Aas 221 abstracts

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  • 1. stAAS Winter Meeting Abstracts 90 – HAD I Special: Making Astronomy Public, Los Astrophysics with CCAT in the Next Decade 243 – Galaxy Clusters Angeles Style 151 – HAD IV History of Astronomy 244 – HEAD III: First Results from the NuSTAR 91 – HAD II Special: Preservation of Astronomical 152 – Large Scale Structure, Cosmic Distance Scale Mission Heritage and Archival Data and GRBs 245 – Intergalactic Medium, QSO Absorption Line 100 – Welcoming Address 153 – NASAs Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) Systems 101 – Kavli Lecture: The Spitzer Space Telescope: Studies on Gravitational Wave and X-ray Mission 246 – K-12 Students Learning and Doing Astronomy Science Return and Impact Concepts 247 – Large Synoptic Survey Telescope 103 – AGN: Jets and Feedback 154 – Pulsars, Neutron Stars 248 – New Results from Astronomy Education 104 – Circumstellar Disks I 155 – Relativistic Astrophysics, Gravitational Lenses Research 105 – Cosmic Microwave Background I & Waves 249 – Planetary Nebulae, Supernova Remnants 106 – Cosmology I 156 – Specialized Observatories and Light Pollution 250 – Star Associations, Star Clusters - Galactic and 107 – Dwarf and Irregular Galaxies I: Origins and 157 – Starburst Galaxies Extra-galactic Dynamics 158 – Stars, Cool Dwarfs, Brown Dwarfs 251 – Star Formation 108 – Early Science Results from the Hydrogen 159 – The Sun 252 – Stellar Evolution, Stellar Populations Epoch of Reionization Arrays (HERA) 160 – A Moderated Discussion about Interesting 253 – Supernovae 109 – Extrasolar Planet Detection from Spectroscopy Careers in Aerospace and Mission Operations 254 – The Milky Way, The Galactic Center and Microlensing 200 – Finding the Next Earth 255 – Undergraduate and Graduate Teaching, 110 – From Star Formation to Cosmology: 201 – Astronomy Outreach for Non-traditional Learning and Research Astrophysics with CCAT in the Next Decade Audiences 256 – Young Stellar Objects, Very Young Stars, 111 – Galaxy Clusters I 202 – Binary Star Systems: Observations, Models, T-Tauri Stars, H-H Objects 112 – Galaxy Evolution at z~2 Origins 300 – Heineman Prize: Extreme Transients in the High 113 – HAD III/HEAD I Special: Fifty Years 203 – Black Holes II Energy Universe of Celestial X-ray Astronomy 204 – Circumnuclear Environments of AGN 301 – Astrophysics with Keplers High Precision 114 – Relativistic Astrophysics, Gravitational Lenses 205 – Circumstellar Disks II Photometry I & Waves 206 – Galaxies I 302 – Effective Education and Public Outreach 115 – Research Based Initiatives for Broadening the 207 – Galaxy Evolution at z = 4-12 303 – Galaxies III Participation of Women and Minorities in Astronomy 208 – HAD VI History of Astronomy 304 – Galaxy Evolution in Protogalaxy Clusters 116 – Science Highlights from NASAs Astrophysics 209 – HEAD III: First Results from the NuSTAR 305 – Instrumentation: Ground, Airborne and Space I Data Analysis Program I: Galactic Astrophysics Mission 306 – Molecular Clouds, HII Regions, Interstellar 117 – Young Stellar Objects, Very Young Stars, 210 – High Resolution Ultraviolet Imaging with the Medium T-Tauri Stars, H-H Objects Hubble Space Telescope I [low redshift] 307 – Multi-wavelength Observations of Quasars 118 – Galaxy Clusters in the Golden Age of 211 – Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and 308 – Planetary Systems Orbiting White Dwarfs High-Energy Astrophysics Mentoring 309 – QSO/AGN Engines and the Circumnuclear 122 – Andromeda and Local Group Dwarf Galaxies 212 – Intergalactic Medium, QSO Absorption Line Region 123 – Black Holes I Systems 310 – Reports from NASAs Program Analysis 124 – Cosmic Microwave Background II 213 – Stellar Evolution and Ages Groups 125 – Dark Matter Properties, Observations and 214 – Supernovae II 311 – Results from The Panchromatic Hubble Constraints 215 – Surveys and Large Programs Andromeda Treasury 126 – Exoplanet Interiors and Atmospheres 216 – Zeroing in on eta-Earth with NASAs Kepler 312 – Star Formation - Dark Clouds and Clumps 127 – Family Leave Policies and Childcare for Mission 313 – Structure and Evolution of Local Galaxies Graduate Students and Postdocs 217 – Cannon Award: Exploring the Diversity of 314 – The Solar System 128 – Galaxy Clusters II Exoplanetary Atmospheres 315 – Transit Detection of Extrasolar Planets 129 – Galaxy Evolution at z > 2 220 – Circumstellar Disks III 316 – Variable Stars 130 – HAD V History of Astronomy, with Osterbrock 221 – Cosmic Dawns: ALMA Early Science 317 – Warner Prize: A New View on Planetary Book Prize Commences Orbital Dynamics 131 – HEAD II: New Revelations from the Transient 222 – Dark Energy, Tests of Gravity and Fundamental 321 – Astrophysics with Keplers High Precision Sky Constants Photometry II 132 – Large Scale Structure, Cosmic Distance Scale 223 – Dust 322 – Circumgalactic Matter of Galaxies at z=2-3 and GRBs I 224 – Exoplanet Atmospheres 323 – Cosmology II 133 – Quasars and Their Hosts, Near and Far 225 – Galaxies II 324 – Direct Detection of Exoplanets, Faint 134 – Science Highlights from NASAs Astrophysics 226 – Galaxy Clusters III Companions, and Protoplanetary Disks Data Analysis Program II: Extragalactic Astrophysics 227 – Galaxy Evolution at z ~ 1 325 – Dusty Debris in the Terrestrial Planet Zone I 135 – Scientific Opportunities with the James Webb 228 – High Resolution Ultraviolet Imaging with the 326 – Evolution of Structure in Local Galaxies (z~0) Space Telescope Hubble Space Telescope II [high redshift] 327 – Galaxies IV 136 – Supernovae I 229 – Instrumentation, Data Handling, and Image 328 – Instrumentation: Ground, Airborne and Space II 137 – Young Stellar Objects, Very Young Stars, Analysis 329 – Joining the Electromagnetic and Gravitational T-Tauri Stars, H-H Objects - Disks 230 – New Insights into the Distribution of Stellar Wave Skies 138 – Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Thinking and Structure and Mass in Galaxies: Results from S^4G 330 – SNRs and PNe: Theory and Observation Computing 231 – Planets and Planetary Systems Identified by 331 – Star Associations, Star Clusters - Galactic and 139 – From Gas to Stars Over Cosmic Time Kepler Theory 141 – Astronomy Outreach to the Public 232 – Stars and the Galactic Halo 332 – Star Formation - Cores, Clouds and the IMF 142 – Binary Stellar Systems, X-ray Binaries 233 – Supernovae III 333 – Super-Earths, M Dwarfs, and Habitability 143 – Black Holes 234 – The Galaxy: Age, Structure and Evolution 334 – Surveys and Catalogs of Extrasolar Planet 144 – Circumstellar Disks 235 – Turbulence: Theory and Observation Hosts 145 – Dust 236 – Newton Lacy Pierce Prize: Hot on the Trail of 335 – The Dark Energy Survey 146 – Elliptical and Spiral Galaxies Warm Planets Orbiting Cool M Dwarfs 336 – The Elemental Compositions of Extrasolar 147 – Evolution of Galaxies 237 – HEAD Rossi Prize: The Flaring Crab Nebula: Planetesimals from Spectroscopy of Polluted White 148 – Evolved Stars, Cataclysmic Variables, Novae, Surprises and Challenges Dwarfs Wolf-Rayet Phenomena 240 – Computation, Data Handling, Image Analysis 337 – Computational Cosmology 149 – Extrasolar Planets: Detection 241 – Dark Matter and Dark Energy 339 – AGN, QSO, Blazars 150 – From Star Formation to Cosmology: 242 – Dwarf and Irregular Galaxies 340 – Catalogs
  • 2. 341 – Cosmology 404 – Dwarf and Irregular Galaxies II: ISM/IGM and 425 – Star Associations, Star Clusters - Extra-galactic342 – Education and Professional Development the Magellanic Clouds 426 – Star Formation - Clusters and Cores343 – Extrasolar Planets: Characterization, Theory and 405 – Evolution of Galaxy Mergers, Black Hole 427 – The Role of Calibration in Modern Optical andDetection Formation, and Satellite Galaxies Infrared Astronomy344 – Hubble Space Telescope Instruments and 407 – Kepler Exoplanets 428 – Gas Flows and Galaxy EvolutionCalibration 408 – Laboratory Astrophysics and Pulsar Potpourri 429 – Lancelot M. Berkeley Prize: Results from the345 – Instrumentation: Ground and Airborne 409 – Large Scale Structure, Cosmic Distance Scale Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)346 – Joining the Electromagnetic and Gravitational and GRBs II 430 – AGN and FriendsWave Skies 410 – Massive Star Formation and Supernovae IV 431 – Computation and Other Topics347 – JWST Mission and Instrumentation 411 – Nearby Star Forming Galaxies 432 – Cosmology and Other Topics348 – Laboratory Astrophysics 412 – Pulsars, Neutron Stars 433 – Education and Public Outreach349 – Molecular Clouds, HII Regions, Interstellar 413 – Radio Surveys of Galactic Clouds 434 – Evolution of GalaxiesMedium 414 – Starburst Galaxies 435 – Extrasolar Planets350 – Space-Based Missions, Instruments and 415 – The Sun 436 – GalaxiesTechnology 416 – The Hubble Constant in the Era of Precision 437 – Galaxy Clusters351 – Stellar Atmospheres, Winds Cosmology 438 – GRBs352 – Surveys and Large Programs 418 – CO, Dust, Outflows, etc. in Galaxies 439 – Instrumentation, Missions and Surveys353 – The Solar System and Astrobiology 419 – Direct Imaging Methods for Extrasolar Planet 440 – Interstellar Medium354 – Variable Stars & White Dwarfs Detection 441 – Star Clusters400 – New Insights of Comets from the EPOXI 420 – Evolution in Compact Galaxy Clusters 442 – Star FormationMission 421 – High Energy Binaries 443 – Stellar Topics401 – Cataclysmic Variables and Compact Binaries 422 – Multi-wavelength Spectroscopy of AGN 444 – Supernovae402 – Cosmology, the Lyman-alpha Forest, 423 – Nearby Stars and Wide Binaries 445 – The Sun and Solar Systemand Intergalactic Medium from BOSS 424 – Planetary Systems Orbiting White Dwarfs and403 – Dusty Debris in the Terrestrial Planet Zone II Neutron Stars
  • 3. 90 – HAD I Special: Making Astronomy Public, Los Angeles StyleSpecial Session – Room 103B (Long Beach Convention Center) – 06 Jan 2013 01:30 PM to 03:30 PM This 120 minute special session will explore aspects of popular astronomy in the Los Angeles area over the past 150 years that stimulated public awareness and interest in astronomy. Topics include: (1) organized amateur astronomy in Los Angeles, (2) the growth of the amateur telescope industry in Los Angeles, (3) L.A. style astronomical evangelists, (4) the forces that created and shaped the Griffith Observatory and the Mt. Lowe Observatory, (5) the influence of astronomers ranging from George Ellery Hale to Frederick C. Leonard to Tommy Cragg in all these aspects of public astronomy in the Los Angeles area, (6) if there is a distinguishable L.A. style to public astronomy in Los Angeles. domestic and international research institutions. Among the most remarkable were large90.01 – Creating Griffith Observatory solar spars for Lockheed Solar Observatory in California and Ottawa River SolarA. Cook, Griffith Observatory, Pasadena, CA Observatory in Canada. His instrumentation also equipped educational facilities including01:30 PM-03:30 PM observatories at UCLA, Westmont College, Pasadena City College, Bevard Community College, and many others. A Carroll telescope boasting a particularly distinguishedGriffith Observatory has been the iconic symbol of the sky for southern California since educational history was a small astrograph built in 1953 for Professor George Moyen ofit began its public mission on May 15, 1935. While the Observatory is widely known as Hollywood and subsequently used for the long-running Summer Science Program inbeing the gift of Col. Griffith J. Griffith (1850-1919), the story of how Griffith’s gift Ojai, California. Later solar instruments built by Carson Instruments were closelybecame reality involves many of the people better known for other contributions that derivative of Carroll designs.made Los Angeles area an important center of astrophysics in the 20th century. Griffithbegan drawing up his plans for an observatory and science museum for the people of 90.04 – Los Angeles and Its Influence on Professional and Popular Astronomy - ALos Angeles after looking at Saturn through the newly completed 60-inch reflector on Hollywood Love Story, by Lewis Chilton, Past President, Optical Shop Director andMt. Wilson. He realized the social impact that viewing the heavens could have if made Historian, Los Angeles Astronomical Societyfreely available, and discussing the idea of a public observatory with Mt. WilsonObservatory’s founder, George Ellery Hale, and Director, Walter Adams. This resulted, L. Chilton, Los Angeles Astronomical Society, Los Angeles, CAin 1916, in a will specifying many of the features of Griffith Observatory, and 01:30 PM-03:30 PMestablishing a committee managed trust fund to build it. Astronomy popularizer Mars The purpose of this presentation is to show through visualizations how the Los Angeles,Baumgardt convinced the committee at the Zeiss Planetarium projector would be California milieu of the early 20th century benefited the advancement of astronomy andappropriate for Griffith’s project after the planetarium was introduced in Germany in captured the public consciousness through popular press accounts of these1923. In 1930, the trust committee judged funds to be sufficient to start work on creating advancements and of the scientists who made them. The thesis of this presentationGriffith Observatory, and letters from the Committee requesting help in realizing the purports that a symbiosis developed between astronomers of Los Angeles-areaproject were sent to Hale, Adams, Robert Millikan, and other area experts then engaged scientific and educational institutions and a local community of interested laypersons, andin creating the 200-inch telescope eventually destined for Palomar Mountain. A was the catalyst that sparked future generations to enter the fields of astronomy, theScientific Advisory Committee, headed by Millikan, recommended that Caltech Physicist allied sciences, education and technology. This presentation attempts to highlight theEdward Kurth be put in charge of building and exhibit design. Kurth, in turn, sought help importance of continued public outreach by the professional astronomical community, forfrom artist Russell Porter. The architecture firm of John C. Austin and Fredrick Ashley the ultimate benefit to itself, in Los Angeles and beyond.was selected to design the project, and they adopted the designs of Porter and Kurth.Philip Fox of the Adler Planetarium was enlisted to manage the completion of the 90.05 – Public PerformanceObservatory and become its temporary Director. E.C. Krupp, Griffith Obs., Los Angeles, CA90.02 – The Early Years of Amateur Astronomy in Los Angeles—Conflicts and 01:30 PM-03:30 PMContradictions America’s first planetaria all opened in the 1930s, and each was the distinctive productT.R. Williams, AAVSO, Cambridge, MA of local circumstances. In Los Angeles, the populist sensibilities of Griffith J. Griffith01:30 PM-03:30 PM prompted him to value the transformative power of a personal encounter with a telescope, and he quickly embraced the idea of a public observatory with free access toAstronomy had an active audience in Los Angeles from the latter years of the all. Griffith Observatory and its planetarium emerged from that intent. Authenticity,nineteenth century on. However, it is surprising that organized avocational astronomy did intelligibility, and theatricality were fundamental principles in Griffith’s thinking, and theynot really flower until the promotion of amateur telescope making as a hobby beginning were transformed into solid and enduring scientific and astronomical values by thosein the mid-1920s. Even though astronomy burgeoned as a local industry with the Mount who actually guided the Observatory’s design, construction, and programming. That said,Wilson Astronomical Observatory visible from much of the LA Basin on most days, the public profile of Griffith Observatory was most defined by its inspired hilltop location,astronomers from the observatory providing informative talks to local groups, and the its distinctive, commanding architecture, and its felicitous proximity to Hollywood. TheGriffith Observatory actively promoting interest in astronomy as well as science more Observatory is theatric in placement and in appearance, and before the Observatorygenerally, interest in telescope making and recreational observing continued to dominate even opened, it was used as a motion picture set. That continuing vocation turnedthe activities of Los Angeles amateurs for the first twenty-five years of the local Griffith Observatory into a Hollywood star. Because entertainment industry objectivessociety’s existence. Even the later active membership of outstanding scientific and resources were part of the Los Angeles landscape, they influenced Observatorycontributors like Tom Cave and Tom Cragg, and the participation of astronomy students programming throughout the Observatory’s history. Public astronomy in Los Angelesfrom UCLA and Cal Tech like George Herbig, yielded little change in direction over this has largely been framed by the Observatory’s fundamental nature. It has exhibits, but itperiod. is not a museum. It has a planetarium, but it is essentially an observatory. As a public observatory, it is filled with instruments that transform visitors into observers. This role90.03 – The Space-Age Legacy of Telescope Designer George A. Carroll emphasized the importance of personal experience and established the perception ofJ.W. Briggs, HUT Observatory, Eagle, CO Griffith Observatory as a place for public gathering and shared contact with the cosmos.01:30 PM-03:30 PM The Observatory’s close and continuous link with amateur astronomers made amateurs influential partners in the public enterprise. In full accord with Griffith J. Griffith’sRemembered particularly as a founding member of Stony Ridge Observatory near original intent, Griffith Observatory has all been about putting people eyeball to theMount Wilson, George A. Carroll (1902-1987) was legendary in the Southern California universe with authenticity, showmanship, and style.telescope making community. In Texas at the age of sixteen, Carroll built and flew hisown aircraft, becoming one of the youngest aviators in the country. He eventually 90.06 – Commentary on Making Astronomy Public, LA Stylebecame an employee of Lockheeds Skunk Works in Burbank. His earliest knowncommercial telescopes were high-end amateur instruments built by R. R. Cook. As D.H. De Vorkin, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DCdescribed in a brochure describing his later telescope work, he had experience in so 01:30 PM-03:30 PMmany branches of technology that it is unbelievable. By the time Carrolls designs were Commentary based upon the papers in this session will focus on historical issuesbuilt by Thomas Tool & Die in Sun Valley, his telescopes were well known in the solar relevant to promoting science literacy.community and in use at National Solar Observatory, Caltech, and at many other91 – HAD II Special: Preservation of Astronomical Heritage and Archival DataSpecial Session – Room 103B (Long Beach Convention Center) – 06 Jan 2013 04:00 PM to 06:00 PM This session will deal with preserving astronomy’s rich cultural heritage, including its largely untapped archival collections of
  • 4. scientific data, sites of historical importance and the many historical papers and instruments that have yet to be scholarly discussed. In January 2007, in response to concerns that parts of the heritage was in serious danger of being lost, the AAS created the Working Group on the Preservation of Astronomical Heritage (WGPAH) charged with “developing and disseminating procedures, criteria and priorities for identifying, designating, and preserving astronomical structures, instruments, and records so that they will continue to be available for astronomical and historical research, for the teaching of astronomy, and for outreach to the general public.” In 2008 the IAU and UNESCO’s World Heritage Committee approved the Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative (AWHI) which aims to “identify, safeguard and promote cultural properties connected with astronomy.” Now five years on with WGPAH and AWHI it is an appropriate time to see what has been accomplished.91.01 – UNESCOs Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative: Progress to Date and 91.03 – Issues and Challenges in the Protection of Different Categories of AstronomicalFuture Priorities Heritage: A Report from Beijing 2012C. Ruggles, University of Leicester, Leicester, Leics, UNITED S. Schechner, Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MAKINGDOM 04:00 PM-06:00 PM04:00 PM-06:00 PM On the occasion of the IAU’s General Assembly in Beijing in 2012, the Working Groups for Astronomy and World Heritage (WG-AWH) and Historical Instruments (WG-HI) ofUNESCO’s thematic initiative on Astronomy and World Heritage was created in 2005 Commission 41 (History of Astronomy)—led by Clive Ruggles and Sara“to establish a link between science and culture on the basis of research aimed at Schechner—held a joint science meeting concerning shared issues in the “Conservationacknowledging the cultural and scientific values of properties connected with and Protection of Different Categories of Astronomical Heritage.” Since 2008, theastronomy”. Since 2008, when a formal Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was WG-AWH had been working with UNESCO and its advisory bodies to identify andsigned between the IAU and UNESCO to work together to advance the Initiative, the safeguard significant astronomical sites and assist in their eventual nomination forIAU, through its Working Group on Astronomy and World Heritage, has been working inclusion on the World Heritage List. That initiative was restricted to fixed sites andto help identify, safeguard and promote the world’s most valuable cultural properties monuments. Moveable, tangible objects, such as scientific instruments, could not beconnected with astronomy. The Working Group’s first major deliverable was the included even though their significance was often interconnected with that of immovableThematic Study on the Heritage Sites of Astronomy and Archaeoastronomy, which was sites. To address this concern, the 2012 joint science meeting convened internationalprepared in collaboration with ICOMOS, the Advisory Body to UNESCO that assesses experts in the history, scientific, and cultural value of astronomical buildings, instruments,World Heritage List applications relating to cultural heritage. Published in 2010, this has photographic plates, archives, and meteorites in order to discuss ways to develop andbeen endorsed by the World Heritage Centre as a basis for developing specific coordinate integrated approaches to the documentation and protection of these valuableguidelines for UNESCO member states on the inscription of astronomical properties. things. A wide range of materials was discussed. It was evident that the historical,The IAU’s General Assembly in Beijing saw the launch of perhaps the most significant scientific, and cultural value assigned to any particular item might differ from onedeliverable from the Initiative to date, the Portal to the Heritage of Astronomy community to the next, and that the question of whom or what ultimately will determine(www.astronomicalheritage.net) which is a dynamic, publicly accessible database, how any heritage item is treated is complex, political, and negotiated. An important pointdiscussion forum, and document-repository on astronomical heritage sites throughout the of agreement was the idea of developing a “science heritage” (rather than “architecturalworld, whether or not they are on UNESCO’s World Heritage List. In recent months heritage”) approach in which the value is enhanced (rather than diminished) by changesthe Working Group has completed a set of nine “Extended Case Studies, which raise a to a facility that could lead to further scientific discoveries. It was hoped that such anwide range of general issues, varying from the integrity of astronomical sightlines at approach would make observatory directors and others more comfortable with outsideancient sites to the preservation of dark skies at modern observatories. Given the recognition of the heritage value of their working institutions.progress that has been made to date, how would we wish to see the Initiative develop inthe future and what should be the Working Group’s priorities in the coming months andyears? Among the suggestions I shall be discussing is that the WG should find ways to 91.04 – AAS Working Group on the Preservation of Astronomical Heritage: Thework more directly with national State Parties to encourage and help them prepare Preservation of Astronomical Plates and Other Effortsviable nominations for astronomical heritage sites on the World Heritage List. W. Osborn, AAS WGPAH, Washington, DC; W. Osborn, Yerkes Observatory, Willams Bay, WI91.02 – Preserving a Piece of the True Cross 04:00 PM-06:00 PMD.H. De Vorkin, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC The WGPAH was created in 2007 in response to concerns that parts of astronomy’s04:00 PM-06:00 PM rich heritage were in serious danger of being lost. Three classes of heritage were listedI will discuss shared concerns of Curators and Collections Management Specialists at as of concern: (1) historically significant astronomical sites, (2) historically significantthe National Air and Space Museum over the proper methods for identifying, instruments, and (3) archives of historical documents and observations. During its sixdocumenting and preserving astronomical instrumentation in the Museums purview as years the WG’s efforts have been directed mainly toward the third area, and inwell as in the realm of modern astronomical research. Questions of what and how will particular toward the preservation of astronomical plates. This talk first provides anbe raised and discussed, including the issue of preserving the historical character of overview of the WGPAH – charge, structure and membership. It then describes theinstrumentation deemed still useful to astronomy. As part of this discussion, we will also results from its two major initiatives – the census of North American astronomical platesconsider: why make the effort to preserve? What is the value of a personal physical carried out in 2008 and the Workshop on Developing a Plan for preserving Astronomy’sencounter with the real thing? Archival Records held in 2012. It concludes with the WG’s future challenges.100 – Welcoming AddressPlenary Session – Grand Ballroom (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 08:00 AM to 08:30 AM 08:00 AM-08:30 AM– Welcome Address by AAS President David Helfand101 – Kavli Lecture: The Spitzer Space Telescope: Science Return and ImpactPlenary Session – Grand Ballroom (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 08:30 AM to 09:20 AM
