors are mounted on the magnetom-local variations in Jupiter’s gravity. These subtle shifts in eter boom at the end of one of Juno’s three solar arraysJuno’s velocity reveal the gas giant’s gravity (and how — as far away from the spacecraft body as possible.the planet is arranged on the inside), and provide insight This was done to avoid the instruments from confusinginto the gas giant’s internal structure. the spacecraft magnetic field with Jupiter’s. The boom is designed to mimic the outermost solar array panel (ofAgenzia Spaziale Italiana in Rome, Italy contributed the the remaining two solar array structures) in mass andKa-band translator system. mechanical deployment. The spacecraft magnetic field is further separated from Jupiter’s field by the use of two magnetometer sen-Juno Launch 17 Press Kit
  17. 17. sors — one 33 feet (10 meters) from the center of the by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt,spacecraft and one 39 feet (12 meters) from the center. Md., and the Advanced Stellar Compass was designedBy comparing measurements from both sensors, scien- and built by the Danish Technical University in Lyngby,tists can isolate the magnetic field of Juno from Jupiter. Denmark.The Flux Gate Magnetometer was designed and builtMagnetometer  Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Jupiter Energetic Particle Detector Instrument (JEDI)Juno’s Microwave Radiometer instrument willprobe beneath Jupiter’s cloud tops to provide data The Jupiter Energetic Particle Detectoron the structure, movement and chemical compo- Instrument will measure the energetic particlessition to a depth as great as 1,000 atmospheres — that stream through space and study how theyabout 342 miles (550 kilometers) below the visible interact with Jupiter’s magnetic field.cloud tops. JEDI comprises three identical sensor units each withThe Microwave Radiometer consists of six radiometers 6 ion and 6 electron views. The instrument works indesigned to measure the microwaves coming from six coordination with the JADE and Waves instruments tocloud levels. Each of the six radiometers has an antenna investigate Jupiter’s polar space environment, with aextending from Juno’s hexagonal body. Each antenna particular focus on the physics of Jupiter’s intense andis connected by a cable to a receiver, which sits in the impressive northern and southern auroral lights.instrument vault on top of the spacecraft. NASA’s JetPropulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. provided the The instrument was designed and built by the JohnsMicrowave Radiometer subsystem components, includ- Hopkins University’s Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel,ing the antennas and receivers. Md.Juno Launch 18 Press Kit
  18. 18. Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment (JADE) between the auroras, the streaming particles that create them and the magnetosphere as a whole.The Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment willwork with some of Juno’s other instruments to The Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph instrument con-identify the particles and processes that produce sists of two separate sections: a dedicated telescope/Jupiter’s stunning auroras. spectrograph assembly and a vault electronics box. The telescope/spectrograph assembly contains a telescopeThe Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment consists of which focuses collected light into a spectrograph. Thean electronics box shared by four sensors: three will de- instrument’s electronics box is located in Juno’s radia-tect the electrons that surround the spacecraft ,and the tion-shielded spacecraft vault.fourth will identify positively charged hydrogen, helium,oxygen and sulfur ions. When Juno flies directly over The Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph instrument wasauroras, the instrument will be able to characterize the designed and built by Southwest Research Institute inparticles that are coming down Jupiter’s magnetic field San Antonio.lines and crashing into Jupiter’s atmosphere.The Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment was de- Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM)signed and built by the Southwest Research Institute inSan Antonio. The Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper will study Jupiter’s atmosphere in and around the auro-Waves ras, helping us learn more about the interactions between the auroras, the magnetic field and theThe Waves instrument will measure radio and magnetosphere. JIRAM will be able to probe theplasma waves in Jupiter’s magnetosphere, help- atmosphere down to 30 to 45 miles (50 to 70 kilo-ing us understand the interactions between the meters) below the cloud tops, where the pressuremagnetic field, the atmosphere and the magneto- is five to seven times greater than on Earth at seasphere. level.The Waves instrument consists of a V-shaped antenna The Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper instrument consiststhat is about 13 feet (four meters) from tip to tip, similar of a camera and a spectrometer, which splits