Baryons at the edge of the x ray–brightest galaxy cluster
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Baryons at the edge of the x ray–brightest galaxy cluster Baryons at the edge of the x ray–brightest galaxy cluster Document Transcript

  • Baryons at the Edge of the X-ray−Brightest Galaxy Cluster Aurora Simionescu, et al. Science 331, 1576 (2011); DOI: 10.1126/science.1200331 This copy is for your personal, non-commercial use only. If you wish to distribute this article to others, you can order high-quality copies for your colleagues, clients, or customers by clicking here. Permission to republish or repurpose articles or portions of articles can be obtained by following the guidelines here. The following resources related to this article are available online at www.sciencemag.org (this infomation is current as of April 5, 2011 ): Downloaded from www.sciencemag.org on April 5, 2011 Updated information and services, including high-resolution figures, can be found in the online version of this article at: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/331/6024/1576.full.html Supporting Online Material can be found at: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/suppl/2011/03/22/331.6024.1576.DC1.html This article appears in the following subject collections: Astronomy http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/collection/astronomyScience (print ISSN 0036-8075; online ISSN 1095-9203) is published weekly, except the last week in December, by theAmerican Association for the Advancement of Science, 1200 New York Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005. Copyright2011 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science; all rights reserved. The title Science is aregistered trademark of AAAS.
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Moore, Science 309, 1514 (2005). 24. M. Zeitelhofer et al., J. Neurosci. 28, 7555 (2008). are Investigators of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. 2. P. Anderson, N. Kedersha, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 10, 25. F. Roegiers, Y. N. Jan, Trends Cell Biol. 10, 220 We thank C. Cepko for advice on the chick experiments, 430 (2009). (2000). L. Reinholdt for assistance in assessing male sterility, 3. R. Parker, U. Sheth, Mol. Cell 25, 635 (2007). 26. L. Furic, M. Maher-Laporte, L. DesGroseillers, RNA 14, A. Bell for technical assistance, J. Reddan and V. Reddy 4. U. Sheth, R. Parker, Science 300, 805 (2003). 324 (2008). for their gifts of lens cell lines, and the patients and their 5. S. Vasudevan, J. A. Steitz, Cell 128, 1105 (2007). 27. J. P. Vessey et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, families for participating in this research. All microarray 6. A. Eulalio, I. Behm-Ansmant, E. Izaurralde, Nat. Rev. 16374 (2008). data are deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus Mol. 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Li, I. Miller, P. Anderson, References 12. N. Kedersha et al., J. Cell Biol. 169, 871 (2005). J. Cell Biol. 147, 1431 (1999). 13. T. Ohn, N. Kedersha, T. Hickman, S. Tisdale, P. Anderson, 34. K. S. Sinsimer et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 28, 5223 2 August 2010; accepted 24 January 2011 Nat. Cell Biol. 10, 1224 (2008). (2008). 10.1126/science.1195970 REPORTS measure the characteristics of the faint emission Baryons at the Edge of the from cluster outskirts more reliably. Even so, few such observations have been published, and X-ray–Brightest Galaxy Cluster the thermodynamic profiles at large radii are not well resolved (6–11). The Perseus Cluster of galaxies is the brightest extragalactic extended Aurora Simionescu,1* Steven W. Allen,1 Adam Mantz,2 Norbert Werner,1 Yoh Takei,3 x-ray source. It is a relaxed system, both closer R. Glenn Morris,1 Andrew C. Fabian,4 Jeremy S. Sanders,4 Paul E. J. Nulsen,5 (at a redshift of 0.0183) and substantially brighter Matthew R. George,6 Gregory B. Taylor7,8 than any of the other clusters for which Suzaku has previously been used to study the ICM prop- Studies of the diffuse x-ray–emitting gas in galaxy clusters have provided powerful constraints erties at large radii. Its large angular size mitigates on cosmological parameters and insights into plasma astrophysics. However, measurements the impact of residual systematic uncertainties of the faint cluster outskirts have become possible only recently. Using data from the Suzaku x-ray in modeling the effects of Suzakus complex point- telescope, we determined an accurate, spatially resolved census of the gas, metals, and dark matter out spread function (PSF), making the Perseus Cluster to the edge of the Perseus Cluster. Contrary to previous results, our measurements of the an ideal target in which to study cluster outskirts. cluster baryon fraction are consistent with the expected universal value at half of the virial radius. A large mosaic of Suzaku observations of The apparent baryon fraction exceeds the cosmic mean at larger radii, suggesting a clumpy the Perseus Cluster, with a total exposure time distribution of the gas, which is important for understanding the ongoing growth of clusters from the surrounding cosmic web. 1 Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stan- ford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. 