  • 5. the first direct detection of light from a planet orbiting another star and obtaining the first101.01 – The Spitzer Space Telescope: Science Return and Impact thermal infrared spectrum of an exoplanet, to identifying the most distant galaxiesB.T. Soifer, Spitzer Science Center, Pasadena, CA; B.T. Soifer, known. Spitzer observations have defined the timescale of planetary system formation,Caltech, Pasadena, CA as well as the timescale for buildup of stellar mass in galaxies. Its spectroscopic observations have discovered water raining down on forming planetary systems and08:30 AM-09:20 AM buckyballs in space as well as tracing aromatic molecules in dusty galaxies to look-backThe Spitzer Space Telescope is NASA’s Great Observatory for infrared astronomy. It times of ~ 12 Gyr. Its most important contributions were not anticipated before itswas launched on August 25, 2003 after a more than three decade gestation. As a launch, with the most striking example being its major impact on exoplanet studies, itselfcryogenic mission it operated from 3-160 microns and included imaging and an area that was unknown when the mission was being formulated and designed. In thisspectroscopy. Its cryogenic mission ended on May 15, 2009 when the last of its talk I will describe a few of the major scientific contributions of the Spitzer mission tosuperfluid Helium evaporated. Since then Spitzer has operated in its “warm” phase, astrophysics, and its impact on the field. I will also describe the prospects for futurewhere the 3.6 and 4.5 micron imaging channels continue to operate at full sensitivity. contributions in the Spitzer Warm mission, which will extend through at least the end ofSpitzer has made major discoveries in virtually all areas of astrophysics, ranging from 2014.103 – AGN: Jets and FeedbackOral Session – Room 101A (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 10:00 AM to 11:30 AM103.01D – Spectroscopy of the Largest Ever Gamma-Ray Selected AGN Sample 103.04 – Acceleration of Relativistic Jets in the MOJAVE ProgramM.S. Shaw, R.W. Romani, S.E. Healey, P.F. Michelson, Stanford D.C. Homan, Denison Univ., Granville, OHUniversity, Stanford, CA; A.C. Readhead, W. Max-Moerbeck, O.G. 10:40 AM-10:50 AMKing, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA; G. Cotter, We present results and analysis on the acceleration of extra-galactic radio jets on parsecW.J. Potter, University of Oxford, Oxford, UNITED KINGDOM; J. scales as measured by the MOJAVE program: Monitoring Of Jets in AGN with VLBA Experiments. We have added almost four years of kinematic data, expanding theRichards, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN number of jet features with high quality motions suitable for acceleration analysis to 327,10:00 AM-10:20 AM a 60% increase from our previous study. We confirm our previous result thatWe report on new optical spectroscopy of 459 Fermi blazars---164 Flat Spectrum Radio accelerations parallel to the velocity of jet features are larger on average thanQuasars (FSRQs) and 295 BL Lacertae Objects (BL Lacs) drawn from the First and perpendicular accelerations, indicating that changes in the Lorentz factors of theSecond Fermi LAT AGN Catalogs. Including archival measurements (correcting several features, rather than simple jet bending, are required to explain much of the observederroneous literature values) we have spectroscopic redshifts for 62% (46%) of the LAT accelerations. We perform a more detailed analysis of our earlier result linking theAGN (BL Lacs). We establish firm lower redshift limits via intervening absorption acceleration of jet features with projected distance along the jet. By analyzing jetsystems and statistical lower limits via searches for host galaxies. This provides redshift features with parallel acceleration at least twice the magnitude of their perpendicularconstraints for an additional 49% of the BL Lac sample leaving only 5% of the BL Lacs acceleration, we select the features most likely to have experienced Lorentz factorunconstrained. The new redshifts raise the median spectroscopic z of the BL Lacs from changes. Features with positive accelerations, indicating increasing Lorentz factor, occur0.23 to 0.33 and includes redshifts as large as z=2.2. Spectroscopic absorption limits at shorter projected distances in the jet than features with negative accelerations.have z= 0.70, showing a substantial fraction at large z and arguing against strong Features with positive and negative accelerations form distinct populations in terms of jetnegative evolution. We find that detected BL Lac hosts are bright ellipticals with hole distance with a probability of less than one in a million of being drawn from the samemasses ~ 10^{8.5-9} M_{sun}, substantially larger than the mean of optical AGN. The distribution. If the motion of jet features reflects the underlying jet flow, our resultsFSRQs have smaller virial estimates of black hole mass than the optical quasar sample. indicate that the transition from positive acceleration out of the SMBH/accretion diskThis appears to be largely due to a preferred (axial) view of the gamma-ray FSRQ and system to deceleration of the larger scale jet occurs at projected distances in the rangenon-isotropic (H/R ~ 0.4) distribution of broad-line velocities. The power-law dominance ~10-20 pc, corresponding to de-projected distances of order 102 pc from the centralof the optical spectrum extends to extreme values, but within the BL Lac class, this does engine. The MOJAVE project is supported under NASA-Fermi grants NNX08AV67Gnot strongly correlate with the gamma-ray properties, suggesting that strong beaming is and 11-Fermi11-0019.the primary cause of the range in continuum dominance. This substantially completesurvey provides new opportunities for understanding blazar evolution and their role in 103.05 – A Universal Scaling for the Energetics of Black Hole Jetscontributions to, and probes of, the cosmic extragalactic background. R. Nemmen, S. Guiriec, N. Gehrels, NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD;103.02 – Correlation Between Black Hole Mass and Bulge Luminosity in 235 Nearby M. Georganopoulos, University of Maryland Baltimore County,Active Galaxies Baltimore, MD; E.T. Meyer, Rice University, Houston, TX; R.M.M. Kim, L.C. Ho, Carnegie Observatory, Pasadena, CA; M. Kim, Sambruna, George Mason University, Virginia, VAKASI, Daejeon, KOREA, REPUBLIC OF; C.Y. Peng, Giant 10:50 AM-11:00 AMMagellan Telescope Organization, Pasadena, CA; A.J. Barth, Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) produce powerfulUniversity of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA; M. Im, Seoul National relativistic jets and their central engines share the same basic astrophysical ingredients,University, Seoul, KOREA, REPUBLIC OF despite the vastly different mass scales of the accreting black holes. An outstanding question is how the jet physics scales from stellar to supermassive black holes. In this10:20 AM-10:30 AM talk, I will report the discovery of a universal scaling for the energetics of relativistic jetsWe present the correlation between the bulge luminosity of host galaxies and the black based on observations of AGNs and GRBs made with the Fermi and Swifthole (BH) masses of nearby (z < 0.35) type I active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the observatories. I will discuss how this result paves the road to an unified understanding of2-D image composition of HST archival images for 235 objects. We find that the zero black hole activity across the mass scale.point of the relation for AGNs is significantly smaller than that for quiescent galaxies.We also find that the zero point is highly sensitive to accretion rate and BH mass, while 103.06 – Radiative Transfer, Black Hole Growth, AGN Feedback in Galaxiesit appears to be independent of other properties of AGNs and galaxies, such as radio-loudness, presence of a bar, or signs of interactions. We show that the offset in the BH G. Novak, Paris Observatory, Paris, FRANCEmass-bulge luminosity relation can be explained in three ways: (1) bulge luminosity is 11:00 AM-11:10 AMenhanced by recent star formation, (2) BH is rapidly growing during the AGN phase, or We have performed 3D hydrodynamic simulations of black hole fueling and AGN(3) BH mass is underestimated and the scaling factor increases with increasing feedback using a novel method for treating the radial forces on interstellar gas due toaccretion rate. absorption of photons by dust grains. The method provides a solution to the radiative transfer equation and hence computes forces on the gas self-consistently by first solving103.03 – Sub-mm Observations of Low-luminosities AGNs for a Complete SED for the radiation field taking into account radiation sources, absorption, and scattering.H. Flohic, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, CHILE The algorithm gives the correct behavior in all of the relevant limits (dominated by the central point source; dominated by the distributed isotropic source; optically thin;10:30 AM-10:40 AM optically thick to UV/optical; optically thick to IR) and reasonably interpolates betweenWith APEX, we measured the sub-mm flux of 5 low-luminosity AGNs in order to fill the the limits when necessary. The simulations allow us to study gas flows and feedbackgap in the spectral energy distribution (SED). With a more complete SED, we are now processes over length scales from ~1 pc to ~100 kpc. We find that the dynamics andable to better determine the relative contribution of jet and accretion power to the final state of simulations are measurably but only moderately affected by radiativeluminosity, and to assess the structure of the accretion flow. forces on dust, even when assumptions about the dust-to-gas ratio are varied from zero to a value appropriate for the Milky Way. In simulations with high gas densities designed
  • 6. to mimic ULIRGs with a star formation rate of several hundred solar masses per year, 103.08 – Re-examining the Black Hole in M87 Through Gas-dynamical Modelingdust makes a more substantial contribution to the dynamics and outcome of thesimulation. J. Walsh, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX; A.J. Barth, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA; L.C. Ho, Carnegie103.07 – Measuring Feedback from Mass Outflows of Ionized Gas in Nearby AGN Observatories, Pasadena, CA; M. Sarzi, University of Hertfordshire,D.M. Crenshaw, T.C. Fischer, Georgia State Univ., Atlanta, GA; Hatfield, UNITED KINGDOMS.B. Kraemer, The Catholic University of America, Washington, 11:20 AM-11:30 AMDC; H.R. Schmitt, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC; J. M87 is one of the most luminous nearby galaxies and hosts one of the most massiveTurner, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD black holes known, making it a very important target for extragalactic studies. The11:10 AM-11:20 AM supermassive black hole has been the subject of several stellar and gas-dynamical mass measurements; however the best current measurements disagree by a factor of 2,We present an investigation into the impact of feedback from outflows of ionized gas in corresponding to a 2-sigma discrepancy. Given the uncertainties associated with thenearby (z < 0.04) AGN. From our studies of outflowing UV a and X-ray absorbers, we sparsely populated upper end of the relationships between black hole mass and hostfound that most Seyfert 1 galaxies with moderate bolometric luminosities have mass galaxy bulge properties, resolving this disagreement in the M87 black hole mass isoutflow rates that are 10 - 1000 times the mass accretion rates needed to generate their crucial. Here, we present newly acquired multi-slit Space Telescope Imagingobserved luminosities, indicating that most of the mass outflow originates from outside Spectrograph observations from the Hubble Space Telescope. We measure thethe inner accretion disk. We also found that many of these AGN have kinetic emission-line kinematics within ~40 pc of the M87 nucleus, fully mapping out the nuclearluminosities in the range 0.5 to 5% bolometric, which is in the range often suggested by gas disk. We will present preliminary results from the comprehensive gas-dynamicalfeedback models needed for efficient self-regulation of black-hole and galactic bulge modeling and constraints on the black hole mass.growth. We investigate the possibility that mass outflows on larger scales (hundreds ofparsecs) may provide similar or even larger mass outflow rates and kinetic luminositiesin nearby, moderate luminosity AGN.104 – Circumstellar Disks IOral Session – Room 202B (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 10:00 AM to 11:30 AM104.01 – Weak Accretion in the Outer Regions of Protoplanetary Disks 104.03 – From Dust to Planetesimals: Criteria for Gravitational Instability of Small Particles in GasJ.B. Simon, P.J. Armitage, K. Beckwith, University of Colorado,Boulder, CO; X. Bai, J.M. Stone, Princeton University, Princeton, J. Shi, E. Chiang, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA; J. Shi, E. Chiang,NJ; X. Bai, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Center for Integrative Planetary Science, Berkeley, CACambirdge, MA; K. Beckwith, Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO 10:30 AM-10:40 AM10:00 AM-10:10 AM Dust particles sediment toward the midplanes of protoplanetary disks, forming dust-rich sublayers encased in gas. What densities must the particle sublayer attain before it canI will present numerical simulations of turbulence in the outer regions of protoplanetary fragment by self-gravity? We describe various candidate threshold densities. One ofdisks. In these regions, low ionization levels and gas densities lead to weak coupling these is the Roche density, which is that required for a strengthless satellite to resist tidalbetween neutral and ionized gas, enhancing the effect of ambipolar diffusion drastically. disruption by its primary. Another is the Toomre density, which is that required forOnly very thin surface layers of the disk are well ionized due to FUV photons from the de-stabilizing self-gravity to defeat the stabilizing influences of pressure and rotation. Wecentral star. Our simulations focus on turbulent accretion driven by the show that for sublayers containing aerodynamically well-coupled dust, the Toomremagnetorotational instability (MRI) in the absence of a vertical magnetic field density exceeds the Roche density by many (up to about 4) orders of magnitude. Wepenetrating the disk. The result is a form of layered accretion, akin to the Ohmic dead present 3D shearing box simulations of self-gravitating, stratified, dust-gas mixtures tozone paradigm relevant to smaller disk radii; gas is only accreted through very thin test which of the candidate thresholds is relevant for collapse. All our simulationssurface layers that surround a magnetically inactive ambipolar dead zone. We find that indicate that the larger Toomre density is required for collapse. This result is sensiblethe measured accretion rates due to this strong ambipolar diffusion are too small, by at because sublayers are readily stabilized by pressure. Sound-crossing times for thinleast an order of magnitude, to account for observations. I will discuss the implications layers are easily shorter than free-fall times, and the effective sound speed in dust-gasof these results for disk evolution, and a promising solution to the problem by including a suspensions decreases only weakly with the dust-to-gas ratio (as the inverse squarevertical magnetic field. root). Our findings assume that particles are small enough that their stopping times in gas are shorter than all other timescales. Relaxing this assumption may lower the104.02D – The Earliest Stage of Planet Formation: Disk-Planet Interactions in threshold for gravitational collapse back down to the Roche criterion. In particular, if theProtoplanetary Disks and Observations of Transitional Disks particle stopping time becomes longer than the sound-crossing time, sublayers may loseR. Dong, R. Rafikov, J.M. Stone, Princeton University, Princeton, pressure support and become gravitationally unstable.NJ; L.W. Hartmann, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 104.04 – The Effect of Dust Self-Gravity on the Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability of Settled10:10 AM-10:30 AM Dust Layers in Protoplanetary DisksI will first talk about numerical simulations of disk-planet interactions in protoplanetary J.A. Barranco, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA;disks. Particularly, I’ll discuss the damping of the density waves excited by planets dueto the nonlinearity in their propagation, which can result in gap opening in a low viscosity E. Chiang, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CAdisk by low mass planets. Ill also discuss the effects of various numerical algorithms 10:40 AM-10:50 AMand parameters in simulations of disk-planet interaction, and address the question of how It is a remarkable fact that planets start out as microscopic grains within protoplanetaryto produce correct simulations. Then I’ll move on to recent Subaru observations of disks of gas and dust in orbit around newly-formed protostars, somehow growing by atransitional disks, which are protoplanetary disks with central depleted regions (cavities).Several ideas on the formation of transitional disks have been proposed, including gaps factor of 1040 in mass in a period no more than 107 years. In the early stages of theopened by planet(s). Recently, Subaru directly imaged a number of such disks at near planet formation, small dust grains settle into the midplane of the disk in a few thousandinfrared (NIR) wavelengths (the SEEDS project) with high spatial resolution and small years. As the dust layer gets thinner, a vertical shear develops between the dust-richinner working angles. Using radiative transfer simulations, we study the structure of layer at the midplane and the dust-poor gas above and below. Of great interest istransitional disks by modeling the NIR images, the SED, and the sub-mm observations whether such a layer will be unstable to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI), which willfrom literature (whenever available) simultaneously. We obtain physical disk+cavity remix the dust with the gas, thwarting the formation of planets. We work in thestructures, and constrain the spatial distribution of the dust grains, particularly inside the single-fluid limit in which the local dust-to gas ratio is an advectively conserved quantitycavity and at the cavity edge. Interestingly, we find that in some cases cavities are not (valid when the dust-gas friction time is very short). Here, we present new simulationspresent in the scattered light. In such cases we present a new transitional disk model to which include the effect of dust self-gravity on the stability of the dust layer and exploresimultaneously account for all observations. Decoupling between the sub-um-sized and parameter space to determine under what conditions further settling may triggermm-sized grains inside the cavity is required, which may necessitate the dust filtration gravitational instability and the direct formation of planetesimals.mechanism. For another group of transitional disks in which Subaru does reveal thecavities at NIR, we focus on whether grains at different sizes have the same spatial 104.05 – Probing for Exoplanets Hiding in Dusty Debris Disks III: Disk Imaging,distribution or not. We use our modeling results to constrain transitional disk formation Characterization, and Exploration with HST/STIS Multi-Roll Coronagraphy - Completingtheories, particularly to comment on their possible planets origin. the Survey G. Schneider, Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ
  • 7. 10:50 AM-11:00 AM 104.06 – A Search for Exozodis with KeplerSpatially resolved images of light-scattering circumstellar debris in exoplanetary systems C.C. Stark, A.P. Boss, A.J. Weinberger, B. Jackson, Carnegieconstrain the physical properties and orbits of the dust grains in these systems. Such Institution of Washington, Washington, DC; M. Endl, W.D.images also inform on co-orbiting (but unseen) planets and the systemic architectures.Using HST/STIS broadband optical coronagraphy, we have recently (Nov. 2012) Cochran, C. Caldwell, University of Texas, Austin, TX; E. Agol,completed the observational phase of a program to study the spatial distribution of dust University of Washington, Seattle, WA; E.B. Ford, University ofin a well-selected sample of 11 circumstellar debris disks, all with HST pedigree, using Florida, Gainesville, FL; J. Hall, K. Ibrahim, Orbital SciencesSTIS visible-light PSF-subtracted multi-roll coronagraphy. In many cases, these new Corporation/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA; J. Li,observations probe the interior regions of these debris systems, with inner working SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CAdistances < app 8 AU for half the stars in this sample, corresponding to the giant planetand Kuiper belt regions within our own solar system. These observations also reveal 11:00 AM-11:10 AMdiffuse low-surface brightness dust at larger stellocentric distances, observations of Planets embedded within exozodiacal dust disks may form large scale clumpy dustwhich remain a technical challenge to the most aggressive and advanced ground based structures by trapping dust into resonant orbits. When viewed edge-on, these clumpytechniques and facilities We have previously reported preliminary observational results dust structures periodically pass in front of their host star, creating orbit-long light curvefrom this program of a subset of the brighter disks (in both surface brightness and variations potentially detectable with Kepler. Here I present the first search for thesef_disk/f_star scattering fraction). Here in present new results, including fainter disks resonant structures in the inner regions of planetary systems by analyzing the lightsuch as HD 92945 (f_disk/f_star approximately 5E-5) for which we confirm (and better curves of planet candidate host stars identified by the Kepler mission. Our detectionreveal) the existence of an inner dust ring within a larger diffuse dust disk as suggested routine produced one promising candidate disk structure associated with a hot Jupiterfrom earlier ACS observations. These new images from our HST/STIS GO 12228 planet candidate. However, radial velocity measurements show this planet candidate toprogram enable direct inter-comparison of the architectures of these exoplanetary debris be an eclipsing binary with an unusual periodic signal. We use our null result to place ansystems in the context of our own Solar System. Based on observations made with the upper limit on the frequency of high contrast resonant dust clumps, a useful metric forNASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at, and with support for program #12228 future missions that aim to image extrasolar planets in the inner regions of theirfrom, the STScI, which is operated by the AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS planetary systems.5-26555. These observations are associated with program #12228.105 – Cosmic Microwave Background IOral Session – Grand Ballroom (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 10:00 AM to 11:30 AM105.01 – New Results from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT): Maps and 105.04 – ACTPol: A New Instrument to Measure CMB Polarization with the AtacamaPower Spectra Cosmology TelescopeJ.L. Sievers, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ; J.L. Sievers, M. Niemack, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY; M. Niemack, NationalUKZN, Durban, SOUTH AFRICA Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO10:00 AM-10:10 AM 10:40 AM-10:50 AMThe Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) observed the Cosmic Microwave We are in the process of building and deploying ACTPol: a new polarization-sensitiveBackground from high in the Chilean Andes from 2007-2010. We present the final 148 receiver for the six-meter Atacama Cosmology Telescope. ACTPol will be used toand 220 GHz maximum-likelihood maps and power spectra from data taken along two measure the CMB polarization on arcminute scales in two frequency bands centeredstripes of constant declination. The maps cover ~1300 square degrees, the deepest 600 near 90 and 150 GHz. These measurements will provide improved constraints onof which are used in power spectrum estimation. Typical depths for the power spectrum cosmological parameters as well as measurements of the projected mass distribution viaregions are 20-25 uK-arcmin (CMB) for the 148 GHz mps and 35-40 uK-arcmin gravitational lensing of the CMB, which can be used to probe early dark energy,(CMB) for the 220 GHz maps. curvature, and the sum of the neutrino masses. In addition, we project that ACTPol will be ~4x more sensitive than the previous ACT receiver at 150 GHz, enabling improved105.02D – New Results from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT): Cosmological CMB temperature science, such as surveys for galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev-Parameters from the Complete ACT Survey Zeldovich effect. We will describe the science goals and status of the instrument.R. Hlozek, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 105.05D – Measuring the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization with SPT-POL10:10 AM-10:30 AM A. Crites, University of Chicago, Chicago, ILThe Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) has mapped the microwave sky to 10:50 AM-11:10 AMarcminute scales. We present constraints on parameters from the observations at 148and 217 GHz respectively by ACT from 2007-2010. Efficient map-making and A new polarization-sensitive camera, SPT-POL, designed to measure the polarization ofspectrum-estimation techniques allow us to probe the acoustic peaks deep into the the cosmic microwave background (CMB), was deployed on the 10 meter South Poledamping tail, and allow for confirmation of the concordance model, and tests for Telescope in January 2012. The goal of the project is to exploit the high resolution of thedeviations from the standard cosmological picture. We fit a model of primary telescope (1 arcminute beam) and the high sensitivity afforded by the 1536 detectorcosmological and secondary foreground parameters to the dataset, including camera to characterize the B-mode polarization induced by the gravitational lensing ofcontributions from both the thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, Poisson the primordial E-mode CMB polarization, as well as to detect or set an upper limit on thedistributed and correlated infrared sources, radio sources and a term modeling the level of the B-mode polarization from inflationary gravitational waves. The lensingcorrelation between the thermal SZ effect and the Cosmic Infrared Background. We B-modes will be used to constrain the sum of the neutrino masses by measuring largewill describe the multi-frequency likelihood for the ACT data, and present constraints on scale structure, while the inflationary B-modes are sensitive to the energy scale ofa variety of cosmological parameters using this complete dataset. inflation. I will discuss the development of the SPT-POL camera including the cryogenic design and the transition edge sensor (TES) detectors as well as the science goals and105.03 – New Results from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT): The Kinematic status of the ongoing of the SPT-POL program.Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect 105.06D – The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Mapping Dark Matter with CMBN. Hand, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA Lensing10:30 AM-10:40 AM B. Sherwin, Princeton University, Princeton, NJUsing the millimeter-wavelength data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), 11:10 AM-11:30 AMthe motions of galaxy clusters and groups were detected for the first time through theirtemperature distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) due to the Measurements of lensing in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) directly probekinematic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. The positions of galaxy clusters in the ACT data the projected distribution of dark matter out to high redshifts. I will describe the firstwere identified by their constituent luminous galaxies, as observed by the Baryon detection of the power spectrum of CMB lensing with the Atacama CosmologyOscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). I will describe the initial measurement of the Telescope (ACT) and its cosmological implications, and will show results from cross-mean pairwise momentum, and subsequent attempts to use this result to provide an correlations of ACT CMB lensing maps with quasars, galaxies and other tracers of darkestimate of the average baryon mass fraction on cluster length scales for our galaxy matter. I will then explain the great scientific potential of upcoming polarization lensingsample. measurements with ACTPol, and will discuss the development of a lensing pipeline for this experiment.