light intoto the rabbit-ear antennas that were once common on its component wavelengths, like a prism. The cameraTVs. One of the ears of the Waves instrument detects will take pictures in infrared light, which is heat radia-the electric component of radio and plasma waves, tion, with wavelengths of two to five microns (millionthswhile the other is sensitive to the magnetic component. of a meter) — three to seven times longer than visibleThe magnetic antenna — called a magnetic search wavelengths.coil — consists of a coil of fine wire wrapped 10,000times around a 5.9-inch (15-centimeter) long core. The The Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper instrument wassearch coil measures magnetic fluctuations in the audio designed and built by the Italian National Institute forfrequency range. Astrophysics, Milano, Italy, and funded by the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana in Rome.The Waves instrument was designed and built by theUniversity of Iowa in Iowa City. JunoCamUltraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVS) JunoCam will capture color pictures of Jupiter’s cloud tops in visible light.The Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph will takepictures of Jupiter’s auroras in ultraviolet light. JunoCam will provide a wide-angle view of Jupiter’sWorking with Juno’s JADE and JEDI instruments, atmosphere and poles. JunoCam is designed as anwhich measure the particles that create the auro- outreach full-color camera to engage the public. Theras, UVS will help us understand the relationship public will be involved in developing the images from rawJuno Launch 19 Press Kit
  19. 19. data and even helping to design which areas of Jupiter pixel. The wide-angle camera will provide new views ofshould be imaged. Jupiter’s atmosphere.The JunoCam camera head has a lens with a 58-de- JunoCam’s hardware is based on a descent cam-gree cross-scan field of view. It acquires images by era that was developed for NASA’s Mars Sciencesweeping out that field while the spacecraft spins to Laboratory rover. Some of its software was origi-cover an along-scan field of view of 360 degrees. Lines nally developed for NASA’s Mars Odyssey and Marscontaining dark sky are subsequently compressed to Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft. JunoCam isan insignificant data volume. It takes images mainly provided by Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego.when Juno is very close to Jupiter, with a maximum Calif.resolution of up to 1 to 2 miles (2 to 3 kilometers) perJuno Launch 20 Press Kit
  20. 20. Science OverviewThe Giant Planet Story is the Story of the Solar System sphere and help determine if the planet has a core of heavy elements, constraining models on the origin ofThe principal goal of NASA’s Juno mission is to under- this giant planet and thereby the solar system. By map-stand the origin and evolution of Jupiter. Underneath its ping Jupiter’s gravitational and magnetic fields, Juno willdense cloud cover, Jupiter safeguards secrets to the reveal the planet’s interior structure and measure thefundamental processes and conditions that governed mass of the core.our solar system during its formation. As our primaryexample of a giant planet, Jupiter can also provide criti- Atmospherecal knowledge for understanding the planetary systemsbeing discovered around other stars. How deep Jupiter’s colorful zones, belts and other features penetrate is one of the most outstandingWith its suite of science instruments, Juno will in- fundamental questions about the giant planet. Junovestigate the existence of a possible solid planetary will determine the global structure and motions of thecore, map Jupiter’s intense magnetic field, measure planet’s atmosphere below the cloud tops for the firstthe amount of water and ammonia in the deep atmo- time, mapping variations in the atmosphere’s composi-sphere, and observe the planet’s auroras. tion, temperature, clouds and patterns of movement down to unprecedented depths.Juno will let us take a giant step forward in our under-standing of how giant planets form and the role these Magnetospheretitans played in putting together the rest of the solarsystem. Deep in Jupiter’s atmosphere, under great pressure, hydrogen gas is squeezed into a fluid known as metallicJupiter’s Origins and Interior hydrogen. At these enormous pressures, the hydro- gen acts like an electrically conducting metal, which isTheories about solar system formation all begin with believed to be the source of the planet’s intense mag-the collapse of a giant cloud of gas and dust, or nebula, netic field. This powerful magnetic environment createsmost of which formed the infant sun, our star. Like the the brightest auroras in our solar system, as chargedsun, Jupiter is mostly hydrogen and helium, so it must particles precipitate down into the planet’s atmosphere.have formed early, capturing most of the material left af- Juno will directly sample the charged particles andter our star came to be. How this happened, however, magnetic fields near Jupiter’s poles for the first time,is