2 alaxy clusters provide critical constraints only the inner parts of clusters, where the emis- NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, G on cosmological parameters that are in- dependent from those determined using type Ia supernovae, galaxy surveys, and the pri- sion is brightest, leaving a large fraction of their volumes practically unexplored. Estimates of the gas mass and total mass at large radii have relied USA. 3Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aero- space Exploration Agency (JAXA), 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510, Japan. 4Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK. 5Harvard-Smithsonian Center mordial cosmic microwave background radia- on simple model extrapolations of the thermo- for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. 6 tion (CMB) (1–3). In particular, knowledge of dynamic properties measured at smaller radii. Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA their baryon content is a key ingredient in the X-ray spectroscopy of the outer regions of 94720, USA. 7Department of Physics and Astronomy, Univer- sity of New Mexico, Alberquerque, NM 87131, USA. 8National use of clusters as cosmological probes (4, 5). galaxy clusters was made possible only recently, Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Rd., Socorro, Most baryons reside in the hot, diffuse, x-ray– with the use of the Suzaku satellite. Because NM 87801, USA. emitting intracluster medium (ICM). Until re- of its much lower instrumental background than *To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: cently, x-ray observations have generally targeted that of other x-ray observatories, Suzaku can asimi@stanford.edu1576 25 MARCH 2011 VOL 331 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org
  • REPORTSFig. 1. X-ray surfacebrightness image of theNW (top) and E (bottom)arm mosaics observedwith Suzaku, correctedfor vignetting and instru-mental background. Thedashed white line marksthe virial radius; the redcircles mark excludedpoint sources and instru-mental artefacts. The im-ages have been rotatedso that the cluster cen-ter is toward the left. Downloaded from www.sciencemag.org on April 5, 2011of 260 ks, was obtained in August/September Fig. 2. Projected tempera-2009. The pointings extend along two arms from ture (kT) and metallicity (Z)near the cluster center toward the east (E) and profiles of the Perseus Clus-northwest (NW), out to a radius of 2°, which cor- ter. Results from Suzaku ob-responds to 2.8 Mpc for a Hubble constant H0 = servations of the NW arm are70 km/s/Mpc. Here we focus on the data obtained shown in red and of the Ewith the three available x-ray imaging spectrom- arm in blue. Earlier Chandraeter (XIS) cameras [see supporting online material measurements of the clus-(SOM) text and Fig. 1]. We extracted spectra from ter center (13) are shown inannuli centered on the cluster center. After ac- black.counting for background emission, we modeledeach spectral region as a single-temperature ther-mal plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium,with the temperature, metallicity, and spectrumnormalization as free parameters. The best-fit radial profiles of temperature andmetallicity are presented in Fig. 2. Individual ele-ments are assumed to be present with solar rela-tive abundances (12). For comparison, we alsoshow results previously obtained from an ultra-deep Chandra observation of the cluster center(13). The Suzaku and Chandra data sets showexcellent agreement where they intersect, andtogether they measure the temperature and met-allicity structure of the intracluster gas with high near the compressed outskirts of two interacting with radius K º rb, with b ~ 1.1 to 1.2 (17, 18).precision and spatial resolution out to the virial clusters (15). This previous result is in agree- Except for the E cold front region, the entropyradius (defined here as r200, the radius within ment with our measurements when converted to profile in Perseus roughly follows this expectedwhich the mean enclosed mass density of the the solar abundance units (12) adopted here. trend until 2/3 r200. Beyond this radius and untilcluster is 200 times the critical density of the uni- From the Suzaku data, we have also deter- 0.95 r200, both the E and NW arms show a flat-verse at the cluster redshift). In the narrow interval mined the electron density, entropy, and pres- tening from the power law shape, confirmingspanning 0.95 to 1.05 r200, the temperature is sure profiles, corrected for projection effects under hints from previous Suzaku results (7).approximately a third of the peak temperature. the assumption of spherical symmetry (Fig. 3). The pressure profile is the most regular of theAlong the E arm, between 0.1 and 0.7 Mpc, the Outside the cold front at 0.7 Mpc, there is a good thermodynamic quantities plotted, and at mosttemperature is systematically lower than toward match between the E and NW profiles, with the radii shows good agreement between the E andthe NW, and the x-ray