  • 8. 106 – Cosmology IOral Session – Room 103B (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 10:00 AM to 11:30 AM 10:30 AM-10:40 AM106.01 – A New, Precise Measurement of the Primordial Abundance of DeuteriumR. Cooke, M. Pettini, Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, UNITED Weak gravitational lensing due to large scale structure (cosmic shear) has been shown to be contaminated by the intrinsic alignment (IA) of galaxies, which poses a barrier toKINGDOM; R. Cooke, Astronomy & Astrophysics, UC Santa Cruz, precision weak lensing measurements in planned surveys. To address this contamination,Santa Cruz, CA we have extended the 2-point self-calibration techniques to the cosmic shear bispectrum,10:00 AM-10:10 AM using information already measured in a weak lensing survey to self-calibrate the IA contamination. The 3-point self-calibration techniques use the redshift separationWe are currently in an exciting era of precision cosmology. With the imminent release of dependencies of the IA bispectra and the non-linear galaxy bias in order to isolate andthe cosmic microwave background data recorded by the Planck satellite, we will soon remove the impact of the IA correlations on the cosmic shear signal. Using conservativebe presented with an opportunity to accurately test the standard model of Big Bang estimates of photo-z accuracy, we find that planned surveys will be able to measure theNucleosynthesis. However, independent measures of the primordial deuterium IA redshift separation dependence over ranges in photo-z of 0.2 in the 3-point ellipticityabundance, to be analysed in conjunction with the baryon density determined by Planck, auto-correlation. For the 3-point cross-correlations, we find that the self-calibrationare vital in order to achieve this goal. In this talk, I will present a new, precise measure technique allows for reductions in the IA contamination by a factor of 10 or more overof the primordial abundance of deuterium - the most accurate measurement to date - most scales and redshift bin choices and in all cases by a factor of 3-5 or more. Thederived from the spectrum of a redshift ~ 3 metal-poor damped Lyman-alpha system. 3-point self-calibration techniques thus provide a means to greatly reduce the impact ofSuch accurate measures are now able to place strong limits on the effective number of IA contamination of the bispectrum in future measurements of cosmic shear.neutrino species in the early Universe, which depends only on the primordial deuteriumabundance and the baryon density of the Universe. Using our measure of the deuteriumabundance in conjunction with the WMAP 7 year data release, we find that the number 106.05 – Cosmology from SALT II Fitted Supernovae Ia: A Bayesian Hierarchicalof neutrino families = 3.0 +/- 0.5, in good agreement with both the standard model and Analysis of the Supernovae Systematic Uncertainties and Statistical Properties of thethat measured with particle colliders. Finally, I shall discuss an ongoing survey to search Light-curve Stretch and Color Parametersfor additional damped Lyman-alpha systems where such precise measurements of M. March, University of Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex, UNITEDdeuterium are available. With just a small handful of systems, we may soon be able to KINGDOM; R. Trotta, Imperial College , London, Greater London,pin down the number of neutrino families when the Universe was in its infancy. UNITED KINGDOM; M. Smith, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, SOUTH AFRICA; G.D. Starkman, Case Western Reserve106.02 – The WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey: Final Results University, Cleveland, OHT. Davis, D. Parkinson, S. Riemer-Sørensen, M. Drinkwater, 10:40 AM-10:50 AMUniversity of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, AUSTRALIA; C.Blake, G.B. Poole, E. Kazin, K. Glazebrook, W. Couch, Swinburne The Supernova Bayesian Hierarchical Model (SNBHM) provides a framework for cosmological parameter inference and model selection in which the statistical propertiesUniversity of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, AUSTRALIA; M. of the SNIa population are fully modeled. We demonstrate how the SNBHM can beScrimgeour, F. Beutler, University of Western Australia, Perth, used to extract information about the statistical properties of the SNIa population.Western Australia, AUSTRALIA Supernovae Ia light-curves fitted with the SALT II fitter are each characterized by a10:10 AM-10:20 AM colour c and stretch x1 parameter and an absolute B-band magnitude mB. These fitted parameters, along with the SN global parameters α and β are used to reduce the scatterObservations are now complete for the WiggleZ dark energy survey and we have in the Hubble diagram in order that constraints on the cosmological parameters may bemapped the positions of ~220,000 bright blue galaxies out to a redshift of z~1, over a obtained. The SNBHM can be used to obtain an estimate for the unknown systematiccubic giga-parsec of space. I will present the full complement of cosmological results uncertainty which characterizes the residual scatter about the Hubble diagram whichcoming out of this data set. With the addition of WiggleZ data, baryon acoustic remains even after application of the stretch and color correction. We show how theoscillations are now able to confirm the acceleration of the expansion of the universe, mean and variance of the underlying stretch and color parameters which characterizeindependent of any supernova data, and this has since been further strengthened by the the SALT II fitted SN light curves can be recovered using the SNBHM, either for theaddition of Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey data. Arguably the most exciting whole SN sample or as a function of survey or redshift. We investigate the effect aresults are our measurements of the growth of structure out to z~0.8, and measurements non-Gaussian distribution of color parameters has on the ability of the SNBHM toof the Alcock-Paczynski effect (sphericity of spheres) that allow us to measure the rate recover the cosmological parameters. We apply the SNBHM to both simulated and realof expansion at different redshifts H(z) without needing a cosmological model. These data sets, and we present results of the SNBHM cosmological analysis of the combinedallow us to distinguish between non-standard models of gravity that are indistinguishable Low Z, Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS3) andusing only measurements of expansion rate. I will also cover our constraints on the mass Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data sets, and its statistical properties.of the neutrino and the effective number of neutrinos, which are amongst the tightestconstraints available from any experiment. Finally, I will show how the large volume we 106.06D – Correlations Between Type Ia Supernovae and Their Host Galaxies Usinghave sampled has allowed us to detect the scale at which the universe transitions from the SDSS and Multi-wavelength Photometryclustered to homogeneous, confirming one of the cornerstones of modern cosmology.The WiggleZ data have now been made public, and include data, random catalogues, R. Gupta, C. DAndrea, M. Sako, University of Pennsylvania,and lognormal realizations. With it we have also released our CosmoMC module so our Philadelphia, PA; C. Conroy, Harvard-Smithsonian Center fordata can easily be included in your own cosmological analyses. Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA; M. Smith, Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, Cape Town, SOUTH AFRICA; B. Bassett,106.03 – Interactive Cosmological Data Fitting Simulations: A Further Examination of South African Astronomical Observatory, Cape Town, SOUTHCosmoEJS AFRICA; B. Bassett, Dept. of Mathematics and AppliedJ. Moldenhauer, L. Engelhardt, K.M. Stone, E. Shuler, Francis Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, SOUTHMarion University, Florence, SC AFRICA; J. Frieman, R. Kessler, Department of Astronomy &10:20 AM-10:30 AM Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL; J. Frieman, J.We discuss usage and development of a collection of cosmological modeling programs Marriner, Fermilab, Batavia, IL; P.M. Garnavich, Department ofbuilt with Easy Java Simulations. These interactive programs allow for modeling of theaccelerated expansion of the universe (cosmic acceleration). The simulations compare Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN; S. Jha,theoretical models to experimental data sets with real-time plotting and numerical fitting. Department of Physics & Astronomy, Rutgers, the State UniversityWe include several models for the user to choose, or design their own. We also provide of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ; R. Kessler, Kavli Institute fora range of surveys from different observations. We have simple versions of the Cosmological Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL; C.programs available for teaching and more sophisticated versions for research. All of the DAndrea, H. Lampeitl, R. Nichol, Institute of Cosmology andprograms can be found at Compadre Open Source Physics website,http://www.compadre.org/osp/items/detail.cfm?ID=12406. Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UNITED KINGDOM; D.P. Schneider, Department of Astronomy &106.04 – Self-Calibration Techniques for 3-point Intrinsic Alignment Correlations in Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park,Weak Gravitational Lensing Surveys PAM.A. Troxel, M.B. Ishak-Boushaki, University of Texas at Dallas, 10:50 AM-11:10 AMRichardson, TX We improve estimates of the stellar mass and mass-weighted average age of Type Ia
  • 9. supernova (SN Ia) host galaxies by combining UV and near-IR photometry with optical A&M University, College Station, TX; J. Hennawi, Max Planckphotometry in our analysis. Using 206 SNe Ia drawn from the full three-year Sloan Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, GERMANY; C. Lidman,Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey (median redshift of z ≈ 0.2) and multi-wavelength host-galaxy photometry from SDSS, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and the Australian Astronomical Observatory, Epping, New South Wales,United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey, we present evidence of AUSTRALIA; J. Mendez, P. Ruiz-Lapuente, University ofa correlation (1.9σ confidence level) between the residuals of SNe Ia about the best-fit Barcelona, Barcelona, SPAIN; E.S. Rykoff, Stanford LinearHubble relation and the mass-weighted average age of their host galaxies. The trend is Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CAsuch that older galaxies host SNe Ia that are brighter than average after standardlight-curve corrections are made. We also confirm, at the 3.0σ level, the trend seen by 11:10 AM-11:30 AMprevious studies that more massive galaxies often host brighter SNe Ia after light-curve We have obtained deep, very high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of a sample of 40 hostcorrection. galaxies of Type Ia supernovae (SNe). The host galaxies are chosen from the Nearby SN Factory, the SDSS SN Survey, and Swift-observed SNe, with the requirement that106.07D – Correlations Between Type Ia Supernova Properties and Early-type Host they have passive stellar populations. We perform a detailed stellar population analysisGalaxy Spectra of the SN host galaxies, measuring their ages and the abundances of multiple elements, including Fe, Mg, C, N, and Ca. We find that the age and abundance patterns of the SNJ. Meyers, G. Graves, H. Fakhouri, J. Nordin, S. Perlmutter, D. hosts are similar to those of a control sample of early-type SDSS galaxies. WeRubin, C. Saunders, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, rediscover the correlation between the SN decline rate and host galaxy age, and showCA; J. Meyers, G. Graves, G.S. Aldering, H. Fakhouri, J. Nordin, that host [Mg/Fe], [C/Fe], and [N/Fe] enhancement are also correlated with SN declineS. Perlmutter, D. Rubin, C. Saunders, A.L. Spadafora, N. Suzuki, rates. In contrast to studies of SNe with mixed host types, however, we do not see anyLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; R. evidence for correlations between SN Hubble residuals and early-type host galaxy properties, suggesting that Hubble residual correlations with host properties saturate atAmanullah, Stockholm University, Stockholm, SWEDEN; K.H. the domains of early-type galaxies.Barbary, Argonne National Lab, Argonne, IL; P.J. Brown, Texas107 – Dwarf and Irregular Galaxies I: Origins and DynamicsOral Session – Room 104A (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 10:00 AM to 11:30 AM V(Rd)/Rd, where Rd is the galaxy scale-length. We find that V(Rd)/Rd correlates with107.01D – The Origin of Dwarf Early-Type Galaxies i) the central surface brightness; ii) the mean HI surface density over the stellar disk;E. Toloba, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA; E. and iii) the SFR density. BCDs have higher V(Rd)/Rd than typical irregulars, suggestingToloba, Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA; A. Boselli, that the starburst activity is closely linked with the gravitational potential and the concentration of gas. We decompose the rotation curves of BCDs into massLaboratoire dAstrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Marseille, components and find that baryons (stars and gas) are dynamically important. This isFRANCE; J. Gorgas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, remarkable, as dwarf galaxies are commonly thought to be entirely dominated by darkMadrid, SPAIN matter. We discuss the implications of these results on the evolution of dwarf galaxies10:00 AM-10:20 AM and in particular on the properties of the progenitors and descendants of BCDs.The physical mechanisms involved in the formation and evolution of dwarf early-type 107.03 – Dark Matter Profiles in Late-type Dwarf Galaxies from Stellar Kinematicsgalaxies (dEs) are not well understood yet. Whether these objects, that outnumber anyother class of object in clusters, are the low luminosity extension of massive early-type J.J. Adams, J.D. Simon, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution ofgalaxies, i.e. formed through similar processes, or are a different group of objects Washington, Pasadena, CA; M.H. Fabricius, Max-Planck Institutpossibly formed through the transformation of low luminosity spiral galaxies, is still an für extraterrestrische Physik, München, GERMANY; K. Gebhardt,open debate. Studying the kinematic properties of dEs is a powerful way to distinguishbetween these two scenarios. In my PhD, awarded with a Fulbright postdoctoral University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TXFellowship and with the 2011 prize to the best Spanish PhD dissertation in Astronomy, 10:30 AM-10:40 AMwe used this technique to make a spectrophotometric analysis of 18 dEs in the Virgo We present new stellar and gaseous velocity fields for thirteen late-type dwarf galaxies,cluster. I found some differences for these dEs within the cluster. The dEs in the outer primarily to study the density distributions of their baryons and dark matter. A subset ofparts of Virgo have rotation curves with shapes and amplitudes similar to late-type our targets reach high enough signal-to-noise that the central dark matter density profilegalaxies of the same luminosity. They are rotationally supported, have disky isophotes, slope can be reliably estimated from the stellar kinematics alone. Most previousand younger ages than those dEs in the center of Virgo, which are pressure supported, observations have been based on kinematics from atomic or ionized gas and haveoften have boxy isophotes and are older. Ram pressure stripping, which removes the gas derived best-fit profiles much shallower than those predicted by pure N-body simulationsof galaxies leaving the stars untouched, explains the properties of the dEs located in the in ΛCDM. In contrast to those results, we find from the stellar kinematics that galaxiesoutskirts of Virgo. However, the dEs in the central cluster regions, which have lost their contain a wide variety of density profiles ranging from completely cored halos up toangular momentum, must have suffered a more violent transformation. A combination of cuspy r^-1 profiles comparable to the predicted NFW form. We present ourram pressure stripping and harassment is not enough to remove the rotation and the measurements, demonstrate cases where the gas gives a biased inference on the darkdisky structures of these galaxies. I am conducting new analysis with 20 new dEs to matter properties, and fit Jeans models to the data with baryonic and dark components.throw some light in this direction. I also analysed the Faber-Jackson and the For the cases that deviate from an NFW profile, we search our data for unusual orbitalFundamental Plane relations, and I found that dEs deviate from the trends of massive structure (anisotropies) and chemical abundance gradients in order to constrain theelliptical galaxies towards the position of dark matter dominated systems such as the proposed mechanisms that may alter the initial configuration of the dark matter halo.dwarf spheroidal satellites of the Milky Way and M31. This indicates that dEs have anon-negligible dark matter fraction within their half light radius, we used these diagrams 107.04D – Dynamically Extreme Stellar and Galactic Populations in the Via Lactea IIto quantify this dark matter content, which is ~40%, significantly larger than previously Cosmological Simulation and Their Observable Counterpartsthought for these kind of objects. M. Teyssier, Columbia University, New York, NY107.02 – Dynamics of Starbursting Dwarf Galaxies 10:40 AM-11:00 AMF. Lelli, M.A. Verheijen, F. Fraternali, R. Sancisi, Kapteyn We describe dynamically unusual populations with observable counterparts (backsplashAstronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen, galaxies, wandering stars and high velocity stars) in the environment in and outside of a Milky Way-like object. Analysis of VLII halo histories and z=0 distribution allows us toNETHERLANDS; F. Fraternali, Department of Astronomy, distinguish which Local Group field galaxies may have passed through the virial volumeUniversity of Bologna, Bologna, ITALY; R. Sancisi, INAF - of the Milky Way. We find it likely that Tucana, Cetus, NGC3109, SextansA, SextansB,Astronomical Observatory of Bologna, Bologna, ITALY Antlia, NGC6822, Phoenix, LeoT, and NGC185 have passed through the Milky Way.10:20 AM-10:30 AM Several of these galaxies contain signatures in their morphology, star formation history, and/or gas content, that are indicative of evolution seen in simulations of satellite/parentThe mechanisms that trigger strong bursts of star formation in dwarf galaxies are poorly galactic interactions. We use the histories of VLII particles that are far outside Rvir atunderstood. Blue Compact Dwarfs (BCDs) are nearby starburst galaxies that may hold z=0 to estimate the likelihood of observing inter-galactic supernovae in current andthe key to understand these mechanisms. We are studying a sample of 18 BCDs using near-future large-scale time-domain surveys. Finally, we ask whether a merger historyboth new and archival HI data. In several cases we find that BCDs have a steeply- similar to what is seen in VLII should lead to a significant population of old high-velocityrising rotation curve that flattens in the outer parts. This points to a strong central stars associated with dark matter flows.concentration of mass. We introduce a new parameter to quantify the central massconcentration in dwarf galaxies (BCDs and irregulars): the circular-velocity gradient
  • 10. driven energetic feedback. We find that reionization is primarily responsible for expelling107.05D – The Effect of Feedback and Reionization on Star Formation in Low-mass most of the gas in our simulations, but that supernova feedback is required to disperseDwarf Galaxy Halos the dense, cold gas in the core of the halo. Moreover, we show that the timing ofC.M. Simpson, G. Bryan, K.V. Johnston, M. Mac Low, Columbia reionization can produce an order of magnitude difference in the final stellar mass of theUniversity, New York, NY; M. Mac Low, AMNH, New York City, NY; system. For our full physics run with reionization at z=9, we find a stellar mass of aboutB.D. Smith, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI; J. 105 M⊙ at z=0, and a mass-to-light ratio within the half-light radius of approximatelyTumlinson, STSI, Baltimore, MD; S. Sharma, University of Sydney, 130 M⊙/L⊙, consistent with observed low-luminosity dwarfs. However, the resultingSydney, New South Wales, AUSTRALIA median stellar metallicity is 0.06 Z⊙, considerably larger than observed systems. In11:00 AM-11:20 AM addition, we find star formation is truncated between redshifts 4 and 7, at odds with the observed late time star formation in isolated dwarf systems but in agreement with MilkyI will present a set of high resolution simulations of a 109 M⊙ dark matter halo in a Way ultrafaint dwarf spheroidals. We investigate the efficacy of energetic feedback incosmological setting done with an adaptive-mesh refinement code as a mass analogue to our simple thermal-energy driven feedback scheme, and suggest that it may still sufferlocal low-luminosity dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The primary goal of our simulations is to from excessive radiative losses, despite reaching stellar particle masses of about 100investigate the roles of reionization and supernova feedback in determining the star M⊙, and a comoving spatial resolution of 11 pc. This has led us to pursue improvementsformation histories of low mass dwarf galaxies. We include a wide range of physical in our supernova feedback model to include kinetic as well as thermal energy in theeffects, including metal cooling, molecular hydrogen formation and cooling, proportions predicted by Sedov-Taylor models on the scale of a few parsecs, which isphotoionization and photodissociation from a metagalactic (but not local) background, a approximately the resolution of our simulations at high redshift when the star formationsimple prescription for self-shielding, star formation, and a simple model for supernova rate peaks.108 – Early Science Results from the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Arrays (HERA)Special Session – Room 101B (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 10:00 AM to 11:30 AM The first Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Arrays (HERA), including the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) in Western Australia and the Precision Array to the Probe the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER) in South Africa, are low-frequency radio telescopes that aim to detect redshifted 21 cm emission from neutral hydrogen gas in the intergalactic medium during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). The HERA program is focused on radio frequencies between 100 and 200 MHz, corresponding to redshifts of 13 > z > 6 for hydrogen 21 cm emission from the EoR. The radio sky in this frequency range remains a largely unstudied frontier. It is dominated by foreground synchrotron emission from the Milky Way and extragalactic sources that is four orders of magnitude brighter than the expected EoR signal. In this session, we highlight early science results from the HERA pathfinders that characterize the low-frequency radio sky, including new catalogs of radio sources, wide-field maps of diffuse Galactic emission structures, and surveys for transient sources. We focus on initial results from MWA and PAPER and their implications for deep EoR observations. Both MWA and PAPER have recently undergone major expansions from their early prototype configurations and have begun extensive observing campaigns targeting redshifted 21 cm emission. 10:30 AM-10:40 AM108.01 – Transient and Pulsar Searches with the Murchison Widefield ArrayD.L. Kaplan, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI The GMRT-EoR project has continued the multi-year campaign to measure the neutral hydrogen 21cm fluctuations at z=8.5, probing the reionization epoch using the Giant10:00 AM-10:10 AM Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) in India. We have acquired new data andAs one of a new generation of widefield, low-frequency radio telescopes, the Murchison continued to improve our analysis strategy and process. To cope with the stringentWidefield Array has enormous potential to conduct blind searches for radio transients foreground subtraction requirement, our team has developed a new method forand probe the nearby pulsar population. We are working to develop a common component separation; I will present updates on the latest analysis and future prospects.framework with the Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) Variablesand Slow Transients (VAST) survey to allow real-time transient detection and 108.05 – The MWA 32-Tile Prototype: Surveys, Foregrounds and Looking Through thecharacterization. I will discuss the expected types of sources that we hope to discover EoR Windowwith the full array and review some of the initial results from our 32-element testbed. M.F. Morales, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 10:40 AM-10:50 AM108.02 – Upper Limits on the Power Spectrum of 21cm Reionization with PAPERA. Parsons, J. Pober, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, The MWA prototypes high survey speed has enabled systematic surveys of bright extra-galactic sources, diffuse galactic emission, and polarized sources over large areasCA of the southern sky. These systematic surveys are a key step in subtracting foreground10:10 AM-10:20 AM emission from the EoR signal, and have enabled the first observations of the predictedWe report new upper limits on the power spectrum of 21cm reionization using data from EoR foreground window. I will review the latest results from the 32 tile MWA prototypea deployment of the PAPER telescope in South Africa, observing for four months in a and early commissioning observations from the full 128 tile array, as we start to peermaximum redundancy array configuration with a 64-input correlator. While not yet quite through the EoR window.at the level of ruling out realistic reionization models, these results are sensitivity-limited,and demonstrate the efficacy of the delay-spectrum analysis technique for foreground 108.06 – The MWA 32-tile Prototype: Deep Integrations and Power Spectra ofavoidance. We also report early results from a new observing campaign beginning with Foregroundsa 128-input correlator for PAPER, and forecast the expected sensitivity of this new J.N. Hewitt, MIT, Cambridge, MA; J.N. Hewitt, Murchisonobserving campaign. Widefield Array, Murchison Shire, Western Australia, AUSTRALIA 10:50 AM-11:00 AM108.03 – Full Stokes Observations with PAPER: Measurements and ImplicationsJ.E. Aguirre, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA The 32-tile Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) prototype operated as a science array from March 2010 through September 2011. Tracked observations of cold regions of the10:20 AM-10:30 AM sky, chosen as test fields for Epoch of Reionization (EoR) studies, were carried outThe Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER) operating in South during prototype operation. These observations enabled tests of the performance of theAfrica in late 2011 and 2012, has acquired data in both 32 and 64 antenna configurations array, the development of techniques for wide-field imaging and EoR analysis, andwith full Stokes parameters. These configurations include an “imaging” configuration measurements of the properties of astronomical foregrounds. We present the results ofwith minimally redundant sampling of the u-v plane, and a highly redundant configuration long integrations on the fields, including the power spectra of fluctuations in the datadesigned for power spectrum sensitivity. We present images and analysis from these cubes, that show predicted features in the two-dimensional power spectra ofconfigurations, as well as a new formalism for characterizing the leakage of polarized foregrounds and provide current limits on EoR power spectra. Implications for EoRflux into Stokes I. The implications of contamination of the reionization signal by analysis of the full 128-tile MWA will be discussed.polarized foregrounds are discussed. 108.07 – Imaging on PAPER108.04 – GMRT-EoR Project Update C.L. Carilli, NRAO, Socorro, NM; I. Stefan, Cavendish Laboratory,T. Chang, ASIAA, Taipei, TAIWAN Cambridge, cambridgeshire, UNITED KINGDOM; J.E. Aguirre,