unclear. Did a massive planetary core form first and while simultaneously observing the auroras in ultravioletcapture all that gas gravitationally, or did an unstable light produced by the extraordinary amounts of energyregion collapse inside the nebula, triggering the planet’s crashing into the polar regions. These investigations willformation? Differences between these scenarios are greatly improve our understanding of this remarkableprofound. phenomenon, and also of similar magnetic objects, like young stars with their own planetary systems.Even more importantly, the composition and role of icyplanetesimals, or small protoplanets, in planetary forma- Juno Science Objectivestion hangs in the balance — and with them, the originof Earth and other terrestrial planets. Icy planetesimals The primary science objectives of the mission are aslikely were the carriers of materials like water and follows:carbon compounds that are the fundamental buildingblocks of life. Origin Determine the abundance of water and place an up-Unlike Earth, Jupiter’s giant mass allowed it to hold per limit on the mass of Jupiter’s possible solid core toonto its original composition, providing us with a way decide which theory of the planet’s origin is correctof tracing our solar system’s history. Juno will measurethe amount of water and ammonia in Jupiter’s atmo-Juno Launch 21 Press Kit
  21. 21. Interior related to the conditions in the early solar system, whichUnderstand Jupiter’s interior structure and how material led to the formation of our planetary system. The massmoves deep within the planet by mapping its gravita- of Jupiter’s possible solid core and the abundance oftional and magnetic fields heavy elements in the atmosphere discriminate among models for giant planet formation. Juno constrains theAtmosphere core mass by mapping the gravitational field, and mea-Map variations in atmospheric composition, tempera- sures through microwave sounding the global abun-ture, cloud opacity and dynamics to depths greater dances of oxygen (water) and nitrogen (ammonia).than 100 bars at all latitudes. Juno reveals the history of Jupiter by mapping the gravi-Magnetosphere tational and magnetic fields with sufficient resolution toCharacterize and explore the three-dimensional struc- constrain Jupiter’s interior structure, the source region ofture of Jupiter’s polar magnetosphere and auroras the magnetic field, and the nature of deep convection.The overall goal of the Juno mission is to improve our By sounding deep into Jupiter’s atmosphere, Juno de-understanding of the solar system by understanding the termines to what depth the belts and zones penetrate.origin and evolution of Jupiter. It addresses science ob- Juno provides the first survey and exploration of thejectives central to three NASA Science divisions: Solar three-dimensional structure of Jupiter’s polar magneto-System (Planetary), Earth–Sun System (Heliophysics), sphere.and Universe (Astrophysics).Juno’s primary science goal of understanding theformation, evolution, and structure of Jupiter is directlyJuno Launch 22 Press Kit
  22. 22. Missions to JupiterSince 1972, Jupiter has been a port-of-call or final desti- ture and investigate the dynamics of Jupiter’s magneticnation for eight NASA missions. field. It revealed that Jupiter had a ring system. Galileo was the first spacecraft to deploy a probe into an outerPioneer 10 planet’s atmosphere. The spacecraft’s mission wasLaunch: March 2, 1972 extended three times in order to study the GalileanJupiter flyby: December 3, 1973 satellites Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto.NASA’s Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to pass To avoid any possibility of the spacecraft contaminat-through the Asteroid Belt and explore Jupiter. It flew ing any of Jupiter’s moons, upon completion of its thirdwithin 124,000 miles (200,000 kilometers) of the Jovian mission extension, Galileo was deliberately sent into thecloud tops. Scientists were surprised at the tremen- planet’s atmosphere, where it burned up.dous radiation levels experienced by the spacecraft as itpassed the gas giant planet. Ulysses Launch: October 6, 1990Pioneer 11 Jupiter flyby: February 8, 1992Launch: April 5, 1973Jupiter flyby: December 2, 1974 Ulysses’ mission was to study the north and south pole of the sun. To get into an orbit that would take it overPioneer 11 flew within 21,100 miles (34,000 kilometers) the sun’s poles, Ulysses used the strong Jovian grav-of the Jovian cloud tops. The spacecraft studied the ity to bend its trajectory. As Ulysses flew by the planet,planet’s magnetic field and atmosphere and took pic- instruments onboard the spacecraft studied Jupiter’stures of the planet and some of its moons. strong magnetic field and radiation levels.Voyager 1 Cassini–HuygensLaunch: September 5, 1977 Launch: October 15, 1997Jupiter encounter: January 4 to April 13, 1979 Jupiter flyby: December 30, 2000Launched 16 days after Voyager 2, Voyager 1 was on Cassini–Huygens’ orbital path to Saturn required flybysthe fast track to Jupiter and actually arrived four months