emission is brighter. This electron density decreasing steadily with radius, NW. At large radii, the pressure profile appearsthermodynamic feature is known as a “cold front” approximately following a power law model ne º significantly shallower than would be expectedand typically arises after a merger between the r−a with slope a = 1.68 T 0.04. This is consistent by extrapolating the average profile of a samplemain cluster and a smaller subcluster (14). with previous results from ROSAT (Roentgen sat- of clusters studied previously with the XMM- Our results show that the cluster outskirts are ellite) data extending out to ~1.4 Mpc (16). Newton satellite within ~ 0.5 r200 (19).substantially metal-enriched, to a level amount- Standard large-scale structure formation mod- Invoking hydrostatic equilibrium of the ICM,ing to approximately one-third of the solar met- els show that matter is shock-heated as it falls the gas pressure can be used to estimate theallicity. Previously, the only measurement of into clusters under the pull of gravity. Simple underlying gravitational potential and total (darkthe metallicity close to the virial radius was ob- theoretical models of this process predict that matter plus luminous matter) mass profile of thetained from a large region spanning 0.5 to 1 r200 the entropy K should behave as a power law cluster. Numerical simulations show that the lat- www.sciencemag.org SCIENCE VOL 331 25 MARCH 2011 1577
  • REPORTS ter typically follows a functional form described The best-fit mass model parameters are typical 1.79 T 0.04 Mpc, the corresponding enclosed by Navarro, Frenk, White (20), also known as of those predicted from numerical simulations; total mass M200 = 6.65+0.43−0.46 × 1014 solar the NFW profile. We used the data from the NW the NFW model provides a good description of masses, and the cumulative gas mass and gas arm of the Perseus Cluster, which appears dy- the Suzaku data. mass-to-total mass fraction, fgas, as a function namically relaxed, to determine the best-fit total Measuring the total mass profile allowed us of radius (Fig. 4). At relatively small radii of 0.2 mass profile, assuming an NFW form (SOM text). to calculate the virial radius of the cluster, r200 = to 0.3 r200, the measured fgas value is in good agreement with direct measurements from the Fig. 3. Deprojected electron den- Chandra X-ray Observatory (5) and measure- sity (ne), entropy (K), and pressure ments of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect (21) (P) profiles toward the NW (red data for two large samples of galaxy clusters. At about points) and E (blue data points). half of r200, the integrated gas mass fraction The red line shows the NW profiles reaches the cosmic mean value computed from corrected for clumping. The expected the CMB (22), considering that on average 12% entropy profile from simulations of of the baryons are in stars (23, 24) and the rest gravitational collapse (17, 18) is a are in the hot x-ray–emitting gas phase. Outside power law with index b ~ 1.1, over- 2/3 of the virial radius, where the entropy also plotted as a black dotted line in the deviates from the expected power law behav- entropy panel. The average profile ior, we find that the apparent fgas exceeds the of a sample of clusters previously cosmic mean baryon fraction measured from studied with the XMM-Newton sat- Downloaded from www.sciencemag.org on April 5, 2011 the CMB (22). ellite within ~0.5 r200 (19) is shown The most plausible explanation for this ap- with a solid black curve in the pres- parent excess of baryons at large radius is gas sure panel; its extrapolation to r200 clumping. In the x-rays, the directly measurable is shown with a dotted black line. quantity from the intensity of the bremsstrah- lung emission is the average of the square of the electron density, < ne2 >, rather than < ne > . If the density is not uniform (that is, the gas is clumpy), which is expected to occur as matter falls into the cluster, the average electron density estimated from the bremsstrahlung intensity will overestimate the true average, affecting the gas density, gas mass fraction, entropy, and pressure profiles. Outside the central region, and inside the ra- dius where clumping becomes important, the measured fgas profile shows good agreement with recent numerical simulations (25), where a semianalytic model was used to calculate the Fig. 4. The integrated, en- energy transferred to the intracluster gas by su- closed gas mass fraction pernovae and active galactic nuclei during the profile for the NW arm. galaxy formation process. This model did not The cosmic baryon frac- include a realistic implementation of gas cool- tion from WMAP7 (22) is ing and does not capture the complex processes indicated by the horizon- in the central cool core of the cluster; the model tal dashed black line; ac- is therefore not plotted in this region. Extrapolat- counting for 12% of the ing this model into the outskirts where clump- baryons being in stars ing is important, we used its predictions together (23, 24) gives the expected with the measured fgas to determine by how fraction of baryons in the much the electron density