  • 11. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; R.F. Bradley, NRAO, D. Jacobs, J.D. Bowman, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ; J.E.Charlottesville, VA; D. Green, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, Aguirre, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PACambridgeshire, UNITED KINGDOM; D. Jacobs, Arizona State 11:10 AM-11:20 AMUniversity, Tempe, AZ; D. Moore, University of Pennsylvania, Exploration of the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) in the redshifted 21cm radio band willPhiladelphia, PA; A. Parsons, UC Berkeley, Bekerley, CA; J. Pober, require exquisite instrumental precision and careful cross-checking of observations byUC Berkeley, Bekerley, CA; W. Walbrugh, SKA project office, Cape multiple instruments. The EoR signal will be a small spatial and spectral variationTown, Cape Town, SOUTH AFRICA beneath bright foreground sources. Separation of foregrounds is expected to be the dominant source of uncertainty. Meanwhile, agreement between EoR telescopes is11:00 AM-11:10 AM crucial to verifying possible detections. We compare MWA and PAPER catalogs madeWe will present imaging results from the Precision Array to Probe the Epoch of during early commissioning periods in 2010. These observations occurred near in time, inReionization. PAPER explores a unique parameter space in terms of: (i) frequency overlapping portions of the sky, using similar configurations and bandwidths. Thesecoverage (120 to 180MHz), (ii) instantaneous field of view (> 1e4 square degrees), (iii) similarities reduce possible disagreement due to time variation, spectral slope, resolutionsensitivity (eventually, mJy), and (iv) spatial resolution (15). We will present images and confusion. Using overlapping MWA images we assess the variation within thefrom our initial deployment of 64 antennas at the radio quiet site in the Karoo region in sample of MWA fluxes then measure the variation between PAPER and MWA. WeSouth Africa. We have produced high dynamic range (> 1000) images of the closest also use the MWA32 data set to estimate the uncertainties of methodological differencesgiant radio galaxy, Centaurus A, as well as an image of the Galactic plane, centered on like photometry and mosaicing. These contribute only about 4% error. An apparentthe Galactic center. These images are sensitive to very large scale structures (tens of primary beam error contributes 20 to 80% uncertainty while the brightest sources havedegrees). We will discuss the spectral structure of these sources and the physical dramatically higher error (closer to 50%) when near the brightest source in the field.implications, including relativistic particle energetics across Cen A, and clear thermal Though errors of this type occur in both catalogs, the fluxes from PAPER and the MWAabsorption toward Sgr A*, and possibly due to an outflow from the Galactic center. robustly agree in flux to within 20%. Though this scale of error is not atypical of low frequency flux measurements, simulations of source removal and EoR foregrounds have108.08 – The Precision and Accuracy of Early Epoch of Reionization Foreground heretofore assumed perfect removal of sources at this flux scale.Models: Comparing MWA and PAPER 32-Antenna Source Catalogs109 – Extrasolar Planet Detection from Spectroscopy and MicrolensingOral Session – Room 104B (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 10:00 AM to 11:30 AM S. Quinn, R.J. White, J.R. Cantrell, Physics & Astronomy, Georgia109.01 – Abstract under Embargo State University, Atlanta, GA; D.W. Latham, G. Furesz, A.D.P. Bennett, Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN Szentgyorgyi, J.C. Geary, G. Torres, A. Bieryla, P.L. Berlind, M.L.10:00 AM-10:10 AM Calkins, G. Esquerdo, R.P. Stefanik, Harvard-Smithsonian CenterAbstract Under Embargo for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA; L. Buchhave, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen, DENMARK; L. Buchhave, Centre for Star109.02D – Detecting Planets in the Era of Second Generation Microlensing Surveys and Planet Formation, Copenhagen, DENMARK; S.E. Dahm,J. Yee, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH W.M. Keck Observatory, Kamuela, HI10:10 AM-10:30 AM 10:40 AM-10:50 AMMicrolensing is entering a new era of second generation surveys: i.e. surveys with a fast We present results from our ongoing radial velocity search for planets in open clusters.enough cadence (<~15 minutes) to detect and characterize anomalies due to planets. The occurrence rate of 2 planets among 53 F- and G-dwarfs surveyed in the metal-richSuch surveys include the current OGLE/MOA/Wise survey, the upcoming Korean Praesepe open cluster, when corrected for incompleteness, indicates a short-period giantMicrolensing Telescope Network, and ultimately WFIRST. These new surveys require a planet frequency of 3.96 (+5.02)(-2.51)%, which is consistent with the hot Jupiterfundamentally different approach to the data. Rather than selecting by eye the best frequency around metal-rich field stars; contrary to previous suggestions, giant planetevents for analysis and publication, it will be necessary to analyze all events and to formation and migration may not be inhibited in open clusters. Moreover, theseestablish statistical criteria with which to determine any individual signals believability. discoveries demonstrate that giant planets can migrate to small orbital separations withinMy thesis work is the first investigation into setting a detection threshold for 600 Myr. We also show results from a more complete survey of the Hyades than wasmicrolensing planets using Δχ2 . I will present the analysis of two high magnification previously carried out and our initial investigation of Alpha Persei. Finally, we brieflymicrolensing events and show how these events can be combined with other events to discuss the potential impact of planets in clusters on theories of giant planet migration.outline an empirical detection threshold. My work suggests that for high magnificationevents (peak magnification >100) the threshold is between Δχ2 of 500 and Δχ2 of 880,but for planetary caustic crossing events, which will form the bulk of the second 109.05 – Habitable Earth-like Planet Surveys with Next Generation Extremely Highgeneration survey detections, the threshold may be much lower. Resolution and High Doppler Precision Optical and Near IR Spectrographs J. Ge, S. Powell, B. Zhao, J. Wang, A. Fletcher, L. Chang, J. Groot,109.03 – Exo-comet Detection in Debris Disks Around Young A-type Stars X. Wan, H. Jakeman, D. Myers, E. Grafer, J. Liu, F. Varosi, S.B. Welsh, UC, Berkeley, Pleasant Hill, CA; S.L. Montgomery, Schofield, A. Moore, M. van Olphen, J. Katz, Univ. of Florida,Clarion University, Clarion, PA Gainesville, FL; M.W. Muterspaugh, Tennessee State University,10:30 AM-10:40 AM Neshville, TN; R. Barnes, University of Washington, Seatle, WA; C.We present details of the successful search for comet-like bodies (i.e. exo-comets) in Blake, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ; L. Chang, Yunnanorbit around several nearby stars. These objects have been found in young stellar Astronomical Observatory, Kunming, Yunnan, CHINAsystems that are in the transitional stage of evolution between possession of a gaseous 10:50 AM-11:00 AMprotoplanetary disk to that of a dust-rich debris disk. During this period it is thought thatlarge planetesimals of ~ 1000 km diameter may cause dynamical perturbations in the Two major high precision Doppler surveys for habitable Earth-like planets are about topopulation of smaller bodies (such as asteroids and comets), such that they are sent on launch in 2013 using next generation extremely high spectral resolution and high Dopplerhighly eccentric orbits towards their parent star resulting in the liberation of large precision optical and near infrared (NIR) spectrographs developed at UF in 2009-2012.amounts of evaporating gas and dust. By observing the varying spectral absorption The optical spectrograph, called EXtremely high Precision ExtrasolaR planet Trackersignature of the CaII K-line at 3933Å due to this liberated gas, we have been able to (EXPERT) III (EXPERT-III), produces a spectral resolution over R=100,000 andtrack the trajectory of these exo-comets over a time-frame of several nights as they simultaneously covers 0.38-0.9 mm with a 4kx4k back-illuminated Fairchild CCDapproach (and sometimes pass around) the central star. The youngest debris disks (1 – detector in a single exposure. It will be coupled to the KPNO 2.1-m telescope. The near50 Myr) are thought to represent the last stage in the formation of planetary systems IR spectrograph, called the Florida IR Silicon immersion grating spectromeTer (FIRST),and they may resemble our solar system’s own debris disk at the time of the Late produces R=70,000 at 1.4-1.8 mm or R=60,000 at 0.8-1.35 mm in a single exposure withHeavy Bombardment when the terrestrial worlds were subject to frequent collisions a 2kx2k H2RG IR array. It will be coupled with the Tennessee State University 2-mwith asteroids and comets. Collisions with water-rich comets from the outer regions of Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope (AST) at Fairborn Observatory in Arizona. Ourour solar system may have delivered water to thee Earth’s oceans. rocky planet survey with EXPERT-III will primarily target habitable zone (HZ) rocky planets around nearby ~300 bright K0-M4 dwarfs with V<8.5. Our NIR M dwarf survey is the first large-scale NIR high precision Doppler survey dedicated to detecting109.04 – A Search for Hot Jupiters in Open Clusters: Initial Discoveries and Current and characterizing planets around ~200 nearby M dwarfs with J< 10. A combination ofProspects the EXPERT-III HZ planet survey in the optical wavelengths with the FIRST HZ planet
  • 12. survey around M4-M9 dwarfs in the near IR wavelengths will give us a broad view of Pasadena, CA; M.P. Fitzgerald, I.S. McLean, University ofHZ planets around low-mass stars for the first time. The overall planet sample will California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; A.M. Tanner, Mississippisubstantially increase the power for the statistical study of planet occurrence andproperties and constraining planet formation models and physical conditions around low State, Starkville, MS; L.A. Prato, Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZmass (0.2-0.8 M ) stars. We will report the early Doppler performance of both survey 11:00 AM-11:10 AMinstruments on the telescopes. We have built and commissioned a gas absorption cell and non-circular core fiber scrambler for precision spectroscopic radial velocity measurements in the near-infrared.109.06 – Precision Near-Infrared Radial Velocity Instrumentation and Exoplanet Survey We are currently carrying out a pilot survey with the gas cell and the CSHELLP. Plavchan, C.A. Beichman, C. Brinkworth, J.A. Johnson, D. spectrograph at the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) to detect exoplanetsCiardi, K. von Braun, S.R. Kane, NASA Exoplanet Science around low mass and young stars. We discuss the current status of our survey, with the aim of photon-noise limited radial velocity precision. For adequately bright targets, weInstitute, Pasadena, CA; G. Anglada-Escud?, University of are able to probe a noise floor of ~7 m/s with the gas cell with CSHELL at cassegrainGoettingen, Goettingen, GERMANY; R.J. White, C. Davison, focus. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of applying these calibration andGeorgia State University, Atlanta, GA; C.A. Beichman, J.K. illumination stabilization techniques to the next generation of near-infrared spectrographsWallace, B. Mennesson, G. Vasisht, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, such as iSHELL on IRTF and an upgraded NIRSPEC at Keck.Pasadena, CA; J.A. Johnson, P. Gao, M. Bottom, Caltech,110 – From Star Formation to Cosmology: Astrophysics with CCAT in the Next DecadeSpecial Session – Room 103C (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 10:00 AM to 11:30 AM CCAT will be a 25-m diameter submillimeter telescope in Chile at an elevation of 18,400 feet. A precise, actively controlled surface combined with excellent atmospheric transparency will permit routine 350 um observations, with the full wavelength coverage extending from 200 um to 2.1 mm. Following a strong recommendation from Astro2010, CCAT’s engineering design phase is well underway and will be completed in mid-2013; CCAT construction is poised to begin shortly after. In this Special Session, we will describe the design and status of the CCAT telescope, instrument development, and science plans. CCAT’s 1 degree field-of-view, 3.5 arcsecond resolution (FWHM, 350 um) and complement of large-format focal plane arrays making use of the most cutting-edge detector technology will enable it to undertake major surveys in various areas of astrophysics. CCAT will observe galaxies from low redshifts, through the peak of galaxy formation activity, and into the epoch of reionization. Multiwavelength photometry will identify high-redshift candidates (z > 4) and measure bolometric luminosities and star formation rates of galaxies with minimal source confusion at the shortest wavelengths. CCAT will probe the astrophysics of galaxy clusters by measuring the integrated Sunyaev- Zel’dovich effect out to cluster virial radii, while robustly removing dusty, contaminating point sources. Maps of nearby galaxies will resolve structures down to the size scales of GMCs. In the Milky Way, CCAT will measure the molecular cloud clump mass function down to the substellar regime. Surveys will rapidly build up samples of hundreds of thousands of sources for statistical studies, follow-up with other facilities, and comparison to multiwavelength observations. The CCAT partnership includes Cornell, Caltech, the University of Colorado, the Universities of Bonn and Cologne, a consortium of Canadian Universities, and AUI, Inc. 10:00 AM-10:00 AM110.01 – Cosmology with CCATR. Bean, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY Using large format bolometer cameras and heterodyne arrays, CCAT will image the gas and dust over entire molecular clouds with an angular resolution of a few arcseconds.10:00 AM-10:00 AM These observations will encompass the major stages in the star formation process, fromWe discuss the range of cosmological and cluster science that could be realized using the large-scale diffuse cloud, to filaments and dense core, and to circumstellar disks. Inthe proposed CCAT sub-mm observatory. this talk, I will discuss how CCAT surveys will address many critical topics in star formation, including the lifetime of molecular clouds, the dissipation of turbulence in110.02 – The Submillimeter CCAT Telescope: as High as You Can Drive a Truck clouds, and the evolution of circumstellar disks.R. Giovanelli, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 110.05 – Measuring the Star Formation History of the Universe with CCAT10:00 AM-10:00 AM J. Glenn, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, COCCAT is a consortium to build a 25-meter telescope at very high (5600m=18400ft) 10:00 AM-10:00 AMelevation in the Atacama Desert, which will operate at wavelengths as short as 200micron. The consortium includes Cornell University, the California Institute of Astrophysicists are faced with a fundamental question: How did galaxies form from theTechnology and the University of Colorado in the US, an alliance of eight universities in smooth primordial plasma of the early Universe? With an established ΛCDM cosmologyCanada, the universities of Cologne and Bonn in Germany, and Associated Universities, and numerical N-body simulations, there is a framework for understanding galaxyInc., of Washington, D.C. It is designed with a large field of view (1 deg), to maximize formation; however, theories are far from complete. The discovery of the cosmicsurvey speed and accommodate large detector arrays. Among its science goals are the far-infrared background radiation and subsequent submillimeter observationscharacterization of the population of galaxies at high redshift, mapping the first clusters unequivocally established the importance of characterizing embedded star formation inof galaxies, elucidating the connection between the stellar IMF and the ISM cloud cores. galaxies and confronted galaxy formation theories with an important population of highAn update on the design of the telescope and instrumentation plans will also be star-formation-rate galaxies to reconcile. CCAT is a 25 m diameter submillimeterpresented. telescope to be built on Cerro Chajnantor on the Atacama Plateau, an extremely high, dry site. By virtue of its short-submillimeter to millimeter-wave spectral coverage,110.03 – Nearby Galaxies in the CCAT Era excellent sensitivity, and small beams (3.5 x λ / 350 μm FWHM), CCAT will help address open galaxy formation questions. For example, what is the star formation historyC. Wilson, McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario, CANADA of the Universe? With spectral coverage from 350 μm (200 μm goal) to 2.1 mm, CCAT10:00 AM-10:00 AM will measure the bolometric luminosities and dust (metals) content of star-formingThe availability of new telescopes and instruments makes it possible to study large, galaxies from z ~ 1, past z ~ 3, where we have little information on star formation, andwell-selected samples of nearby galaxies at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. into the epoch of reionization, while suffering minimal source confusion by resolvingThese observations trace the cold dense gas and dust which is the fuel for current and almost all of the cosmic far-infrared background radiation. How do highfuture star formation and provide crucial complementary data for the large surveys of star-formation-rate galaxies fit into hierarchical galaxy formation scenarios? Large-areanearby galaxies which are now available or planned at many other wavelengths. I will clustering measurements (as a function of luminosity) will determine dark matter haloprovide a brief overview of some key results from existing surveys of nearby galaxies occupation statistics. Lastly, how badly do galaxy formation models fail to predict thewith Herschel and ground-based millimeter telescopes and discuss the prospects for space density of high star formation rate (SFR > 1000 solar masses per year) galaxies atsurveys of nearby galaxies with CCAT. z > 4? CCAT’s combination of large-area survey capability with minimum source confusion susceptibility and 1.3mm/850μm/350μm color selection for z > 4 galaxies will110.04 – CCAT Surveys of Molecular Clouds uniquely identify rare, high-z galaxies. Thus, CCAT will provide important, new observational capabilities to inform our understanding of galaxy formation at highJ.M. Carpenter, Caltech, Pasadena, CA redshift.
  • 13. 111 – Galaxy Clusters IOral Session – Room 103A (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 10:00 AM to 11:30 AM radio synchrotron continuum. We implement these calculations by adapting the spectral111.01 – The SDSS DR9 Adaptive Matched Filter Cluster Catalog and Brightest Cluster simulation code CLOUDY (Ferland et al. 1998). We discuss the observability of theGalaxies hyperfine line with ALMA for the Perseus cluster.T. Szabo, Cerritos College, Norwalk, CA; T. Szabo, E. Pierpaoli,University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 111.04D – An Integral View on Virgo and Field Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies: Late-Type10:00 AM-10:10 AM Origin and Environmental TransformationsWe present a new galaxy cluster catalog extracted from SDSS DR9 data using an A. Rys, J. Falcon-Barroso, Instituto de Astrofisica de Canariasadaptive matched filter (AMF) cluster finder. We identify and characterize (IAC), La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, SPAIN; A. Rys, J.approximately 33700 rich clusters in 14440 square degrees of sky in the redshift range Falcon-Barroso, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), La Laguna,0.05 ≤ z ≤ 0.62. We compare our catalog with other cluster catalogs generated from Santa Cruz de Tenerife, SPAIN; G. van de Ven, Max PlanckSDSS data, as well as X-ray cluster catalogs and the Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster catalog Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Heidelberg, GERMANYfrom Planck. We identify BCG candidates in our clusters and summarize theirdistribution and color properties. 10:40 AM-11:00 AM Dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) are the most common galaxy class in dense111.02D – Filamentary Environment and Mass Measurements of Galaxy Clusters environments. They are also a surprisingly inhomogenous class, which has made itY. Noh, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA challenging both to relate different dE subtypes to each other, as well as place the whole class in the larger context of galaxy assembly and (trans)formation processes. Here we10:10 AM-10:30 AM will show the effects of environmental evolution on Virgo Cluster and field dEs,Galaxy clusters reside at the nodes of cosmic web and are fed matter along the presenting the first large-scale integral-field spectroscopic (SAURON) data for thisfilaments. This filamentary environment is important to understand the formation and the galaxy class. Our sample consists of 12 galaxies and no two of them are alike. We findevolution of galaxy clusters, and is also inevitably included when we observe them. This that the level of rotation is not tied to flattening; we observe kinematic twists; welatter effect generates projection effects on cluster observables. Reducing errors in discover large-scale kinematically-decoupled components; we see varying gradients inmeasuring cluster masses is of interest since a clusters mass is a crucial property for line-strength maps. This great variety of morphological, kinematic, and stellar populationmany areas of astrophysics and cosmology. We study the filamentary environment parameters supports the claim that dEs are defunct dwarf spiral/irregular galaxies andsurrounding galaxy clusters and its effect on the cluster mass measurements by points to a formation scenario that allows for a stochastic shaping of galaxy properties.constructing a filament catalogue in a high-resolution N-body simulation. We consider The combined influence of ram-pressure stripping and harassment fulfils thisthe statistical properties of filaments around galaxy clusters. Not only filaments but also requirement, still, their exact impact is not yet understood. We thus further investigatethe majority of mass in halos and number of galaxies in the local environment of clusters the properties of our sample by performing a detailed comprehensive analysis of itstends to lie on planes which are mostly aligned with each other and with the clusters kinematic, dynamical, and stellar population properties. We infer the total (dark andmajor axis. We show that this local planar environment can be one source of projection baryonic) matter distribution by fitting the observed stellar velocity and velocityeffects that bias cluster mass measurements. Sources of mass measurement scatters dispersion with the solutions of the Jeans equations. We obtain 2D age, metallicity, andare shared between different mass measurement methods, generating correlations in enrichment information from line-strength analysis. We then tie these results to thetheir respective scatters. This correlated scatter mitigates the complementary galaxies intrinsic (i.e. deprojected) locations in the cluster with the use of surface-information of cluster mass measurements in multi-wavelength observations. We study brightness fluctuation distances. This step is essential to providing unbiased correlationsthe scatter by calculating correlations/covariances between them and performing with the local environment density. We show that the dark matter fraction, unlike thePrincipal Component Analysis (PCA). As expected, the scatter from different level of rotational support, appears to correlate with the clustrocentric distance, and thattechniques tends to be correlated. We find that the combination of scatters which our dwarfs have kinematic properties similar to those of fast-rotating giant early-typedominates the variance of all the measurements is common for the majority of clusters. galaxies.Its dominance tends to be enhanced when observing along the clusters major axis. Wealso find shared trends among cluster mass scatter, intrinsic and environmental 111.05D – Optimal Mass Configurations for Lensing High-Redshift Galaxies (and howproperties of clusters using PCA. to find them in the SDSS!) K.C. Wong, A.I. Zabludoff, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; S.111.03 – Observing the Hyperfine 3.06mm Line Of Iron-57 With ALMA Ammons, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA;M. Chatzikos, G.J. Ferland, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY; C.R. Keeton, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJR. Williams, AWE, Reading, UNITED KINGDOM; A. Fabian, 11:00 AM-11:20 AMUniversity of Cambridge, Cambridge, UNITED KINGDOM We investigate whether lines of sight containing multiple cluster-scale halos are the best10:30 AM-10:40 AM cosmic telescopes for lensing high-redshift (z~10) sources into detectability. For lines ofThe central regions of galaxy clusters are known to harbor a large reservoir of sight of fixed angular size and total mass, we test how the lensing cross section and thenear-solar metallicity gas. In this work, we investigate the predictions of Sunyaev & number of faint galaxies detected at high redshift change as that mass is distributedChurazov (1984) and DCruz, Sarazin & Dubau (1998; DSD98) that the 3.06mm among multiple halos, as well as which physical properties of the halos are mosthyperfine structure line of iron-57 may be observable in the gaseous atmospheres of important. We find that multiple projected halos are can result in improvement in thegalaxy clusters. Because iron-57 is produced through different nuclear reaction channels detection of faint, high-z sources compared to single halos of equivalent total mass duein supernovae type Ia and II, the relative abundance of this isotope with respect to to the interactions among the lensing potentials when the projected halos overlap. Usingiron-56 is expected to shed some light into the different supernova rates that occur in integrated LRG luminosity density as a tracer of mass, we have identified lines of sightgalaxy clusters. To this end, we have expanded the work of DSD98 to include indirect in the SDSS that are likely to contain the largest total integrated masses. These fieldsexcitations of the more energetic hyperfine state through cascades from higher atomic contain a diversity of single massive clusters and chance alignments of multiple halos inlevels than 2p, optical pumping by X-rays from the central AGN, and the effects of the projection, and are likely to be among the best gravitational lenses known.112 – Galaxy Evolution at z~2Oral Session – Room 104C (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 10:00 AM to 11:30 AM 10:00 AM-10:10 AM112.01 – CANDELS: The Progenitors of Compact Quiescent Galaxies at z~2G. Barro, S.M. Faber, D.C. Koo, D. Kocevski, M. Mozena, E.J. The remarkably small and compact sizes of massive quiescent galaxies at z~2 has fueled multiple studies that investigate different evolutionary scenarios to explain howMcGrath, University of California Observatories/Lick, Santa Cruz, these galaxies formed. A missing part of the puzzle is the nature of their progenitors.CA; P.G. Perez-Gonzalez, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Such progenitors are expected to be massive, compact, star-forming galaxies at higherMadrid, Madrid, SPAIN; C.C. Williams, University of redshifts. Using the deepest HST WFC3/F160W imaging data from the CANDELSMassachusetts, Amherst, MA; S. Wuyts, Max-Planck-Institut fur survey, that probes the optical rest-frame bands at z>2, in combination with NIR spectroscopy, we are able to identify a significant population of galaxies with similarExtraterrestrische Physik, Munich, Munich, GERMANY; A. van der structural properties as the quiescent population but without fully suppressedWel, Max-Planck Institut fur Astronomie, Heidelberg, Heidelberg, star-formation. The number density of these sources account for the observedGERMANY increment in the density of massive quiescent galaxies between z=2 and 3, while their