of Venus, Earth and Jupiter. The Cassini mission teamahead of the other spacecraft. Voyager 1 flew by Jupiter used its encounter with Jupiter to test the spacecraft’son March 5, 1979, taking more than 18,000 images of instruments and operations.planet and its moons. New HorizonsVoyager 2 Launch: January 19, 2006Launch: August 20, 1977 Jupiter flyby: January–May, 2007Jupiter encounter: April 25 to August 5, 1979 New Horizons used Jupiter’s massive gravity to placeVoyager 2 flew by Jupiter on July 9, 1979, and took ap- it on a trajectory for Pluto. Beginning in early 2007, theproximately 18,000 images of Jupiter and its moons. spacecraft observed Jupiter over five months. Date of its closest approach with Jupiter was on February 28,Galileo 2007.Launch: October 18, 1989Jupiter probe descent: December 7, 1995Jupiter orbit insertion: December 8, 1995Plunge into Jupiter: September 22, 2003Galileo was the first spacecraft to dwell in a giant planet’smagnetosphere long enough to identify its global struc-Juno Launch 23 Press Kit
  23. 23. Program/Project ManagementJuno’s principal investigator is Scott Bolton of Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. Steve Levin ofNASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is project scientist.NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., manages the Juno mission for the principal inves-tigator. The Juno mission is part of the New Frontiers Program managed at NASA’s Marshall SpaceFlight Center in Huntsville, Ala. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the spacecraft. Launchmanagement for the mission is the responsibility of NASA’s Launch Services Program at the KennedySpace Center in Florida. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. At NASAHeadquarters, Ed Weiler is associate administrator for the Science Mission Directorate. Jim Green isdirector of the Planetary Science Division. Dennon Clardy is the manager of the Discovery/New FrontiersProgram office, Adrianna O’Campo is Juno program executive, and Mary Mellot is Juno program scientist.At JPL, Jan Chodas is project manager. Rick Nybakken is deputy project manager.Lockheed Martin Space Systems in Denver designed and built Juno and will handle its day-to-day opera-tions. Tim Gasparrini is the company’s Juno program manager and leads the Juno flight team. The UnitedLaunch Alliance is responsible for the Atlas V rocket that will carry Juno into space.More information about Juno is online at http://www.nasa.gov/juno and http://missionjuno.swri.edu .NASA’s New Frontiers Program carry materials from an asteroid back to Earth. The program provides opportunities to carry out medium-The Juno mission is the second spacecraft designed class missions identified as top priority objectives in theunder NASA’s New Frontiers Program. The first was Decadal Solar System Exploration Survey, conductedthe Pluto New Horizons mission, launched in January by the Space Studies Board of the National Research2006 and scheduled to reach Pluto’s moon Charon Council in Washington.in 2015. The third mission will be the Origins-SpectralInterpretation-Resource Identification-Security-Regolith More information is online at http://newfrontiers.nasa.Explorer, or OSIRIS-Rex — the first U.S. mission to gov/program_plan.html .Juno Launch 24 Press Kit
  24. 24. Juno Science Team Co-InvestigatorsScott Bolton, principal investigator, Michael Allison Goddard Space Flight CenterSouthwest Research Institute, San Antonio John Anderson Jet Propulsion LaboratoryJohn Connerney, deputy principal investigator, Sushil Atreya University of MichiganGoddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. Fran Bagenal University of ColoradoSteve Levin, project scientist,NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Michel Blanc L’Observatoire Midi Pyrénées Jeremy Bloxham Harvard UniversityInstrument Leads Stanley Cowley University of LeicesterMichael Janssen — MWR Instrument Lead, Eric DeJong Jet Propulsion LaboratoryJet Propulsion Laboratory Daniel Gautier LESIA Observatoire de ParisJohn Connerney — MAG Instrument Lead, Tristan Guillot Observatoire de la Cote d’AzurGoddard Space Flight Center Samuel Gulkis Jet Propulsion LaboratoryDavid McComas — JADE Instrument Lead,Southwest Research Institute Candice Hansen Planetary Science InstituteWilliam Folkner — Gravity Science Investigation Lead, William Hubbard University of ArizonaJet Propulsion Laboratory Andrew Ingersoll California Institute of TechnologyBarry Mauk — JEDI Instrument Lead,Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory Jonathan Lunine University of ArizonaWilliam Kurth — Waves Instrument Lead, Univ. of Iowa Toby Owen University of HawaiiRandy Gladstone — UVS Instrument Lead, Ed Smith Jet Propulsion LaboratorySouthwest Research Institute Paul Steffes Georgia TechMichael Ravine — JunoCam Instrument Lead, David Stevenson California Institute ofTechnologyMalin Space Science Systems Ed Stone California Institute ofTechnologyAngioletta Coradini — JIRAM Instrument Lead,Italian Space Agency Richard Thorne University of California Los AngelesJuno Launch 25 Press Kit