must be overestimated hot gas phase, shown as a to produce the difference between the data and solid black line. The val- the model. This factor (plotted in green in the ues previously measured bottom panel of Fig. 4) reaches a value of up to for a sample of relaxed clus- 4 in the last annulus centered around the virial ters at smaller radii with radius. The dense clumps are likely to be infall- Chandra (5) are shown ing and may be confined by ram pressure. with blue dots. Predictions from numerical simulations Correcting the electron density using this fac- (25) are shown in green. tor, and accordingly the entropy and pressure The bottom panel shows profiles, we obtained the red lines shown in Fig. by how much the electron 3. The clumping-corrected entropy profile along density should be over- the NW arm is consistent with the expected power- estimated in each annu- law profile. Moreover, the clumping-corrected lus because of clumping, pressure is also consistent with that expected by in order for the cumulative extrapolating the average profile of a sample of fgas not to exceed the cor- clusters previously studied with XMM-Newton respondingly colored curves in the plot above. (19). The corrected electron density decreases1578 25 MARCH 2011 VOL 331 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org
  • REPORTSmore steeply with increasing radius, with the best- References and Notes 25. O. E. Young, P. A. Thomas, C. J. Short, F. Pearce, http://fit power law index becoming a = 2.5. Correct- 1. S. D. M. White, J. F. Navarro, A. E. Evrard, C. S. Frenk, arxiv.org/abs/1007.0887 (2010). Nature 366, 429 (1993). 26. S. Ettori, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 344, L13 (2003).ing for clumping therefore seems to offer a 2. A. Vikhlinin et al., Astrophys. J. 692, 1060 (2009). 27. I. G. McCarthy, R. G. Bower, M. L. Balogh, Mon. Not. R.simple solution to all the potential puzzles posed, 3. A. Mantz, S. W. Allen, D. Rapetti, H. Ebeling, Mon. Not. Astron. Soc. 377, 1457 (2007).at first glance, by the observed thermodynamic R. Astron. Soc. 406, 1759 (2010). 28. N. Afshordi, Y.-T. Lin, D. Nagai, A. J. R. Sanderson,profiles of the Perseus Cluster at large radii. No 4. S. W. Allen, R. W. Schmidt, H. Ebeling, A. C. Fabian, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 378, 293 (2007). L. van Speybroeck, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 353, 457 29. A. Vikhlinin et al., Astrophys. J. 640, 691 (2006).additional physics is required by the data. 30. S. Andreon, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 407, 263 (2004). Our study shows no evidence for the puzzling 5. S. W. Allen et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 383, 879 (2010).deficit of baryons at r ≥ 0.5 r200 inferred from (2008). 31. M. Roncarelli et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 1339some previous studies of other systems, using 6. T. H. Reiprich et al., Astron. Astrophys. 501, 899 (2009). (2006). 7. M. R. George, A. C. Fabian, J. S. Sanders, A. J. Young, 32. We thank P. Thomas and O. Young for kindly providinglower-quality data and/or extrapolated models the simulation results shown in Fig. 4. Support for H. R. Russell, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 395, 657(26–30). This suggests that within r < 0.5 r200 the (2009). this work was provided by NASA through Einsteinphysics of the x-ray–emitting gas is relatively 8. M. W. Bautz et al., Pub. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 61, 1117 Postdoctoral Fellowship grants number PF9-00070 andsimple, and x-ray measurements can be used ro- (2009). PF8-90056 awarded by the Chandra X-ray Center, 9. A. Hoshino et al., Pub. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 62, 371 (2010). which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysicalbustly for cosmological work. At larger radii, 10. M. Kawaharada et al., Astrophys. J. 714, 423 (2010). Observatory for NASA under contract NAS8-03060.however, the cluster gas is significantly clumped. 11. K. Sato et al., Pub. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 62, 1423 (2010). We acknowledge NASA grants NNX09AV64G and Numerical simulations predict gas clumping 12. U. Feldman, Phys. Scr. 46, 202 (1992). NNX10AR48G, issued through the Suzaku Guestin the cluster outskirts (31). However, the amount 13. J. S. Sanders, A. C. Fabian, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. Observer program, and grant NNX08AZ88G. Theof clumping depends on a large number of phys- 381, 1381 (2007). authors thank the Suzaku operation team and Guest Observer Facility, supported by JAXA and Downloaded from www.sciencemag.org on April 5, 2011 14. M. Markevitch, A. Vikhlinin, Phys. Rep. 443, 1 (2007).ical processes in the ICM which are currently 15. Y. Fujita et al., Pub. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 60, 343 (2008). NASA. This work was supported in part by the U.S.uncertain; for example, viscosity, conduction, star 16. S. Ettori, A. C. Fabian, D. A. White, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Department of Energy under contract numberformation feedback, and magnetic fields. Al- Soc. 300, 837 (1998). DE-AC02-76SF00515. We also acknowledge thethough our results were obtained for just one 17. P. Tozzi, C. Norman, Astrophys. J. 546, 63 (2001). Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research of the Ministry of 18. G. M. Voit, S. T. Kay, G. L. Bryan, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technologygalaxy cluster, it is expected that the observed of Japan (KAKENHI no. 22111513) and Chandra Soc. 364, 909 (2005).physical processes are common. Our results there- 19. M. Arnaud et al., Astron. Astrophys. 517, A92 (2010). award GO0-11138B.fore provide an anchor for numerical models 20. J. F. Navarro, C. S. Frenk, S. D. M. White, ApJ 490, 493of ICM physics and for simulations of the for- (1997). Supporting Online Materialmation and ongoing growth of galaxy clusters. 21. S. J. LaRoque et al., Astrophys. J. 652, 917 (2006). www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/331/6024/1576/DC1 22. E. Komatsu et al., Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 192, 18 SOM TextAn independent measurement of gas clumping References (2011).can be obtained from the combination of x-ray 23. Y.-T. Lin, J. J. Mohr, Astrophys. J. 617, 879 (2004).and SZ observations, which have different depen- 24. A. H. Gonzalez, D. Zaritsky, A. I. Zabludoff, Astrophys. J. 11 November 2010; accepted 8 February 2011dences on the electron density. 666, 147 (2007). 10.1126/science.1200331 should exhibit a rough particle-hole symmetry,From a Single-Band Metal to a or another form of (incipient) order (6–12), which typically should induce particle-hole asymmetricHigh-Temperature Superconductor spectral changes. Candidate orders include vari- ous forms of density wave, nematic, or uncon-via Two Thermal Phase Transitions ventional magnetic orders that break different combinations of lattice translational (6–8, 13–19), rotational (6, 9, 15, 17, 20–22), and time-reversalRui-Hua He,1,2,3* M. Hashimoto,1,2,3* H. Karapetyan,1,2 J. D. Koralek,3,4 J. P. Hinton,3,4 (7, 9, 23–26) symmetries.J. P. Testaud,1,2,3 V. Nathan,1,2 Y. Yoshida,5 Hong Yao,1,3,4 K. Tanaka,1,2,3,6 W. Meevasana,1,2,7 We have focused on crystals of nearly op-R. G. Moore,1,2 D. H. Lu,1,2 S.-K. Mo,3 M. Ishikado,8 H. Eisaki,5 Z. Hussain,3 T. P. Devereaux,1,2† timally doped (OP) Pb0.55Bi1.5Sr1.6La0.4CuO6+dS. A. Kivelson,1† J. Orenstein,3,4† A. Kapitulnik,1,2† Z.-X. Shen1,2† (Pb-Bi2201, Tc = 38 K, T* = 132 T8 K) (27), andThe nature of the pseudogap phase of cuprate high-temperature superconductors is a major combined the ARPES measurement of the evo-unsolved problem in condensed matter physics. We studied the commencement of the pseudogap lution of the band structure over a wide range ofstate at temperature T* using three different techniques (angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,polar Kerr effect, and time-resolved reflectivity) on the same optimally doped Bi2201 crystals.We observed the coincident, abrupt onset at T* of a particle-hole asymmetric antinodal gap in 1 Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Departments ofthe electronic spectrum, a Kerr rotation in the reflected light polarization, and a change in the Physics and Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. 2Stanford Institute for Materials and Energyultrafast relaxational dynamics, consistent with a phase transition. Upon further cooling, spectroscopic Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CAsignatures of superconductivity begin to grow close to the superconducting transition temperature 94025, USA. 3Advanced Light Source and Materials Sciences(Tc), entangled in an energy-momentum–dependent manner with the preexisting pseudogap Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CAfeatures, ushering in a ground state with coexisting orders. 94720, USA. 4Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. 5Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and s complex oxides, cuprate superconduc- cuprates and its relationship with superconduc-A tors belong to a class of materials that exhibit many broken-symmetry states;unraveling the relationship between superconduc- tivity. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies have shown that the pseudogap develops below a temperature T* near the Brillouin Technology, Ibaraki 305-8568, Japan. 6Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan. 7School of Physics, Suranaree University of Technology and Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 Thailand. 8 Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195, Japan.tivity in the cuprates and other possible broken- zone boundary while preserving a gapless Fermi *These authors contributed equally to this work.symmetry states has been a major challenge of arc near the zone diagonal (1). A key issue is the †To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail:condensed matter physics. A possibly related is- extent to which the pseudogap is a consequence zxshen@stanford.edu; aharonk@stanford.edu; jworenstein@lbl.sue concerns the nature of the pseudogap in the of superconducting fluctuations (2–5), which gov; kivelson@stanford.edu; tpd@stanford.edu www.sciencemag.org SCIENCE VOL 331 25 MARCH 2011 1579