  • 14. estimated luminosity-weighted ages are consistent with a formation epoch of ~1 Gyr. AGN play in quenching star formation activity in galaxies. Based on work modeling theFor some of these objects we detect prominent Balmer breaks and Balmer absorption structure and stellar populations of AGN host galaxies out to z~3, our initial resultslines that supports the post-starburst hypothesis. Interestingly enough, we also find a indicate the build-up of mass within the inner 1 kpc of galaxies is the single property thathigh rate of X-ray detections among these galaxies (> 30%) indicating that the triggering is most directly correlated with the quenching of star formation activity. In particular, weof an AGN could play a fundamental role in the quenching process. find there exists a sharp threshold in central surface mass density (CMSD) above which galaxies are predominately quenched. I will show that the hosts of X-ray detected AGN112.02 – Morphological Properties and AGN Content of High Redshift Luminous cluster about this quenching threshold in color-CSMD space. In general, these findingsInfrared Galaxies are consistent with a bulge growth + AGN feedback quenching model.J.S. Kartaltepe, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, 112.06 – Decoding Stellar Population Properties of Dusty, IR-luminous Galaxies at z~2AZ in CANDELS10:10 AM-10:20 AM J. Pforr, M. Dickinson, J.S. Kartaltepe, NOAO, Tucson, AZ; K.We explore the evolution of the morphological properties of (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Penner, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson,Galaxies ((U)LIRGs) over cosmic time using a large sample of galaxies from Herschelobservations of the CANDELS fields (including GOODS, COSMOS, and UDS). In AZparticular, we investigate whether the role of galaxy mergers has changed between z~2 11:00 AM-11:10 AMand now using the extensive visual classification catalogs produced by the CANDELS For a solid picture of galaxy evolution the robust determination of galaxy properties isteam. The combination of a selection from Herschel, near the peak of IR emission, and crucial. A number of studies have used simulations to address this issue for therest-frame optical morphologies from CANDELS, provides the ideal comparison to determination of stellar population parameters via SED-fitting for normal galaxies. In thisnearby (U)LIRGs. We then study the how role of galaxy mergers and the presence of work, we address the problem for IR-luminous galaxies at z~2, whose properties mightAGN activity correspond to the galaxys position in the star formation rate - stellar mass be more challenging to estimate due to their very high star formation rates and high dustplane. content. We investigate Herschel detected sources in GOODS-S using CANDELS data via SED-fitting with a variety of reddening laws designed to reflect the spread of112.03D – Structural Properties and Visual Morphologies of z~2 Galaxies in the properties that has been observed for such sources in terms of their UV extinctionCANDELS Fields and Hydrodynamical Simulations (A_UV) versus reddening (UV spectral slope β). We will present comparisons forM. Mozena, S.M. Faber, D.C. Koo, University of California, Santa photometric redshifts, stellar masses, star formation rates, and other properties for the different parameter choices.Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA; S.M. Faber, D.C. Koo, University ofCalifornia Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, 112.07 – SED Fitting and Photometric Redshift Estimation: A Joint AnalysisSanta Cruz, CA; J.R. Primack, C.E. Moody, Physics Department, V. Acquaviva, CUNY NYC College of Technology, Brooklyn, NY; A.University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA; A. Dekel, Raichoor, GEPI - Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, Paris, FRANCE;Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, E.J. Gawiser, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey,ISRAEL; D. Ceverino, Grupo de Astrofisica, Universidad Autonoma Piscataway, NJde Madrid, Madrid, SPAIN 11:10 AM-11:20 AM10:20 AM-10:40 AM Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) fitting is a key instrument in understanding theThe z~2 universe is an active epoch of increased star formation and AGN activity. physical properties of galaxies, such as stellar mass, stellar age, dust content, metallicity,Through major mergers, minor mergers, and cold flow gas accretion, galaxies are and star formation history. Traditionally, when spectroscopic information is not available,quickly increasing their masses and changing their global structural properties and the photometric redshifts of galaxies and the SED fitting parameters are evaluatedmorphologies. Using the deepest optical (ACS) and near infra-red (WFC3) observations separately, by means of photo-z codes based on empirical templates and SED fittingfrom the HST Multi-Cycle Treasury CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near Infra-Red algorithms based on theoretical templates libraries. We present our implementation of aDeep Extragalactic Legacy Survey), we compare the structural properties of z~2 fast Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm, SpeedyMC (Acquaviva et al 2011), to fitgalaxies in the rest-frame near-UV and optical to those predicted by the latest photometric redshifts and galaxy properties at the same time. This approach has thecosmologically motivated hydrodynamical simulations (Hydro-ART by Ceverino, Dekel obvious advantage that the uncertainty in the photometric redshifts is correctlyand Primack and ERIS by Guedes and Madau). We render these simulated galaxy incorporated in the estimation of the probability distribution functions of the SED fittingimages to mimic the observed ACS and WFC3 images in CANDELS, and include the parameters. We compare the performance of SpeedyMC in estimating redshifts to thateffects of dust obscuration. We explore how the sizes, masses, and morphologies of z~2 of photo-z codes like EAZY (Brammer et al 2008) and evaluate the impact of using thegalaxies observed in the hydrodynamical models compare with the global properties of joint redshift+parameters analysis on different sets of multi-wavelength data.galaxies observed in the CANDELS fields. Comparing the observations of z~2CANDELS galaxies with those from the latest hydrodynamical models provides new 112.08 – To Stack or Not to Stack: Lessons from z=2.1 Lyman-Alpha Emitting Galaxiesand important insights into the nature of galaxy formation and assembly in the excitingz~2 universe. C.J. Vargas, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM; C.J. Vargas, H. Bish, E.J. Gawiser, V. Acquaviva, Rutgers University,112.04 – Major and Minor Mergers as a Function of Redshift and Environmental New Brunswick, NJ; V. Acquaviva, CUNY NYC College ofEvolution in CANDELS - Cosmological Implications Technology, New York, NY; S.L. Finkelstein, University of Texas atC. Conselice, A. Mortlock, Univ. of Nottingham, University Park, Austin, Austin, TXUNITED KINGDOM 11:20 AM-11:30 AM10:40 AM-10:50 AM Lyman-alpha Emitting (LAE) galaxies have the lowest bolometric luminosity of anyWe present results investigating the minor and major merger history of galaxies as a well-studied high redshift population and thus provide an ideal probe of the properties offunction of time from z = 3 until today as seen in the CANDELS, GNS and UKIDSS typical high-redshift galaxies, but having such dim continua makes it difficult to studysurveys. We demonstrate how mergers can be located through morphological measures, their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). It has therefore been a common procedure toas well as through galaxy pairs using kinematics and projection corrected for chance stack the SEDs of many LAEs in order to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio. However,superposition. We find an increase with redshift using all methods up to z = 3 and inconsistencies in the literature motivate a study of the validity of the stacking methodinvestigate how this changes with environment as well. We furthermore compare our for SED fitting. We match a sample of LAEs at z=2.1 discovered by the MUSYCresults to models of galaxy formation both using cold and warm dark matter collaboration (Guaita et al 2010) with the CANDELS (Grogin et al 2011; Koekemoer etsemi-analytical models as well as the underlying merging of dark matter halo. We al 2011) GOODS-S multi-wavelength catalog, which offers deep photometry for 18 ofgenerally find that the dark matter halo mergers are a better agreement than galaxy these LAEs. We create stacked SEDs using two methods: flux stacking, which takesmergers in Cold Dark Matter and discuss the implications for this. the median of the flux values from the CANDELS SEDs at each wavelength, and image stacking, where the CANDELS images of the same LAEs are median-combined.112.05 – AGN Activity at the Quenching Threshold To obtain the image stacked SED, SExtractor photometry is performed on the stacked galaxy images in each band. SED fitting is performed on the individual object andD. Kocevski, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY; S.M. Faber, stacked SEDs with SpeedyMC (Acquaviva et al 2011). The SED fitting process allowsD.C. Koo, E.J. McGrath, University of California, Santa Cruz, us to infer physical properties including stellar mass, age and dust content. TheSanta Cruz, CA considerable scatter in each property provides constraints on the nature of z = 2.1 LAEs10:50 AM-11:00 AM that cannot be revealed by stacked SEDs. Nonetheless, we find good agreement between the median SED parameters of the 18 LAEs and the median flux-stackedI will discuss recent results from the CANDELS survey that shed light on the role that estimate for the same sample. The median image stack, however, does not reproduce
  • 15. the galaxies properties as a whole, questioning the validity of the image stackingmethod.113 – HAD III/HEAD I Special: Fifty Years of Celestial X-ray AstronomySpecial Session – Room 201B (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 10:00 AM to 11:30 AM In the 50 years since the 1962 discovery of the first extrasolar x-ray source, the field of x-ray astronomy has grown from a few unidentified sources to a full-fledged branch of celestial astronomy. This session brings together 19 researchers from the early decades who will share with each other and the audience highlights of their experiences in an informal setting. The session will consist of three panels, and will be videotaped for the historical record. Each panelist will make a brief statement after which the panelists will engage in free discussion. 10:00 AM. Panel 1: Lamb, Peterson, Seward, Stella, Ulmer, White; Moderator Rothschild 10:30 AM. Panel 2: Cominsky, Schwartz, Serlemitsos, Swank, Urry, Ricker; Moderator Bradt 11:00 AM. Panel 3: Elvis, Flanagan, Jones, Murray, Weisskopf; Moderator Rothschild group at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Working first for Mel Ulmer,113.01 – The MIT Program, Competition, and Ethics and later for Bill Forman and Christine Jones, I learned the fundamentals of dataH. Bradt, MIT, Cambridge, MA analysis, and helped produce the Fourth Uhuru catalog of X-ray sources (Forman et al.10:00 AM-10:00 AM 1978), as well as studying transient X-ray sources (Cominsky et al. 1978). Christine was the first woman scientist I had ever met, and with her encouragement, I applied toThe MIT program in x-ray astronomy was, and still is, diverse and productive. Bruno graduate school to continue on in X-ray astronomy. Lured down the street to MIT by theRossi and later George Clark, as the nominal leaders of the “x-ray astronomy group” chance to work on SAS-3, I eagerly learned how to operate the satellite from a controlcreated a “hands-off” culture wherein individual researchers could develop their own room in the Center for Space Research. The SAS-3 group was led by Prof. Georgeindependent programs. Walter Lewin, Claude Canizares, and I as well as those in the Clark, and it was my good luck that he was around during the holiday break in Januarynext academic generations, e.g., Saul Rappaport and George Ricker, were able to thrive 1978 when everyone else in the group was at an AAS meeting in Hawaii. A source Iin this environment. MIT researchers were principal investigators or providers of x-ray recognized from my Uhuru work, 4U0115+63, had reappeared, and I knew that it wasinstruments on sounding rockets and balloons in the 1960s and then in later years on nine likely to be a pulsar. With the help of George and Project Scientist Bill Mayer, Isatellite missions, OSO-7, SAS-3, HEAO-1, Einstein, ASCA, RXTE, Chandra, HETE-2, managed to send the commands to stop SAS-3 and point at the source. The 3.6 secondand Suzaku. Such a diverse program involved collaborations with other institutions and pulsations were so strong that they could be seen in the raw data! This discovery madeof course striving for primacy in discovery and competition for NASA resources. the New York Times, as 4U0115+63 was the first transient x-ray source shown to be inLooking back, I see a high degree of ethical behavior among the observational x-ray a binary system (Cominsky et al. 1978, Rappaport et al. 1978). Another personal SAS-3community during those years. In competition, we remembered that we might well be highlight included working on Prof. Walter Lewin’s “World-wide Burst Watch” -collaborating the following year and behaved accordingly. Many of us in the x-ray coordinated multi-wavelength observations of x-ray burst sources which led to thecommunity had been friends since graduate school days and did not want to lose those discoveries of slightly delayed but coincident optical bursts (Grindlay et al. 1978,relationships. Am I viewing the past through rose colored glasses? I think not. A McClintock et al. 1979). Although live operations of SAS-3 ended when it re-entered onvignette on this topic: In 1967, I was debating vigorously with Herb Gursky of AS&E April 9, 1979, many years of additional data analysis remained. And later, as aabout which institution, MIT or AS&E, should be the lead on the fourth paper (Oda et continuation of work I began in my Ph.D. Thesis on X-ray burst sources, I used SAS-3al. 1967, ApJ 148, L5) based on data from the 1966 AS&E rocket flight which had led data together with data from HEAO A-1 to discover the first true eclipses from anto Allan Sandage’s (and Japanese) identification of Sco X-1 (Sandage, et al. 1966, ApJ. x-ray burster (MXB1659-29, Cominsky and Wood 1984), providing definitive evidence146, 316). I and my Italian colleague, Gianfranco Spada, and our Japanese colleague, of the binary nature of a second class of x-ray sources.Minoru Oda, both then visiting MIT, had actively supported that flight. After one ratherheated discussion with Herb about this, – I was the heated one; he always remained 113.04 – The Discovery of X-ray Emission from Active Galactic Nucleicalm – he left my office saying: “Hale, however this comes out, let’s remain friends.” Itreasured that comment and still do; it remained a guiding light in all my future M. Elvis, Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, Cambridge, MAcollaborations and competitions. How the dispute was resolved was much less 10:00 AM-10:00 AMimportant. In fact, everyone gave up a bit, and it ended amicably. We remained friends. Back in 1974 the UHURU catalog (3U) had been published with many UHGLS - unidentified high galactic latitude sources. Identifications were hampered by the square113.02 – Two Amazing Rocket Launches That Began My Career degree sized error boxes (positional uncertainties). Could these explain the cosmic X-rayR.E. Rothschild, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA background? Could UHGLS be X-ray galaxies? Only three active galaxies (AGNs)10:00 AM-10:00 AM had been found as X-ray sources: 3C273, Cen A and NGC 4151, while others had upper limits. What was the difference between X-ray and non-X-ray AGNs? It turned out thatI began my X-ray astronomy career by being given the responsibility for the Goddard the slightly better positioning capability and slightly deeper sensitivity of the Ariel V Skyrocket program by Frank MacDonald in the early 70s. I am forever grateful to him and Survey Instrument (SSI), launched in October 1974, were just enough to show that theElihu Boldt for the opportunity. The rockets observing program was three compact UHGLS were Seyfert galaxies. And I was lucky enough that Id joined the Leicesterbinary X-ray sources that could not have been more different: Cyg X-1, Cyg X-3, and X-ray group and had taken on the UHGLS for my PhD thesis, with Ken Pounds as myHer X-1. A sounding rocket launch is nothing like a satellite launch with its large booster, supervisor. With the SSI we made a catalog of high latitude sources, the 2A catalog,Cape Canaveral experience, and lots of procedures and no touching of the hardware. including about a dozen known Seyfert galaxies (lowish luminosity nearby AGNs) and,First of all, one can walk up to the sounding rocket tower (at least you used to be able with Mike Penston and Martin Ward, we went on to identify many of them with bothto) and go up in it to fix or adjust something with the yet-to-be-fueled rocket, booster, newly discovered normal broad emission line AGNs and a few new narrow emissionand payload just sitting there. At launch, you can see it up close (~100 m) and personal, line galaxies, or NELGs, as we called them. We are now convinced that it is summationand it is spectacular. There is an explosion (the Nike booster igniting), a bright flash of of many obscured NELGs that produce the flat spectrum of the X-ray background, andlight, and it is gone in a second or two. And back in the block house, I watched Her X-1 we are still searching for them in Chandra deep surveys and at higher energies withpulse in real time, after Chuck Glasser calmed me down and explained that the detectors NuSTAR. There was an obvious connection between the X-ray obscuration and thewere not arcing but it was Her X-1. The Cyg X-1 observations resulted in the discovery optical reddening, which must lie outside the region emitting the broad optical spectralof millisecond temporal structure in the flux from a cosmic source -- 13 1-ms bursts over lines. Andy Lawrence and I, following a clue from Bill Keel, put this together into whata total of two minutes of observing in the 2 flights. Cyg X-3 was seen in a high state in we now call the Unified Scheme for AGN structure. This idea of a flattened torusthe first flight and in a lower harder state in the second, where we detected the iron line obscuring the inner regions of the AGN was so dramatically confirmed a few years laterfor the first time in a Galactic source. The Her X-1 observation clearly showed the high -- by Ski Antonucci and Joe Millers discovery of polarized broad emission lines inenergy roll-over of the spectrum for the first time. The light curves of the first flight NGC1068 -- that the precursor papers became irrelevant. But Ariel V had provided thefound their way into many presentations, including Ricardo Giacconis Nobel lecture. seeds for this advance too. Not bad for 100cm2 and 1/2 degree collimators.The Goddard rocket program was an amazing beginning to my career. 113.05 – The Chandra XRCF Calibration Experience - A Personal Recollection113.03 – From Uhuru at CfA to SAS-3 at MIT: Looking for X-Ray Binaries in all theRight Places K. Flanagan, STScI, Baltimore, MDL.R. Cominsky, Sonoma State Univ., Rohnert Park, CA 10:00 AM-10:00 AM10:00 AM-10:00 AM My undergraduate thesis research involved calibrating an imaging proportion counter for the Focal Plane Crystal Spectrometer on the Einstein X-ray Observatory. The testingMy career in X-ray astronomy started almost accidentally, when in 1975 I was hired was done in a laboratory on the 5th floor of MIT’s Center for Space Research, with onefresh out of college as a “data aide” for the Uhuru satellite, in Riccardo Giacconi’s or two other people in the room. Years later, when I joined the Chandra project, I had
  • 16. the unique experience of participating in the calibration of the mirrors and detectors at from the bunker to do it!). Thanks to NASA and the US Navys White Sands USSthe X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville Desert Ship (LLS-1; Land Locked Ship - 1) for all the support.Alabama. This was an eye-opening experience of an entirely different magnitude! Aquarter-mile long vacuum tube extended from an X-ray source building to a two-story 113.09 – The Origin of the UCSD X-ray Astronomy Program – A Personal Perspectivestructure housing a gigantic vacuum test chamber. Teams representing every part of theObservatory worked 24 hours a day, seven days a week for nearly half a year. This L.E. Peterson, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CAexperience represented an immense milestone – for the Observatory, perhaps for X-ray 10:00 AM-10:00 AMastronomy, and certainly for the people who worked so hard (and sacrificed so much) to I was a graduate student in the late 1950’s at the University of Minnesota in the Cosmicachieve it. Ray Group under Prof. John R. Winckler. He had a project monitoring Cosmic ray time variations from an extensive series of balloon flights using simple detectors during the113.06 – Technological and Scientific Advances from Uhuru to Chandra International Geophysical Year 1957-58. During the 20 March 1958 flight, a short 18C. Jones, Harvard-Smithsonian, CfA, Cambridge, MA sec. burst of high energy radiation was observed simultaneously with a class II Solar flare. From the ratio of the Geiger counter rate to the energy loss in the ionization10:00 AM-10:00 AM chamber, it was determined this radiation was likely hard X-rays or low-energy gammaThe technological and scientific advances from Uhuru to Chandra have been rays and not energetic particles. Further analysis using information from otherrevolutionary. While Uhuru observations provided major discoveries ranging from concurrent observations indicated the X-rays were likely due to Bremsstrahlung fromaccreting neutron stars in binary systems to the detection of quasars and the hot energetic electrons accelerated in the solar flare magnetic field; these same electronsintracluster medium in clusters of galaxies, Chandras high angular resolution has led to produced radio emissions. This first detection of extra-terrestrial X- or gamma raysadvances in all areas of astrophysics, from solar system objects to high redshift quasars. showed the importance of non-thermal processes in Astrophysical phenomena. WincklerThis contribution will highlight our advances in the study of galaxies and clusters, and I were interested by the possibility of non-solar hard X-rays. While completing myparticularly the study of AGN feedback and major cluster mergers. thesis on a Cosmic ray topic, I initiated a balloon program to develop more sensitive collimated low-background scintillation counters. This led to a proposal to the newly113.07 – Origins of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Mission formed NASA to place an exploratory instrument on the 1st Orbiting Solar Observatory launched 7 March 1962. In August that year, I assumed a tenure-track position atF.K. Lamb, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL UCSD; the data analysis of OSO-1 and the balloon program were transferred to UCSD10:00 AM-10:00 AM to initiate the X-ray Astronomy program. The discovery of Cosmic X-ray sources in theIn the mid 1970s, X-ray astronomy missions such as Uhuru, SAS-3, HEAO-1, and 1-10 Kev range on a rocket flight in June 1962 by Giacconi and colleagues gave impetusothers achieved dramatic scientific breakthroughs, such as the discovery of X-ray to the UCSD activities. It seemed evident cosmic X-ray sources could be detectedpulsars, thermonuclear X-ray bursts, and other rapid variations in X-ray emission from above 20 Kev using high-flying balloons. Early results included measurements of the 50neutron stars and black hole candidates. However, by the late 1970s there were serious million K gas in SCO X-1, and the X-ray continuum from the Crab Nebula characterizedconcerns that without a follow-on mission, these breakthroughs would not be followed by a power-law dN/dE ~ E-2.2. The instrument developments resulted in ever moreup for many years. In 1978, I became convinced that further progress required a unified, sophisticated and sensitive counter systems. Follow-on instruments were flown oncommunity-wide effort, and I decided to organize such an effort. I offer here some OSO-III and OSO-VII by the early 70’s, the HEAO-1 in 1976, and the RXTE in 1995.personal recollections of my early involvement in this endeavor, which continued until the These provided many new results on Cosmic X-rays.launch of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in late 1995. A key initial element ofthis effort was the April 1979 Washington Workshop that I organized in collaboration 113.1 – The HEAO-1 Scanning Modulation Collimatorwith David Pines. This workshop and its proceedings, the highly influential “OrangeBook” titled Compact Galactic X-ray Sources and published in 1979, were carefully D.A. Schwartz, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory,designed to achieve three goals: (1) to identify the key scientific questions, (2) to develop Cambridge, MAagreement within the U.S. astrophysics community on how these questions could best 10:00 AM-10:00 AMbe addressed observationally, and (3) to build community-wide support for such amission. The Washington Workshop and the “Orange Book” achieved all three of these My niche on this panel seems to be the High Energy Astronomy Observatory-1goals. The participants unanimously endorsed the Workshop’s conclusions that further Scanning Modulation Collimator experiment. Our chair, Hale Bradt, and the late Herbstudy of neutron stars and black holes was of the utmost scientific importance and that Gursky each proposed a different version modulation collimator, which was condensedan Explorer-class X-ray timing mission could address the key outstanding scientific by NASA via forced marriage, to the SMC. I worked as Project Scientist under Herb,questions. Furthermore, the participants unanimously recommended that NASA initiate later inheriting the PI role. The MIT Project Scientist, the late Rodger Doxsey, and Isuch a mission as soon as possible. Following the Washington Workshop and publication were told this is your experiment, and we are a seamless team regardless ofof the Orange Book, I energetically advocated creation of an X-ray timing mission in institution. Rodger and I were young enough to believe this, and we made it happenmany venues, arguing the case to National Research Council and NASA advisory (and not always with the best results vis a vis higher internal management). I was neverpanels, the 1980 Astronomy Decadel Survey, the NASA Administrator and his deputies, interested in astronomy, and allegedly am still not. Why do an astro-metrical job ofand others, as well as in numerous talks at universities and scientific institutes. These measuring and reporting the coordinates of X-ray sources? In fact we participatedefforts, and those of many others, helped make possible the creation of the enormously widely in the identification of the sources with astronomical object, and making eachsuccessful RXTE mission. paper a discussion of the physics of the emission. An enjoyable way to learn some astronomy. The stated purpose of the Gursky/Bradt experiment was to enable optical identifications so that more detailed study could be done. I remember meeting with John113.08 – So Many Rockets - The Road to High Resolution Imaging in X-rays Whelan to discuss his collaboration in making the optical identifications. He said he onlyS.S. Murray, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; S.S. wanted to study sources after they were identified. For many milliseconds I becameMurray, Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA very angry - who is going to to the work to MAKE those identifications, but luckily10:00 AM-10:00 AM before speaking I realized how satisfying it was that astronomers indeed wanted to study X-ray sources in other wavebands. The second biggest excitement in theWhen I first begin to work on new imaging detectors for X-ray Astronomy I was at HEAO-1 program was the glitches that appeared in the gyro data during finalAS&E and I worked with Leon Van Speybroeck and Ed Kellogg on a sounding rocket functional testing. This took some high-powered politics by all the PIs to convinceproject. We starting by using a microchannel plate image intensifier to detect X-ray MSFC to delay for 4 months, replacing the funny unit with one from HEAO-2photons and convert them to flashes of light that were recorded on 35 mm film frames. (Einstein) and later refurbishing that unit. Third biggest excitement was when aSimultaneously there was a 16 mm star camera taking frames so we could tell where computer failed and final checkout during countdown at the Cape was done by lookingthe X-rays were coming from. I spent about 6 years working on this payload, eventually at lights on gound support equipment. Biggest excitement was cancellation of the entirebecoming the PI and evolving the detector from a film readout to an electronic readout HEAO program late on a Friday afternoon in January 1971. It took a year of study and(the crossed grid charge detector) that was the basis for the Einstein, ROSAT and re-configuration as a series of 3, instead of 4, satellites to reinstate.Chandra High Resolution Imagers and Cameras. We had a series of about 6 or sorocket flights culminating in the 1978 flight that actually worked. We detected three 113.11 – GSFCs Multi-Wire Gas Proportional Counterphotons from Sco X1, and background data from that flight allowed us to set thedetector front bias voltage to minimize non-X-ray background for the Einstein HRI. Just P.J. Serlemitsos, NASAs GSFC, Greenbelt, MDabout everything that could go wrong on those rockets did go wrong, from a switch not 10:00 AM-10:00 AMclosing to a rocket misfire, to pointing 180 degrees off target. But we learned something The Goddard X-ray group made its appearance in 1964 as a one person (Elihu Boldt)each flight and kept coming back to try again. The worse thing for me was having to appendage to the well established cosmic ray group, then headed by Frank MacDonald.stay up all night at White Sands in a small darkroom where I could avoid the night This discipline proximity was crucial because it meant superb technical support from thecrawlers and scorpions that frightened me to death. Not to mention the daredevil start, which allowed the fledging group to quickly advance toward directions of choice.helicopter pilots who flew us to the recovery site hugging the ground at top speed all the When I became the 2nd member of the group in 1966, the new discipline still relied onway there! None-the-less, in the end we succeeded in our goals, and there is nothing so bulky gas counters, stacked to make up a usable detection area. Slim opportunitiesexciting as watching your payload being launched at night (even it did mean sneaking out
  • 17. existed for timing or spectral inferences. Elihus strong interest in pursuing the reported spectrum with constant radius strongly pointed to a neutron star as the source. Thediffuse cosmic radiation had to be set aside, as improving this situation appeared to be instrument had enough area, energy resolution and time resolution to see it.years away. Cosmic ray researchers had long used charged particle timing techniques Unbeknownst to me, thermonuclear flashes of accreting material had been predictedfor cleaning up their data, but those appeared irrelevant for our purposes because of the and they had been proposed as the explanation for bursts. At the next level of detail, tolarge, background generating, mass of the gas containment vessels and the slow drift in accurately determine mass, to account for emissivity (the color correction) and generalthe counter gas of the charge from photon interaction sites to the counter anode. We relativity, and use the observations to determine mass and radius, and the nuclear fuel,had to deal with these realities in whatever choices we made for our future instruments. many other parameters play a role. RXTE was designed to answer many of theThe multi-wire gas proportional counter emerged from our still small group in the questions developed as a consequence of earlier missions. One of them was thelate1960s, demonstrating on several rocket and balloon flights a greatly reduced detector question of whether the neutron stars in the bursts were spun up pulsars and whetherbackground, improved event timing and adequate resolution for addressing key spectral the low frequency quasi-periodic pulsations (QPO) seen with EXOSAT and Ginga werefeatures. Three of these detectors, flown in 1975 on NASAs 8th orbiting solar interactions of the accretion disk and a pulsar. RXTE’s first observations of low massobservatory, were successfully used for some 3 years to conduct non dispersive, 1-10 x-ray binaries showed the kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations and the burst oscillations.keV spectroscopy on many galactic and extragalactic sources, including several clusters The PCA had the area and the time resolution to see them. I should have known thatof galaxies. In 1977 we flew a set of larger detectors on the first of NASAs High kilohertz QPO had also been predicted. Again, while some aspects are simple, at theEnergy Astrophysical Observatories (HEAO). These were specifically designed for the next level, for both neutron stars and black holes, many other parameters and questionsstudy of the X-ray background. Finally, the largest instruments of this family were flown of interpretation must be considered. These especially affect the ability to use thein 1995 by our group on NASAs Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, RXTE, which observed sources identified as black holes to understand their influence on space-time. It was toover a remarkable 16 year mission, msec pulsars, transient sources, galactic and look at these sources with a different tool that the Gravity and Extreme Magnetismextragalactic black holes, among others. SMEX GEMS was proposed. Its termination because of cost predictions is an example of the severe practical difficulties of astrophysics.113.12 – X-ray Astronomy at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory 1965-1975F.D. Seward, Harvard-Smithsonian, CfA, Cambridge, MA 113.15 – The Diffuse Soft X-ray Background: Trials and Tribulations10:00 AM-10:00 AM M.P. Ulmer, Northwestern Univ., Evanston, ILIn 1965 a group of nuclear physicists at the Livermore Laboratory started to make 10:00 AM-10:00 AMobservations of the X-ray sky. They found themselves in a unique situation - easy I joined the University of Wisconsin-Madison sounding rocket group at its inception. Itaccess to sounding rocket flights and generous support for instrument buiding and data was an exciting time, as nobody knew what the X-ray sky looked like. Our groupanalysis. The program continued for ten years. With rocket-borne detectors we showed focused on the soft X-ray background, and built proportional counters with super thin (2that Sco X-1 was a thermal source and measured its approximate size and density. New micron thick) windows. As the inter gas pressure of the counters was about 1sources were discovered in the southern sky including a bright transient and two atmosphere, it was no mean feat to get payload to launch without the window bursting.luminous sources in the Large Magelanic Cloud. Detectors were developed for sub keV On top of that we built all our own software from space solutions to unfolding theX-rays and three old supernova remnants were found to be the brightest sources in this spectral data. For we did it then as now: Our computer code modeled the detectorenergy band. These astronomy observations provided inspiration and challenge to the response and then folded various spectral shapes through the response and comparedrocket development program and, in addition to these discoveries, a resource useful for the results with the raw data. As far as interpretation goes, here are examples of howthe nations interests was developed. one can get things wrong: The Berkeley group published a paper of the soft X-ray background that disagreed with ours. Why? It turned out they had **assumed** the113.13 – X-ray Fe-lines from Relativistic Accretion Disks Around Neutron Stars and galactic plane was completely opaque to soft X-ray and hence corrected for detectorBlack Holes background that way. It turns out that the ISM emits in soft X-rays! Another example was the faux pas of the Calgary group. They didn’t properly shield their detector fromL. Stella, INAF, Obs. of Rome, Monteporzio Catone (Roma), ITALY the sounding rocket telemetry. Thus they got an enormous signal, which to our10:00 AM-10:00 AM amusement some (ambulance chaser) theoreticians tried to explain! So back then asThe Gas Scintillation Proportional Counter (GSPC) on board the European X-ray now, mistakes were made, but at least we all knew how our X-ray systems workedSatellite EXOSAT (1983-1986) provided detections of Fe K-alpha emission features from soup (the detectors) to nuts (the data analysis code) where as toady “anybody”around 6-7 keV in the X-ray spectra of accreting neutron star and black hole candidates with a good idea but only a vague inkling of how detectors, mirrors and software work,in X-ray binaries. Surprisingly the width of these lines was found to be broader than the can be an X-ray astronomer. On the one hand, this has made the field accessible to all,GSPC resolution (~10% at 6 keV): it could not be explained by thermal broadening, nor and on the other, errors in interpretation can be made as the X-ray telescope user canblending of (unresolved) lines from different ionization stages of Fe; very large Doppler fall prey to running black box software. Furthermore with so much funding going intoshifts and, perhaps, thermal Comptonisation provided more promising interpretations. In supporting observers, there is little left to make the necessary technology advances or1989 Nick White and I developed the first general relativistic model for the Fe-line keep the core expertise in place to even to stay even with today’s observatories. We willprofile that is produced by matter orbiting in an accretion disk. By fitting the GSPC need a newly launched facility (or two) or the field will eventually die.Fe-line of the black hole candidate Cyg X-1 with our model we inferred an emitting lineregion extending to a few tens Schwarzschild radii from the black hole, where matter 113.16 – My 35 Years in X-ray Astronomy (Not)orbits at ~0.1-0.2 the speed of light and effects such as relativistic Doppler shifts and C.M. Urry, Yale Univ., New Haven, CTboosting, as well as gravitational and transverse redshifts are conspicuous. We joinedforces with Andy Fabian and Martin Rees, who were working on the same 10:00 AM-10:00 AMinterpretation, and published the results in a MNRAS paper. The relativistic disk My contact with X-ray astronomy started with HEAO-1, just before launch, when I wasinterpretation of the broad Fe-lines gave rise to much interest on the possibility of a summer student at the Harvard/Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Anothermeasuring black hole mass and spin and probing the innermost regions of accretion summer position followed at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, where I later did myflows and the very strong gravitational fields close to compact objects. Very broad and PhD thesis on HEAO1 and HEAO2 (and IUE) data. Next I was a postdoc at MITsometimes highly redshifted Fe-lines have been studied by now in tens of X-ray binaries working with Einstein and Ginga observations, and I then continued observing blazarsand bright Active Galactic Nuclei with the CCD detectors of the Chandra and and other AGN with ASCA, Exosat, RXTE, Chandra, XMM, Swift, Suzaku, and Fermi.XMM/Newton X-ray telescopes; in some cases the line profile implies the presence of a I have also witnessed or participated in many proposals for future X-ray missions.fast spinning black hole. The potential of the Fe-line diagnostics remains to be largely Fortunately for the audience, I will not recall all these times... So many photons, so littleexploited. Moreover some alternative interpretations are not yet ruled out. An X-ray time! But this long history does mean I met most of the great figures in X-ray astronomyinstrument with a broad energy response, spectral resolution of ~200 eV and effective when they were young and I probably have embarrassing stories to tell about many ofarea in the 10 m^2 range, such as the LAD of the proposed ESA M3 mission LOFT, will them. For my 2-minute vignette in a panel discussion, I will entertain you with one of theafford a quantum leap in this field of research. more interesting (and pertinent) memories. Acknowledgement: Thank you to all my high-energy astrophysics colleagues, who taught me a great deal, and to NASA for the113.14 – Interplay Between Theory and Observation hit parade of high-energy missions.J. Swank, NASAs GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 113.17 – From a Sounding Rocket per Year to an Observatory per Lifetime10:00 AM-10:00 AM M. Weisskopf, NASA/MSFC, Huntsville, ALIn the early 1970’s, after the rocket flights had identified some sources, Uhuru wassurveying the sky, and neutron stars, black holes, supernova remnants, clusters of 10:00 AM-10:00 AMgalaxies had been tentatively identified as responsible. Coming from a theoretical When I began my career as an X-ray astronomer/astrophysicist we launched newparticle physics background, I was especially interested in the astrophysical experiments at a cadence of approximately one per year. The majority of each thesemanifestations of fundamental physics in neutron stars and black holes, and history projects involved a newly developed instrument, revolutionary for its time. Then,shows the exciting interplay between theory and observation. OSO-8 provided my first innovation in instrument development could proceed in parallel with friendly competitionexample of an observation that made a clear simple identification; the cooling black body amongst a number of groups. Thus, I was privileged to help develop and fly X-ray
  • 18. concentrators and telescopes, crystal spectrometers, and two types of X-ray accessible worldwide over the nascent internet, allowing remote selection of datapolarimeters. I have also been privileged to play a central role in design, development, products, making samples and undertaking surveys from the data. The HEASARC wascalibration and operation of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. I will contrast these established by NASA at Goddard Space Flight Center in 1990 as the repository ofphases of my career both from a historical perspective and for the lessons I would pass NASA X-ray and Gamma-ray data. The proven EXOSAT database system became theon for the future. core of the HEASARC infrastructure. The HEASARC pioneered many concepts now taken for granted including standardized formats using FITS files, restoring data from113.18 – From EXOSAT to the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive earlier missions, multi-mission analysis tools and a searchable archive over the world(HEASARC): X-ray Astronomy Comes of Age wide web.N.E. White, NASAs GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 113.19 – Sliding Up and Down the Spectrum: Rocket, Balloon, and Satellite X-ray10:00 AM-10:00 AM Detectors Over the Past Fifty YearsIn May 1983 the European Space Agency launched EXOSAT, its first X-ray astronomy G.R. Ricker, MIT, Cambridge, MAobservatory. Even though it lasted only 3 short years, this mission brought not only newcapabilities that resulted in unexpected discoveries, but also a pioneering approach to 10:00 AM-10:00 AMoperations and archiving that changed X-ray astronomy from observations led by small Beginning in 1965, I had the wonderful opportunity to work with the several researchinstrument teams, to an observatory approach open to the entire community through a groups in high-energy astronomy founded by Bruno Rossi at MIT. As an undergraduateguest observer program. The community use of the observatory was supported by a in George Clark’s lab, I first learned about the challenges of detecting X-ray polarizationsmall dedicated team of scientists, the precursor to the data center activities created to with gas-filled counters. As a graduate student with Walter Lewin, the subtleties ofsupport e.g. Chandra and XMM-Newton. The new science capabilities of EXOSAT scintillators and surveying the Galactic Center from balloons became my focus. In theincluded a 90 hr highly eccentric high earth orbit that allow unprecedented continuous mid-70s, I drank from the fire hose of SAS-3, along with my many postdoc friends andcoverage of sources as well as direct communication with the satellite that allowed real MIT colleagues. In the 1980’s, the MIT CCD Laboratory, which I helped found, wastime decisions to respond to unexpected events through targets of opportunity. The able to develop the first photon-counting, imaging X-ray CCD spectrometers to be flownadvantages of this orbit demonstrated by EXOSAT resulted in Chandra and in space on the ASCA mission. In the 1990’s, our group was privileged to contributeXMM-Newton selecting similar orbits. The three instruments on board the EXOSAT CCD X-ray cameras to both the Astro-E and Chandra missions. In 2000, we assembledobservatory were complementary, designed to give complete coverage over a wide and flew HETE-2, the first satellite entirely dedicated to the rapid localization and studyenergy band pass of 0.05-50 keV. An onboard processor could be programed to give of gamma-ray bursts. During this 4+ decades period, the vibrant excitement ofmultiple data modes that could be optimized in response to science discoveries. These experimental X-ray astronomy was always there. Hopefully, the excitement will returnnew capabilities resulted in many new discoveries including the first comprehensive for a newer generation in the coming decade, as new technology detectors andstudy of AGN variability, new orbital periods in X-ray binaries and cataclysmic variables, telescopes emerge from the laboratory, and X-ray satellite flight opportunities once againnew black holes, quasi-periodic oscillations from neutron stars and black holes and broad are accorded high priority.band X-ray spectroscopy. The EXOSAT team generated a well-organized database114 – Relativistic Astrophysics, Gravitational Lenses & WavesOral Session – Room 102C (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 10:00 AM to 11:30 AM114.01 – Searching for Correlated Radio Transients & Gravitational Wave Bursts 114.03 – Studying the Effects of Tidal Corrections on Parameter EstimationM. Kavic, Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY; P.S. Shawhan, C. L. Wade, J.D. Creighton, E. Ochsner, UW-Milwaukee, Milwaukee,Yancey, University of Maryland, College Park, MD; S. Cutchin, WI; B.D. Lackey, Princeton, Trenton, NJNaval Research Laboratory, Washington , DC; J.H. Simonetti, B. 10:20 AM-10:30 AMBear, J. Tsai, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA Tidal deformations of neutron stars in binary systems during the in fall of gravitationally10:00 AM-10:10 AM radiating neutron stars before merger call for analytic corrections to the post-Newtonian gravitational-wave waveform. Tidal deformation information is important to searches forWe will discuss an ongoing multi-messenger search for transient radio pulses and gravitational waves from these sources because they can break degeneracies in thegravitational wave bursts. This work is being conducted jointly by the Long Wavelength estimation of the physical parameters of the binary and could also lead to insights aboutArray (LWA) and the LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC). A variety of astrophysical the neutron stars equation of state. We will outline plans to use a Bayesian MCMCsources can produce simultaneous emission of gravitational waves and coherent (Markov Chain Monte Carlo) simulation to study how these corrections affect andlow-frequency electromagnetic radiation. The primary common source motivating this inform parameter estimation for binaries involving neutron stars.work is the merger of neutron star binaries for which the LWA and LSC instrumentshave comparable sensitivity. Additional common sources include supernovae, long 114.04 – Gravitational Wave Searches with Pulsar Timing Arraystimescale GRBs and cosmic string cusp events. Data taken by both instruments can becompared to search for correlated signals. Identification of correlated signals can be J. Ellis, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WIused to increase the sensitivity of both instruments. We will summarize the coincident 10:30 AM-10:40 AMobservations which have already been conducted and outline plans for future work. We The Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) collaboration aimswill describe the process being used for synthesizing these data set and present to detect gravitational waves (GWs) through the precise timing of millisecond pulsars.preliminary results. GWs will come in the form of a stochastic background, continuous sources and burst sources. Here we will review recent progress on the development of data analysis114.02 – Searches for a Stochastic Gravitational Wave Background with Pulsar Timing pipelines aimed at the detection of a stochastic background as well as continuousArrays: a Data Analysis Pipeline sources. We will introduce the Optimal Statistic and F-Statistic methods that are used inS.J. Chamberlin, J.D. Creighton, J. Ellis, X. Siemens, University of the stochastic and continuous pipelines, respectively. Both pipelines are fully functionalWisconsin--Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI; P. Demorest, National on real pulsar timing data and take into account the timing models for each pulsar. Finally, we will present the efficacy of each pipeline on simulated data as well as presentRadio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA; L. Price, preliminary results on real data.California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA; J.D. Romano,University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 114.05 – Why we Want to See and Hear the Violent Universe?10:10 AM-10:20 AM S. Nissanke, Caltech, Pasadena, CAPulsar timing arrays are a promising tool for probing the universe through gravitational 10:40 AM-10:50 AMradiation. Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs), cosmic strings, relic Combined gravitational-wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) observations of compactgravitational waves from inflation, and first order phase transitions in the early universe binary mergers should enable detailed studies of astrophysical processes in theare expected to contribute to a stochastic background of gravitational waves (GWs) in strong-field gravity regime. Within the next decade, a worldwide network of advancedthe pulsar timing array (PTA) frequency band of 10^(-9)--10^(-7) Hz. Here, we present versions of ground-based GW interferometers should become operational from 10 Hz toa fully functional data analysis pipeline for the detection of a stochastic background of a few kHz. At these frequencies, inspirals and mergers of neutron star binary mergersgravitational waves in the PTA band. We describe the underlying statistics of our are expected to be amongst the most numerous and strongest GW-emitting sources.method and discuss the inherent challenges in stochastic GW searches. We provide a Neutron star binary mergers, where at least one object includes initially neutron-richrobust frequentist upper limit for the signal size detectable with this pipeline. We also material and possibly strong magnetic fields, are expected to emit in both GWs and EMpresent preliminary results obtained in this pipeline for the International Pulsar Timing waves, observable at different wavelengths and energies. In this talk, we discuss whatArray (IPTA) Mock Data Challenge, and discuss future implications and limitations. we can hope to learn about compact object physics and strong field gravity astrophysics
  • 19. using both GW and EM observations. (Numerical INJection Analysis); and also in constructing analytical models that span the entire parameter space of binary black hole mass ratios and spins, as with NRAR114.06D – The Suitability of Hybrid Waveforms for Advanced Gravitational Wave (Numerical Relativity and Analytic Relativity).DetectorsI. MacDonald, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA; I. 114.07 – Parameter Estimation of Spin and Tidal Parameters in Binary Black Hole Systems as a Test of Cosmic Censorship and the No-hair TheoremMacDonald, H. Pfeiffer, S. Nissanke, A. Mroue, CITA, Toronto,Ontario, CANADA; S. Nissanke, JPL, Caltech, Pasadena, CA M. Wade, J.D. Creighton, University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee,10:50 AM-11:10 AM Milwaukee, WI 11:10 AM-11:20 AMGeneral relativity predicts that the coalescence of two compact objects, such as blackholes, will produce gravitational radiation; i.e., ripples in the curvature of space-time. In anticipation of the new era of gravitational wave detectors, it is especially importantDetectors like Advanced LIGO (the Laser Interferometry Gravitational-wave to develop methods for gaining information about astrophysical systems fromObservatory) are expected to measure such events within the next few years. In order gravitational wave signals. We have been working on developing a method for testingto be able to characterize the gravitational waves they measure, these detectors require the cosmic censorship conjecture and the no-hair theorem using the inspiral portion ofaccurate waveform models, which can be constructed by fusing an analytical the compact binary coalescence gravitational waveform. The cosmic censorshippost-Newtonian inspiral waveform with a numerical relativity late-inspiral-merger- conjecture states that any massive body undergoing complete gravitational collapse mustringdown waveform. Numerical relativity, though the most accurate model, is result in a singularity concealed by an event horizon, meaning this singularity will not becomputationally expensive: the longest simulations to date taking several months to run. visible to a distant observer. The no-hair theorem states that a black hole is categorizedPost-Newtonian theory, an analytic approximation to General Relativity, is easy to only by its mass, spin and electric charge. The method we are developing will allow uscompute but becomes increasingly inaccurate near merger. Because of this trade-off, it to say whether detected systems are consistent with the cosmic censorship conjectureis important to determine the optimal length of the numerical waveform, while and the no-hair theorem, within the context of the Kerr geometry. The Kerr geometrymaintaining the necessary accuracy for gravitational wave detectors. We present a places an upper limit on the allowed spin of a compact object with a horizon. The no-hairstudy of the sufficient accuracy of post-Newtonian and numerical relativity waveforms theorem implies that a black hole cannot be tidally deformed. We use parameterfor the most demanding usage case: parameter estimation of strong sources in advanced estimation techniques to calculate the measurability of the spin, mass, and tidalgravitational wave detectors. We perform a comprehensive analysis of errors that enter parameters appearing in the gravitational waveform. The Kerr limit on spin along with asuch “hybrid waveforms” in the case of equal-mass and unequal mass non-spinning physical limit on the mass parameter allows us to say whether a system is consistentbinaries. We also explore the possibility of using these hybrid waveforms as a detection with a Kerr black hole within our calculated measurement error. The non-deformabilitytemplate bank for Advanced LIGO. Accurate hybrids play an important role in of a black hole limits the value of the tidal deformability parameter.investigating the efficiency of gravitational wave search pipelines, as with NINJA115 – Research Based Initiatives for Broadening the Participation of Women and Minorities inAstronomySpecial Session – Room 102A (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 10:00 AM to 11:30 AM This proposal is in response to a request from AAS Past President Debra Elmegreen for a Special Session highlighting initiatives to broaden participation of women and underrepresented minorities in astronomy, especially through research-immersive experiences. There are now several programs sponsored by NSF and hosted by AAS member institutions that focus on providing early and ongoing research experiences to underrepresented groups in order to enhance recruitment, retention, training, and mentoring starting as early as the freshman year and continuing through to completion of the PhD and beyond. The impetus for these programs is clear, given the mandate from the NSF and from the Astro2010 decadal survey to address the long-standing problem of fully engaging the nation in the development of the astronomy and astrophysics workforce for the 21st century. This session will inform the Society about proven best practice approaches to improve retention in the sciences, increase diversity, provide paths for students who for various reasons enter the astronomical profession at a later life/career stage, etc. The speakers will describe the structure of their programs as well as the research basis, the underlying theory of action, the measurable outcomes, and the documented blueprints that are available for others to adopt/adapt these proven strategies. P. Rosenfield, University of Washington, Seattle, WA115.01 – A Model For Creating Innovators Through Freshman Research 10:18 AM-10:36 AMD.E. Winget, M.H. Montgomery, University of Texas, Austin, TX10:00 AM-10:18 AM Graduate students in the astronomy department at the University of Washington began the Pre-Major in Astronomy Program (Pre-MAP) after recognizing thatStudents come to the College of Natural Sciences because they want to do research, not underrepresented students in STEM fields are not well retained after their transitionbecause they want to sit in the classroom. The University of Texas Freshman Research from high school. Pre-MAP is a research and mentoring program that begins with aInitiative (FRI) is designed to leverage this desire. It motivates, stimulates and educates keystone seminar. First year students enroll in the Pre-MAP seminar to learnthe next generation of scientists by getting them directly involved in cutting edge astronomical research techniques that they apply to research projects conducted in smallresearch in their first year of college. They initially contribute to a group project groups. Students also receive one-on-one mentoring and peer support for the duration ofdesigned for them to build the skills needed for research. Within the first year they the academic year and beyond. They are incorporated early into the department bydevelop a more independent project. After four years with the Astronomy Stream of the attending Astronomy Department events and Pre-MAP field trips. Successful Pre-MAPFRI, our first group has graduated. Three of the six have produced honors theses and a students have declared astronomy and physics majors, expanded their research projectsfourth is working on one this fall. Three were Deans Honored Graduates. Of these two beyond the fall quarter, presented posters at the UW Undergraduate Researchwere female and one male. Two are in graduate programs and one is admitted to Symposium, and received research fellowships and summer internships. In this talk, wemedical school. One won the George Mitchell Award as the outstanding undergraduate will discuss how we identified the issues that Pre-MAP was designed to address, whatstudent at the University of Texas. Subsequent classes hold similar promise. The weve learned after six years of Pre-MAP, and share statistical results from a long-termsuccess at recruiting and retaining these students, with minorities and women well quantitative comparison evaluation.represented, is traceable to at least three key factors. First, the research introducesthem to the transformative and addictive joy of knowing something about the universe 115.03 – The California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research andthat no one, past or present, has ever known before. Second it gives them a context for Education (CAMPARE): A New Model for Promoting Minority Participation inthe knowledge they gain in the classroom. Third it allows them to develop a network of Astronomy Research and Educationpeers and mentors. The mentors are layered, with upper division undergraduates servingas the first line, then graduate students, post docs and faculty. They always have access A.L. Rudolph, M.S. Povich, California State Polytechnic Univ.,to help in their research and in their class work. The end result is that they perform Pomona, CA; C.D. Impey, J.H. Bieging, E.E. Prather, University ofsignificantly better in the classroom than their peers that are not involved in an FRI Arizona, Tuscon, AZ; C.B. Phillips, SETI Institute, Mountain View,stream. We will discuss future plans for the FRI: how we plan to expand to larger CA; J. Tieu, JPL, La Canada Flintridge, CAgroups and how the concept can be exported to other universities. 10:36 AM-10:54 AM115.02 – The Pre-Major in Astronomy Program at the University of Washington: The California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and EducationIncreasing Diversity Through Research Experiences and Mentoring Since 2005 (CAMPARE) program represents a new and innovative kind of research program for
  • 20. undergraduates: one that can effectively carry out the goal of recruiting qualified Program provides an intensive research, coursework, and mentoring experience tominority and female students to participate in Astronomy and Planetary Science post-baccalaureates seeking to strengthen their graduate school applications and toresearch opportunities, while mentoring them in a way to maximize the chance that prepare for the transition into graduate programs. I describe the Bridge Program inthese students will persist in obtaining their undergraduate degrees in STEM fields, and greater detail, with an emphasis on our work with physics and astronomy participants.potentially go on to obtain their PhDs or pursue careers in those fields. The members ofCAMPARE comprise a network of comprehensive universities and community colleges 115.05 – Increasing Diversity at the PhD Level in Astronomy: The Fisk-Vanderbiltin Southern California and Arizona (most of which are minority serving institutions), and Masters-to-PhD Bridge Programfour major research institutions (University of Arizona Steward Observatory, the SETIInstitute, and JPL/Caltech). Most undergraduate research programs focus on a single K. Stassun, K. Holley-Bockelmann, A.A. Berlind, Vanderbiltresearch institution. By having multiple institutions, we significantly broaden the University, Nashville, TN; K. Stassun, K. Holley-Bockelmann, Fiskopportunities for students, both in terms of breadth of research topics and geographical University, Nashville, TNlocation. In its first three years, the CAMPARE program has had 20 undergraduates 11:12 AM-11:30 AMfrom two CSU campuses, both Hispanic Serving Institutions, take part in research andeducational activities at four research institutions, the University of Arizona Steward We briefly review the current status of underrepresented minorities in the physicalObservatory, the SETI Institute, and JPL/Caltech. Of the 20 participants, 9 are women sciences: The underrepresentation of Black-, Hispanic-, and Native-Americans is anand 11 are men, a much more even split than is typical in Astronomy research order of magnitude problem. We then describe the Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhDprograms; 10 are Hispanic, 2 are African American, and 1 is part Native American, Bridge program as a successful model for effective partnerships with minority-servingincluding 2 female Hispanic and 2 female African-American participants, an institutions toward addressing this problem. Since 2004 the program has admitted 60exceptionally high participation rate (65%) for students from underrepresented minority students, 54 of them underrepresented minorities (60% female), with a retention rate ofgroups. Of the five participants who have graduated since the program began, two are 92%. The program leads the nation in master’s degrees in physics for Africanin graduate programs in Physics or Astronomy, two are pursuing a K-12 teaching Americans, is one of the top ten producers of physics master’s degrees among all UScredential, and one has enlisted in the Nuclear Propulsion Officer Candidate (NUPOC) citizens in general, and has become the nation’s top producer of underrepresentedprogram of the U.S. Navy. minority PhDs in physics, astronomy, and materials science. We summarize the main features of the program including two of its core strategies: (1) partnering a minority- serving institution and a major research university through collaborative research, and115.04 – Columbias Bridge to the PhD Program: Who What Where When Why How (2) using the master’s degree as a deliberate stepping stone to the PhD. We alsoM.A. Agueros, Columbia Univ., New York, NY specifically discuss one of the emerging core theories of the program: the concept of10:54 AM-11:12 AM properly identifying students with unrealized or unrecognized potential. We discuss our methods to recognize and select for unrealized potential during the admissions process,In the fall of 2008, Columbia Universitys Vice-Provost for Diversity Initiatives launched and how we cultivate that unrealized potential toward development of successfulthe Bridge to the PhD Program, which aims to increase the number of students from scientists and leaders.underrepresented groups obtaining PhDs in the natural sciences. To this end, the Bridge116 – Science Highlights from NASAs Astrophysics Data Analysis Program I: GalacticAstrophysicsSpecial Session – Room 202A (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 10:00 AM to 11:30 AM Over the years, NASA has invested heavily in the development and execution of an extensive array of space astrophysics missions that span the electromagnetic spectrum. The magnitude and scope of the archival data from those missions enables science that transcends traditional wavelength regimes and allows researchers to answer questions that would be difficult, if not impossible, to address through an individual observing program. To capitalize on this invaluable asset and enhance the scientific return on NASA mission investments, the Astrophysics Data Analysis Program (ADAP) provides support for investigations whose focus is on the analysis of archival data from NASA space astrophysics missions. This session highlights recent research results in the general area of galactic astrophysics from investigators supported under the ADAP Program. ADP award we are carrying on a homogeneous reduction and analysis of Spitzer IRS116.01 – The Vanderbilt EB Factory: Development of Light Curve Analysis Tools for spectra of disks observed with both space facilities. In this talk, I will highlight ourPrecision Stellar Astrophysics with Kepler Eclipsing Binaries contribution in identifying the main mechanisms dispersing protoplanetary disks and inK. Stassun, M. Paegert, N.M. De Lee, P. Cargile, Vanderbilt constraining the lifetime of protoplanetary gas and dust around young stars. I will alsoUniversity, Nashville, TN; K. Stassun, N.M. De Lee, Fisk emphasize how these spectra are being used for in-depth characterization of unusual star-disk systems.University, Nashville, TN10:00 AM-10:20 AM 116.03 – The Beginning of the End: Mass Loss from Dying Stars in the Galactic BulgeThe goal of the Vanderbilt EB Factory is to develop an end-to-end computational R. Sahai, JPL, Pasadena, CA; J.A. Munoz, Occidental College,pipeline that allows automatic processing of massive amounts of light curve data -- fromperiod finding, to object classification, to determination of the stellar physical properties Los Angeles, CA; S. Uttenthaler, University of Vienna, Vienna,-- in order to find the most scientifically interesting eclipsing binaries (EBs) and to permit AUSTRIA; M. Morris, UCLA, Los Angeles, CAaccurate modeling of these EBs for detailed tests and benchmarking of theoretical 10:40 AM-11:00 AMstellar evolution models. We are integrating the most successful algorithms into a single, Almost all stars in the 0.8-8 solar mass range evolve through the Red Giant Branchcohesive workflow environment, and are applying this EB Factory to the full public (RGB), Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB), and planetary nebula (PN) evolutionaryKepler dataset to find and characterize new benchmark grade EBs, and will phases. The dusty mass-loss process that begins as stars reach the tip of the RGB,disseminate both the enhanced data products from this pipeline and the pipeline itself to continuing onto the very heavy mass loss that occurs during the AGB phase, is importantthe broader NASA science community, especially other Kepler mission researchers. across astrophysics, but there are no good theoretical or observational prescriptions onMore generally, we are developing the EB Factory as a flexible, open source, modular how to include mass-loss into theoretical models, and astronomers have relied on aframework in order to permit simple modifications by other users for a wide array of single empirical law based on observations of Pop I giants. A mass-loss law directlyother types of variable stars of interest, such as RR Lyraes. Finally, we will present our calibrated using Pop II giants has never been robustly determined: the two major causesdeveloping suite of light-curve analysis tools available to the community from the being (i) the lack of a sensitive probe of dusty mass-loss down to the lowest mass-lossVanderbilt Initiative in Data-intensive Astrophysics (VIDA), including the Filtergraph rates, and (ii) the lack of a sample of giants for which the distances are well known. Weinstant data portal service, and the web-based LCchopper and LCanimator light-curve describe preliminary results from a study which overcomes both of these issues byanalysis services. utilising a new sample of giants observed at five wavelengths spanning the 3.6-24 micron range (using the Spitzer IRAC and MIPS instruments) towards the Galactic116.02 – Warm Gas in the Planet-Forming Region of Disks Bulge (GB). The GB offers an environment distinct from the Galactic disk, for the studyI. Pascucci, LPL/University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ of stellar populations, stellar evolution and the mass-loss processes which accompany,10:20 AM-10:40 AM and in the end, control late stellar evolution. The final goals of our study include (1) detection of stars with mass-loss rates an order of magnitude lower than those detectedThe NASA Spitzer Space Telescope has revolutionized our view of the gas and dust previously, and thus an assessment of whether mass-loss (dM/dt) is already prevalent oncontent of protoplanetary disks at radii where terrestrial planets form. Recently, the the RGB, (2) a determination of how dM/dt depends on luminosity and stellar effectiveHerschel Space Observatory has completed a survey of over 100 protoplanetary disks temperature, and a census of mass-losing stars at different rates.to trace the dispersal of gas from which giant outer planets form. Thanks to this NASA
  • 21. 116.04 – An Archival X-ray Study of the Large Magellanic Cloud Supernova Remnant 116.05 – Detection of the Spectrum of the Suspected Hot Subdwarf Companion to theN132D Be Star 59 CygniP.P. Plucinsky, A. Foster, T.J. Gaetz, D.H. Jerius, D. Patnaude, R.J. G.J. Peters, Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA; D.R.Edgar, R.K. Smith, Harvard-Smithsonian, CfA, Cambridge, MA; Gies, T. Pewett, Y. Touhami, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GAW.P. Blair, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 11:15 AM-11:30 AM11:00 AM-11:15 AM One method through which Be stars can acquire their circumstellar (CS) disks and largeWe present the results of an analysis of the archival XMM-Newton EPIC data (totaling angular momentum is through binary mass transfer. We thus expect that some Be starsmore than 500ks) and Chandra X-ray Observatory ACIS data (89ks) of the brightest will have hot subdwarf companions, not visible in the optical region, that are the strippedX-ray supernova remnant (SNR) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) N132D. N132D down remnants of the mass donor. From the analysis of IUE HIRES spectra in thehas been routinely observed by XMM-Newton over its 12 year mission as a calibration MAST Archive we confirm that the bright Be star 59 Cygni has an O subdwarftarget. We have combined the data from all calibration observations suitable for companion. About ten years ago Harmanec et al. (2002, A&A, 387, 580) and laterscientific analysis to create the deepest X-ray images of N132D. N132D has been Maintz et al. (2005, Pub.Astr.Inst.Cz, 93, 21) presented evidence for a binary system ofclassified as an ``ejecta-dominated remnant based on the UV and optical spectra which this nature from optical spectra but the photospheric spectrum of the secondary was notshow emission from C, O, Ne, Mg, and Si. These spectra of the bright optical knots do detected. We find a spectral signature of the secondary by cross-correlating the IUEnot show any emission from elements with Z higher than Si, yet the nucleosynthesis spectra with model spectra and confirm the period of 28.2 days reported by Harmanecmodels predict significant quantities of these higher Z elements. Our spectral analysis of et al. and Maintz et al. The individual spectra were extracted using a Dopplerthe deep XMM data clearly shows emission lines from S, Ar, Ca, and Fe, with tomography algorithm. The hot subdwarf contributes only 4% of the light in the FUVindications of other possible features between Ca and Fe. We compute the ratios of Si, and resembles the sdO star BD+75o325. We find the following primary/secondaryS, Ar, & Ca to Fe and compare these ratios to two nucleosynthesis models, which parameters: Teff = 21.8 ± 0.7 and 52.1±4.8 kK, M = 6.3-9.4 and 0.62-0.91 Msun , andimplies the mass of the progenitor was less than 15 Solar masses. This research was R = 5.8-7.0 and 0.36-0.43 Rsun . 59 Cygni joins φ Persei and FY Canis Majoris as thesupported by the NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program (ADAP) through grant third bright Be star with a confirmed sdO companion. We are grateful for support fromnumber NNX11AD17G. NASA/ADAP grant NNX10AD60G (GJP), NSF grant AST-1009080 (DRG) and the USC WiSE program (GJP) .117 – Young Stellar Objects, Very Young Stars, T-Tauri Stars, H-H ObjectsOral Session – Room 102B (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 10:00 AM to 11:30 AM compared directly with interferometric velocity channel maps. We perform a case study117.01 – Understanding the Nature of VeLLOs Through Interferometric Millimeter of the protostar L1527 in Taurus using 12CO(1-0), 13CO(1-0), and C18O(2-1) dataObservations from the CARMA interferometer. The central mass is about 0.1 Msun; significantlyT.L. Huard, M.W. Pound, L.G. Mundy, Univ. of Maryland, College larger masses are ruled out by the data. There is also evidence for large scale turbulentPark, MD; M.M. Dunham, Yale Univ., New Haven, CT motion arising from cold foreground gas through the detection of blue-shifted self-absorption in 12CO and 13CO.10:00 AM-10:10 AMSince a new class of embedded sources, referred to as Very Low Luminosity Objects 117.04 – Hot Gas Flows in T Tauri Stars(VeLLOs), was discovered using Spitzer Space Telescope observations, the number ofknown VeLLOs has been slowly growing. Still, their nature remains unclear: they may S.G. Gregory, L. Hillenbrand, California Institute of Technology,be progenitors of typical low-mass stars or of brown dwarfs. The VeLLOs with Pasadena, CA; G. Herczeg, Kavli Institute for Astronomy andmillimeter observations demonstrate that they sustain outflows with a wide range of Astrophysics at Peking University, Beijing, CHINA; D.R. Ardila,energetics, suggesting VeLLOs may represent an inhomogeneous group. For example, NASA Herschel Science Center / IPAC / Caltech, Pasadena, CA; L.the large-scale outflow driven by a VeLLO in core IRAM 04191+1522 is three orders of Ingleby, E.A. Bergin, T. Bethell, N. Calvet, C. Espaillat,magnitude stronger than the weak, compact outflow driven by VeLLO L1014-IRS,despite these sources having comparable luminosities. We have conducted a survey of Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI;eight confirmed and candidate VeLLOs, obtaining CO(2-1) and 1.3-mm continuum K. France, A. Brown, E. Schindhelm, Center for Astrophysics andCARMA observations, to study their small-scale outflows and inner (< 3000 AU) Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; S.envelopes. Our observations reveal previously undetected outflows and inner envelopes Edwards, Five College Astronomy, Smith College, Northampton,of 10–200 Jupiter masses. Since these envelopes represent reservoirs for futureaccretion, we identify which VeLLOs are likely protostars and which are likely MA; J. Linsky, JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, Boulder,proto-brown dwarfs based on these envelope masses. CO; J.A. Valenti, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD; C.M. Johns-Krull, Rice University, Houston, TX; R. Alexander,117.02 – Tracing the PAH-YSO Relationship in Nine LMC Star-Forming Regions Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Leicester,L.R. Carlson, Leiden Observatory, Leiden, NETHERLANDS Leicester, UNITED KINGDOM; G. Hussain, Max-Planck-Institut10:10 AM-10:20 AM für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, GERMANY; A. Hervé, E.I present the discovery of over 1000 Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) in nine diverse Roueff, Observatoire de Paris, Meudon, FRANCE; F.M. Walter,star-forming regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud (Carlson et al. 2012 A&A 542, 66). Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University,These sources are color-selected in the infrared using SAGE Spitzer IRAC bands and Stony Brook, NY; J. Brown, Harvard-Smithsonian Center forMIPS 24μm, and their spectral energy distributions are fit as in Robitaille et al. (2007) to Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA; H. Yang, Institute for Astrophysics,determine their approximate physical characteristics and evolutionary stages. I then lookat the physical distribution of emission from polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Central China Normal University, Wuhan, CHINAthese regions by comparing IRAC fluxes as in Povich et al. (2007) and identifying YSOs 10:30 AM-10:40 AMwith significant PAH emission. The clearest PAH tracer is 8μm/4.5μm, as the [8.0] We describe observations of the hot gas (~1e5 K) ultraviolet lines C IV and He II, inencompasses the strong 7.7μm feature, while the [4.5] has no PAH contribution. The Classical and Weak T Tauri Stars (CTTSs, WTTSs). Our goal is to provideYSO and PAH distributions are compared. observational constraints for realistic models. Most of the data for this work comes from the Hubble proposal “The Disks, Accretion, and Outflows (DAO) of T Tau stars” (PI117.03 – Finding the Central Mass of the L1527 Protostar using CARMA Herczeg). The DAO program is the largest and most sensitive high resolutionInterferometer Data spectroscopic survey of young stars in the UV ever undertaken and it provides a richS. Terebey, Cal. State Univ. at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; A. source of information for these objects. The sample of high resolution COS and STIS spectra presented here comprises 35 stars: one Herbig Ae star, 28 CTTSs, and 6Isella, Caltech, Pasadena, CA; C.H. De Vries, Cal. State Univ. WTTSs. For CTTSs, the lines consist of two kinematic components. The relativeStanislaus, Turlock, CA strengths of the narrow and broad components (NC, BC) are similar in C IV but in He10:20 AM-10:30 AM II the NC is stronger than the BC, and dominates the line profile. We do not findDetermining the central masses of protostars has been difficult, in part because of correlations between disk inclination and the velocity centroid, width, or shape of theconfusion from outflow structure. However, high spatial and spectral resolution data are CIV line profile. The NC of the C IV line in CTTSs increases in strength with accretionkey to determining the gravity field and hence the central mass. The goal of this rate, and its contribution to the line increases from ∼20% to ∼80%, for the accretioninvestigation is to produce realistic radiative transfer with collapse models that can be rates considered here (1e-10 to 1e-7 Msun/yr). The CTTSs C IV lines are redshifted by
  • 22. ∼20 km/s while the CTTSs He II are redshifted by ∼10 km/s. Because the He II line are fit with isothermal spheres and ellipsoids using the Bayesian Information Criterion toand the C IV NC have the same width in CTTSs and in WTTSs, but are correlated with estimate the number of subclusters. We investigate the relation between (sub)clusteraccretion, we suggest that they are produced in the stellar transition region. The size and density and examine evidence for dynamical relaxation in some of theaccretion shock model predicts that the velocity of the post-shock emission should be 4x (sub)clusters. Clustering properties are also measured using Cartwright and Whitworthssmaller than the velocity of the pre-shock emission. Identifying the post-shock emission Q statistic and the inhomogeneous two-point correlation function, which can be used towith the NC and the pre-shock with the BC, we find that this is approximately the case distinguish between centrally concentrated and fractal distributions. Mass segregation isin 11 out of 23 objects. The model cannot explain 11 systems in which the velocity of the detected in several cases, in both centrally concentrated and fractally structured starNC is smaller than the velocity of the BC, or systems in which one of the velocities is clusters, but a few clusters are not mass segregated. We discuss the astrophysicalnegative (five CTTSs). The hot gas lines in some systems such as HN Tau, RW Aur A, implications of the comparison of cluster structures in the different regions.AK Sco, DK Tau, T Tau N, and V1190 Sco require an outflow contribution, which maycome from jet shocks in the observed outflows. We suggest that a hot wind is being 117.06 – The Structure of Class I Protostellar Diskslaunched by the Herbig Ae star DX Cha. T.L. Bourke, Harvard-Smithsonian, CfA, Cambridge, MA 11:00 AM-11:10 AM117.05D – The Spatial Structure of Young Stellar Clusters in High-Mass Star-FormingRegions A key question in protostellar evolution is how is matter accreted from the large-scaleM. Kuhn, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA envelope through the circumstellar disk and onto the central protostar. Disks play a central role in funnelling matter from the infalling envelope onto the protostar during the10:40 AM-11:00 AM main accretion phase, and are the building blocks for planets. While the properties ofThe spatial distributions of young stars in star-forming regions can be linked to the planet-building disks in the T Tauri protostellar phase have been well determined, thetheory of clustered star formation using spatial statistical methods. The MYStIX project same is not true for younger disks around embedded (Class I) protostars. With the SMA(Massive Young stellar clusters Study in Infrared and X-rays) provides rich samples of we have undertaken high-resolution dust continuum and molecular line observations ofyoung stars from the nearest high-mass star-forming regions. Maps of stellar surface Class I disks in Taurus and Ophiuchus, and preliminary results are presented here.density reveal diverse structure and subclustering. Young stellar clusters and subclusters118 – Galaxy Clusters in the Golden Age of High-Energy AstrophysicsPlenary Session – Grand Ballroom (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 11:40 AM to 12:30 PM requires observations across the electromagnetic spectrum. High-resolution X-ray118.01 – Galaxy Clusters in the Golden Age of High-Energy Astrophysics images and spectra of clusters have produced remarkable progress within the pastM.W. Bautz, MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics & Space Research, decade, and more recently high-energy observations have proven to be an essentialCambridge, MA complement to cluster surveys in other wavebands. I describe recent work on the physics and evolution of feedback in the centers of clusters that illustrates this trend, and11:40 AM-12:30 PM then discuss the emerging picture of cluster outskirts. I briefly consider the impact ofGalaxy clusters display an extraordinary range of fundamental astrophysical processes, recent progress on the astrophysics the intra-cluster medium on our understanding offrom the formation of stars to the evolution of galaxies and cosmic structure. In addition, cluster masses, and conclude with a summary of the exciting potential of newthe cluster population and its evolution are intimately related to the cosmic expansion and observatories that will begin to operate within the next few years.fundamental physics of gravity. Understanding all that can be learned from clusters122 – Andromeda and Local Group Dwarf GalaxiesOral Session – Room 102C (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 02:00 PM to 03:30 PM yielding a mass-to-light ratio of 500 M⊙/L⊙. We present new Keck/DEIMOS122.01 – Chemical Abundances in the Extremely Metal Poor Dwarf Galaxy Leo P spectroscopy of 28 member stars in Segue 2. The new spectroscopy confirmsE.D. Skillman, D. Berg, K. Olive, K.B. McQuinn, Univ. of Belokurov et al.s velocity dispersion (3.7 ± 0.9 km/s) and hence their inferred mass andMinnesota, Minneapolis, MN; J.J. Salzer, N.C. Haurberg, K.L. mass-to-light ratio. We also present the metallicity distribution and [α/Fe] ratios of 15 member stars. The metallicity has a mean of 〈[Fe/H]〉 = −1.8 ± 0.2 and a 1σRhode, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN; R.W. Pogge, Ohio dispersion of 0.6 dex. Furthermore, [α/Fe] decreases with increasing [Fe/H], indicatingState University, Columbus, OH; J.M. Cannon, Macalester that Type Ia supernovae exploded during the star formation lifetime. Segue 2 isCollege, St. Paul, MN; E. Aver, Gonzaga University, Spokane, WA; therefore a galaxy, not a globular cluster. However, the mean metallicity is 0.9 dex largerR. Giovanelli, M.P. Haynes, E.A. Adams, Cornell University, than suggested by the luminosity-metallicity relation defined by dwarf galaxies. If theIthaca, NY high mean metallicity is not an artifact of the small sample size, then Segue 2 is a candidate for tidal stripping by the Milky Way, but it is unclear how it could be so heavily02:00 PM-02:10 PM stripped without (1) having a larger half-light radius or (2) being completely disrupted.We present KPNO 4-m and LBT/MODS spectroscopic observations of an HII region inthe nearby dwarf irregular galaxy Leo P recently discovered in the Arecibo ALFALFA 122.03 – A Dwarf Dissolving? - A Kinematic Analysis of Andromeda XXVII and thesurvey. In both observations, we were able to accurately measure the temperature Northern Arcsensitive [O III] λ4363 line, and thus determine oxygen abundances using the direct M. Collins, MPIA, Heidelberg, BW, GERMANY; R.M. Rich, UCLA,method. The oxygen abundance was found to be 12 + log(O/H) = 7.15 +/- 0.05. Thus,Leo P is an extremely metal deficient (XMD) galaxy, and, indeed, one of the most metal Los Angeles, CA; S.C. Chapman, M. Irwin, Institute of Astronomy,deficient galaxies ever observed. For its estimated luminosity, Leo P is consistent with Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, UNITED KINGDOM; R. Ibata,the relationship between luminosity and oxygen abundance seen in nearby dwarf Observatoire de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, FRANCE; A.W.galaxies. Additionally, we derive relative abundances of N, S, Ne, Ar, and He and McConnachie, NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Victoria,compare the relative abundances observed in Leo P to those observed in other XMDgalaxies. Leo P shows normal alpha element abundances, but elevated N/O relative to British Columbia, CANADAother XMD galaxies. Finally, we derived a helium mass fraction of 0.2490 +/- 0.0146 02:20 PM-02:30 PMwhich compares well with the WMAP + BBN prediction of 0.2487 +/- 0.0002 for the We report internal kinematics for an unusual M31 dwarf spheroidal galaxy, And XXVII,primordial helium abundance. We suggest that surveys of very low mass galaxies which is superposed against the Northern Arc Stream feature, isolated in the PandAScompete well with emission line galaxy surveys for finding XMD galaxies. (Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey). In contrast to the coherent, cold velocity fields of most Andromeda dwarf spheroidals, And XXVII has a trimodal velocity122.02 – The Mass and Chemical Abundance Distribution of the Ultra-Faint Dwarf distribution spanning 100 km/sec, with a relatively cold central peak at -530 km/sec , andGalaxy Segue 2 a velocity dispersion of sigma= 8 km/sec. While all of the candidate members are < 2E.N. Kirby, J. Bullock, M. Boylan-Kolchin, M. Kaplinghat, (or approximately one half light radii, ~600 pc) from the core, the full velocity range is not consistent with a system of luminosity Mv=-7.9. We propose that And XXVII mayUniversity of California Irvine, Irvine, CA; J.G. Cohen, California be in the process of dissolving into the Northern Arc.Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA02:10 PM-02:20 PM 122.04 – The SPLASH Survey: Photometric Properties of Sixteen Andromeda dSphsThe ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Segue 2, discovered by Belokurov et al. in 2009, has a R. Beaton, S.R. Majewski, R.J. Patterson, J.C. Ostheimer, Univ. ofluminosity of only 900 L⊙. However, the mass within the half light radius is 4 × 105 M⊙, Virginia, Charlottesville, VA; P. Guhathakurta, UC-Santa Cruz,
  • 23. Santa Cruz, CA; E.J. Tollerud, M.C. Geha, Yale University, New profile, we can constrain the exponent of the power law to a precision of 10% outside ofHaven, CT 3 kpc. Inside of 3 kpc, we find that the profile flattens significantly. Finally, assuming azimuthal symmetry and a constant mass-to-light ratio, we calculate a total halo stellar02:30 PM-02:40 PM mass. We find these properties are comparable with both simulations of stellar haloAs part of the Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of the Andromeda Stellar formation formed by satellite disruption alone, and with simulations that include some inHalo (SPLASH) survey, we have obtained Washington +DD051 imaging of sixteen situ formation of halo stars. Support for this work is provided by NASA through grantAndromeda (M31) dwarf Spheroidal (dSph) galaxies. Studies of the stellar populations in GO-12055 from the Space Telescope Science Institute.the M31 stellar halo are difficult due to the dominant Milky Way foreground. TheWashington+DD051 photometry system permits star-by-star discrimination to isolate red 122.07 – Spectroscopic and Photometric Properties of Carbon Stars in the Disk of thegiant stars in the und Andromeda Galaxy P. Guhathakurta, E. Toloba, C. Rushing, C. Dorman, UC, Santa122.05 – The Contribution of TP-AGB Stars to the Integrated 8 and 24 μm Fluxes of Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA; S. Guha, Archbishop Mitty High School,M31 San Jose, CAJ. Melbourne, Caltech, Pasadena, CA; M.L. Boyer, J. Dalcanton, 03:00 PM-03:10 PMSpace Telescope, Baltimore, MD; L.C. Johnson, University ofWashington, Seattle, WA; E.D. Skillman, University of Minnesota, We explore the spectroscopic properties of a couple hundred carbon stars discovered in the disk of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) in the course of the Spectroscopic andMinneapolis, MN Photometric Landscape of Andromedas Stellar Halo (SPLASH) survey. The spectra02:40 PM-02:50 PM were obtained using the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II 10-meter telescope.We constrain the contribution of thermally-pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) About 5000 stars were targeted for spectroscopy during observing runs in 2010 andstars to the integrated mid-infrared (mid-IR) fluxes of sub-regions of the bulge and disk 2011 using DEIMOSs 1200 lines/mm grating with a spectral resolving power of R ~of M31. We use the high spatial resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging from the 5000 to 6000 and spectral coverage from 6500-9000 Angstrom. In September 2012,Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) to identify near-complete samples another 5000 stars were observed this time with the 600 lines/mm grating and R ~ 2500of TP-AGB stars in M31. We then model the 8 and 24 μm fluxes of these stars based and spectral coverage from 4500-9000 Angstrom. For both types of spectroscopicon their near-IR colors and a transformation to longer wavelength derived from observations, targets were selected from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromedaobservations of AGB stars in the LMC and Milky Way. We find that the TP-AGB Treasury (PHAT) multi-cycle treasury program with the Hubble Space Telescope.contribution to the 24 μm flux of M31 is negligible in all regions. However, these stars Six-filter photometry in the ultraviolet (F275W, F336W), optical (F439W, F814W), andcan contribute as much as 15% of the 8 um light in large regions of Andromeda. near infrared (F110W, F160W) is available for most targets. These carbon star samples are used to constrain the intermediage-age population in M31s disk. They are also compared to spectra of previously known carbon samples in the dwarf elliptical satellites122.06 – Probing the Inner Halo of M31 with Blue Horizontal Branch Stars of M31, NGC 147, NGC 185, and NGC 205. The authors thank the National ScienceB.F. Williams, J. Dalcanton, K. Gilbert, P. Rosenfield, Univ. of Foundation, NASA/STScI, and UCSCs Summer Internship Program for support.Washington, Seattle, WA; E.F. Bell, University of Michigan, AnnArbor, MI; P. Guhathakurta, UCSC, Santa Cruz, CA; T.R. Lauer, 122.08 – Dynamics of the Local Group Galaxies with HST Proper MotionsNOAO, Tucson, AZ; A. Seth, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, S. Sohn, R.P. Van Der Marel, J. Anderson, STScI, Baltimore, MDUT; J.S. Kalirai, STScI, Baltimore, MD 03:10 PM-03:20 PM02:50 PM-03:00 PM The Local Group has been the benchmark for testing and calibrating many aspects ofWe attempt to constrain the density profile of M31s inner stellar halo by tracing the cosmological and galaxy formation theories including e.g., dark halo profiles and shapes,surface density of blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars at galactocentric distances substructure and the missing satellite problem, and the minimum mass for galaxyranging from 2 kpc to 35 kpc. Our measurements make use of resolved stellar formation. To get a better understanding of the dynamics of the Local Group galaxies,photometry from a section of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) we have carried out HST projects for measuring absolute proper motions of severalsurvey, supplemented by several archival Hubble Space Telescope observations. We targets: (1) M31, (2) the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Leo I, (3) four dwarf galaxies near thefind that the ratio of BHB to red giant stars is relatively constant outside of 10~kpc, edge of the Local Group, and (4) stars along the Sagittarius stream. In this talk, I willsuggesting that the BHB is as reliable a tracer of the halo population as the red giant present the results of these studies and their implications. I will also describe our properbranch. In the inner halo, we do not expect BHB stars to be produced by the high motion measurement technique that uses compact background galaxies as astrometricmetallicity bulge and disk, making BHB stars a good candidate to be a reliable tracer of reference sources.the stellar halo to much smaller galactocentric distances. If we assume a power-law123 – Black Holes IOral Session – Room 102A (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 02:00 PM to 03:30 PM 02:10 PM-02:20 PM123.01 – Black-Hole Spin Dependence in the Light Curves of Tidal Disruption EventsM.H. Kesden, NYU, New York, NY Many supermassive black hole (SMBH) pair candidates have recently been discovered, along with a handful of gravitational-wave recoiling SMBH candidates. Among these,02:00 PM-02:10 PM the galaxy CXOC J100043.1+020637 (also known as CID-42) is particularly intriguing.A star orbiting a supermassive black hole can be tidally disrupted if the black hole’s An apparent galaxy merger remnant, it displays signatures of both an inspiraling,gravitational tidal field exceeds the star’s self gravity at pericenter. Some of this stellar kiloparsec-scale active galactic nucleus (AGN) pair and of a recoiling AGN with a kicktidal debris can become gravitationally bound to the black hole, leading to a bright velocity of at least 1300 km s-1. CID-42 is the only recoiling AGN candidate with bothelectromagnetic flare with bolometric luminosity proportional to the rate at which spatial offsets (in optical and X-ray bands) and spectroscopic offsets. Accordingly, thismaterial falls back to pericenter. In the Newtonian limit, this flare will have a light curve object presents an opportunity to test our notions about the characteristic signatures ofthat scales as t^−5/3 if the tidal debris has a flat distribution in binding energy. We SMBH insprial and recoil. Using hydrodynamic galaxy merger simulations coupled withinvestigate the time dependence of the black-hole mass accretion rate when tidal radiative transfer calculations, we have developed models for CID-42 that are generallydisruption occurs close enough the black hole that relativistic effects are significant. We well matched to its galactic morphology and to the inferred stellar mass and starfind that for orbits with pericenters comparable to the radius of the marginally bound formation rate. We show that a recoiling supermassive black hole in CID-42 should becircular orbit, relativistic effects can double the peak accretion rate and halve the time it observable as an AGN at the time of observation. However, a serendipitous gastakes to reach this peak accretion rate. The accretion rate depends on both themagnitude of the black-hole spin and its orientation with respect to the stellar orbit; for distribution or a kick velocity ≥ 2000 km s-1 may be required for the recoiling AGN toorbits with a given pericenter radius in Boyer- Lindquist coordinates, a maximal produce the observed narrow-line emission. An AGN pair does not readily explain allblack-hole spin anti-aligned with the orbital angular momentum leads to the largest peak the features of CID-42, either; in addition to an unusually large broad-line offset, theaccretion rate. total galactic luminosity and large AGN X-ray luminosity ratio are not easily reproduced in this scenario. Our models highlight the most promising prospects for distinguishing these possibilities with future observations and, more generally, the importance of multi-123.02 – Disentangling the Signatures of Supermassive Black Hole Inspiral and Recoil: wavelength follow-up confirmation of any such candidate.A Case StudyL. Blecha, University of Maryland, College Park, MD; L. Blecha, 123.03D – Testing General Relativity in the Strong-Field Regime with Observations ofF.M. Civano, M. Elvis, A. Loeb, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Black Holes in the Electromagnetic SpectrumAstrophysics, Cambridge, MA
  • 24. T. Johannsen, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, CANADA; accretion disks. We compare our results of fully conservative hydrodynamic code andT. Johannsen, Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, spectra that include X-ray, with their results.Ontario, CANADA 123.06 – Do Seyfert Jets Tap Spin?02:20 PM-02:40 PM A. King, J.M. Miller, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; A.General relativity has been tested by many different experiments, which, however, Fabian, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UNITEDalmost exclusively probe weak spacetime curvatures. In this thesis, I create twoframeworks for testing general relativity in the strong-field regime with observations of KINGDOM; D. Walton, California Institute of Technology,black holes in the electromagnetic spectrum using current or near-future instruments. In Pasadena, CAthe first part, I design tests of the no-hair theorem, which uniquely characterizes the 03:10 PM-03:20 PMnature of black holes in general relativity in terms of their masses and spins and which The sheer power and strength of jets from black hole accreting systems is apparent bothstates that these compact objects are described by the Kerr metric. I investigate a observationally and theoretically. Observations across all wave bands, especially radioquasi-Kerr metric and construct a Kerr-like spacetime, both of which contain an and X-ray, show shocks, carved out cavities, and acoustic sounds waves that propagateindependent parameter in addition to mass and spin. If the no-hair theorem is correct, through the interstellar and intracluster medium as a direct result of jet interactions. Jetsthen any deviation from the Kerr metric has to be zero. I show that already moderate power is also a necessity for feedback in cosmic simulations in order to off set starchanges of the deviation parameters in either metric lead to significant modifications of formations rates. However, although the inferred power from jets is well constrained,the observed signals. First, I apply this framework to the imaging of supermassive black the exact launching mechanisms remain observationally elusive. In this project, weholes using very-long baseline interferometry. I show that the shadow of a black hole as present one parameter typically thought to be tapped when launching jets: spin. Bywell as the shape of a bright and narrow ring surrounding the shadow depend uniquely comparing the measured spin of Seyferts to their jet power, we are able to assess the jeton its mass, spin, inclination, and the deviation parameter. I argue that the no-hair dependence on spin. We find no correlation between the spin and jet power of Seyferttheorem can be tested with observations of the supermassive black hole Sgr A*. galaxies. This suggest that other factors, such as mass, mass accretion rate, andSecond, I investigate the potential of quasi-periodic variability observed in both galactic geometry of magnetic field lines have a greater impact on jet production than the spin inblack holes and active galactic nuclei to test the no-hair theorem in two different Seyferts.scenarios. Third, I show that the profiles of relativistically-broadened iron lines emittedfrom the accretion disks of black holes imprint the signatures of deviations from theKerr metric. In the second part, I devise a method to test the predicted evaporation of 123.07 – Jet-Launching Structure Resolved Near the Supermassive Black Hole in M87black holes in Randall-Sundrum type braneworld gravity through the orbital evolution of S. Doeleman, V.L. Fish, D. Schenck, C. Beaudoin, C.J. Lonsdale,black-hole X-ray binaries and obtain constraints on the size of the extra dimension from A.E. Rogers, D.L. Smythe, J. Soohoo, M.A. Titus, MIT-HaystackA0620-00 and XTE J1118+480. Obs., Westford, MA; S. Doeleman, R. Blundell, M.A. Gurwell, A.123.04 – Tilted Accretion Disk Models of Sgr A* Flares Loeb, J.M. Moran, R. Primiani, J. Weintroub, K. Young, Harvard- Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA; D. Schenck,J. Dexter, University of California, Berkeley, Oakland, CA; P.C. R. Freund, D.P. Marrone, P.A. Strittmatter, L.M. Ziurys, StewardFragile, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC Observatory, Arizona Radio Observatory, University of Arizona,02:40 PM-02:50 PM Tucson, AZ; G.C. Bower, R.L. Plambeck, M. Wright, Dept. ofSagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the Galactic center massive black hole candidate, is an Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA; A.E.unparalleled laboratory for low-luminosity accretion theory. First discovered as acompact radio source, Sgr A* has since been observed to undergo rapid, large amplitude Broderick, Perimeter Institute, North Waterloo, Ontario, CANADA;NIR/X-ray flares. The many proposed phenomenological models cannot simultaneously A.E. Broderick, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University ofexplain both the flaring emission and the peak of the SED in the submillimeter. I will Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, CANADA; R. Chamberlin, Caltechdescribe flares seen in numerical simulations of black hole accretion flows where the Submillimeter Observatory, Hilo, HI; P. Friberg, R. Tilanus, Jamesdisk angular momentum is misaligned from that of the black hole. Eccentric fluid orbitsdriven by gravitational torques converge and form strong shocks, which can lead to Clerk Maxwell Telescope, Joint Astronomy Centre, Hilo, HI; P.T.significant particle heating. The resulting NIR emission can reproduce the observations, Ho, M. Inoue, Academia Sinica Institute for Astronomy andand is completely unrelated to the submillimeter emission, which is included in these Astrophysics, Taipei, TAIWAN; M. Honma, T. Oyama, Nationalmodels and is also in excellent agreement with observations. I will describe the Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo, JAPAN; M.prospects for testing accretion theory and constraining the properties of Sgr A* with Honma, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Mitaka,exciting ongoing multi-wavelength observations. Tokyo, JAPAN; T. Krichbaum, Max-Planck-Institut für123.05D – General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics Simulations of Tilted Black Hole Radioastronomie, Bonn, GERMANY; J.W. Lamb, Owens ValleyAccretion Flows and Their Radiative Properties Radio Observatory, California Institute of Technology, Big Pine,H. Shiokawa, C.F. Gammie, University of Illinois at Urbana- CA; R. Tilanus, Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research,Champaign, Urbana, IL; J. Dolence, Princeton University, The Hague, NETHERLANDSPrinceton, NJ; S.C. Noble, Rochester Institute of Technology, 03:20 PM-03:30 PMRochester, NY Approximately 10% of active galactic nuclei exhibit relativistic jets, which are powered02:50 PM-03:10 PM by accretion of matter onto super massive black holes. While the measured width profiles of such jets on large scales agree with theories of magnetic collimation,We perform global General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) simulations predicted structure on accretion disk scales at the jet launch point has not been detected.of non-radiative, magnetized disks that are initially tilted with respect to the black holes We report radio interferometry observations at 1.3 mm wavelength of the ellipticalspin axis. We run the simulations with different size and tilt angle of the tori for 2 galaxy M87 that spatially resolve the base of the jet in this source. The derived size ofdifferent resolutions. We also perform radiative transfer using Monte Carlo based code 5.5 ± 0.4 Schwarzschild radii is significantly smaller than the innermost edge of athat includes synchrotron emission, absorption and Compton scattering to obtain spectral retrograde accretion disk, suggesting that the M87 jet is powered by an accretion disk inenergy distribution and light curves. Similar work was done by Fragile et al. (2007) and a prograde orbit around a spinning black hole.Dexter & Fragile (2012) to model the super massive black hole SgrA* with tilted124 – Cosmic Microwave Background IIOral Session – Grand Ballroom (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 02:00 PM to 03:30 PM light traveling cosmological distances, which alters the statistics of the CMB fluctuations124.01D – Testing New Physics with the Cosmic Microwave Background in the sky by inducing a characteristic B-mode polarization. A birefringent rotation of theV. Gluscevic, Caltech, Pasadena, CA CMB would be smoking-gun evidence that dark energy is a dynamical component rather02:00 PM-02:20 PM than a cosmological constant, while its absence gives clues about the allowed regions of the parameter space for new models. I developed a full-sky formalism to search forIn my thesis work, I have developed and applied tests of new fundamental physics that cosmic birefringence by cross-correlating CMB temperature and polarization maps,utilize high-precision CMB polarization measurements. I especially focused on a wide after allowing for the rotation angle to vary across the sky. With my collaborators, I alsoclass of dark energy models that propose existence of new scalar fields to explain proposed a cross-correlation of the rotation-angle estimator with the CMB temperatureaccelerated expansion of the Universe. Such fields naturally exhibit a weak interaction as a novel statistical probe which can boost signal-to-noise in the case of marginalwith photons, giving rise to cosmic birefringence---a rotation of the polarization plane of detection and help disentangle the underlying physical models. I then investigated the
  • 25. degeneracy between the rotation signal and the signals from other exotic scenarios that 02:50 PM-03:00 PMinduce a similar B-mode polarization signature, such as chiral primordial gravitationalwaves, and demonstrated that these effects are completely separable. Finally, I applied We present a sample of galaxy clusters selected via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effectthis formalism to WMAP-7 data and derived the first CMB constraint on the power in maps from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 GHz. The maps usedspectrum of the birefringent-rotation angle and presented forecasts for future correspond to the 2009-2010 observing seasons and cover 500 square degrees on theexperiments. To demonstrate the value of this analysis method beyond the search for celestial equator, including 270 square degrees of overlap with SDSS Stripe 82. Clusterdirection-dependent cosmic birefringence, I have also used it to probe patchy screening candidates are identified in microwave maps, and subsequently confirmed in SDSS datafrom the epoch of cosmic reionization with WMAP-7 data. or in targeted follow-up. The resulting sample spans redshifts from 0.1 to 1.4, with roughly half of the sample having z > 0.5. The cluster SZ signal is analyzed in relation to a one-parameter family of gas pressure profiles, yielding a mass estimate for each124.02 – A New Parametric Model for Cosmic Reionization on Large Scales and cluster. The current level of uncertainty in the SZ-mass scaling relation is addressed byPredictions for 21cm and Cosmic Microwave Background Reionization Observables presenting results for several fixed scaling relations that span a range of possibilities forN. Battaglia, H. Trac, A. Natarajan, P. La Plante, Carnegie cluster astrophysics. Cosmological constraints are also obtained in this context, showingMellon University, Pittsburgh, PA; R. Cen, Princeton, Princeton, how constraints vary with the assumed scaling relation.NJ; A. Loeb, Harvard CfA, Cambridge, MA02:20 PM-02:30 PM 124.06 – New Results from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Physical Properties of SZE Galaxy Clusters on the Celestial EquatorWe present a new method for modeling inhomogeneous cosmic reionization on largescales. Utilizing large-scale high-resolution radiative transfer hydrodynamic simulations J.P. Hughes, F. Menanteau, Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ; C.J.of cosmological reionization we show that the density and redshift of reionizaton fields Sifon, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, CHILE;are highly correlated on large scales ( > 1Mpc/h) and can be statistically represented by C.J. Sifon, Leiden Observatory, Leiden, NETHERLANDSa linear bias. We construct a parametric function for this linear bias that we then use to 03:00 PM-03:10 PMfilter any large-scale density field to efficiently derive the corresponding redshift ofreionization field. From these redshift of reionization fields we produce self-consistent We present the optical and X-ray properties of galaxy clusters selected via the Sunyaev-Cosmic Microwave Background and 21cm observables and combining these results with Zeldovich Effect (SZE) by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) observing at acurrent observations, we place constraints on the mid-point and duration of epoch of frequency of 148 GHz. The sample includes 49 clusters confirmed using Sloan Digitalreionization. Sky Survey (SDSS) deep multi-band optical imaging over Stripe 82 as well as additional near-infrared pointed observations with the Apache Point Observatory. An additional 19 clusters lying beyond the footprint of Stripe 82 are confirmed using regular-depth SDSS124.03 – New Results from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Gravitational Lensing, imaging. The sample properties we present are optical richness, separation between theNew Results and Future Prospects SZE position and the brightest cluster galaxy, and X-ray fluxes and luminosities from theD.N. Spergel, Princeton Univ. Obs., Princeton, NJ ROSAT All Sky Survey. As time permits, we will highlight some of the most exceptional02:30 PM-02:40 PM individual clusters in the ACT equatorial sample. We gratefully acknowledge support from NASA (Chandra grants numbered GO1-12008X and GO1-13156X and ADAPThis talk will review recent gravitational lensing results from ACT and will describe grant NNX11AJ48G).prospects from upcoming measurements from the ACT polarization camera. 124.07D – A LABOCA and ATCA Survey of Southern Atacama Cosmology Telescope124.04 – New Results from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT): Comparison (ACT) Clusterswith Planck Measurements of Extragalactic Sources R. Lindner, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey,R.B. Partridge, B.Z. Walter, Haverford College, Haverford, PA Piscataway, NJ02:40 PM-02:50 PM 03:10 PM-03:30 PMDozens of extragalactic sources detected by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT)are bright enough to have been detected in roughly simultaneous observations by ESAs I will present results from the LABOCA/ACT Survey of Clusters at All RedshiftsPlanck mission. These joint detections offer the opportunity to compare the flux density (LASCAR) project. LASCAR has used the Large APEX Bolometer Camerascales of the two programs. Since both ultimately depend on the CMB dipole for (LABOCA) on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) to obtain 19-resolutioncalibration, good agreement is expected. The calculation of flux densities, however, 870um imaging of ten of the most massive galaxy clusters that were detected asrequires an exact figure for the effective beam; this comparison thus also serves as a Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect (SZE) decrements in a 455 sq degree Atacama Cosmologycheck on our understanding of the effective beams of both ACT and Planck. With the Telescope (ACT) map. We have detected 870um SZE increments in multiple clustersdata now available, we find excellent agreement between the two instruments at ~145 out to z~1, which we use to study the physical properties of their intracluster media. WeGHz. also examine the properties of background lensed submillimeter galaxies, and stack on cluster members to study star formation in dense environments. We have acquired 2.1GHz imaging of the sample from the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA)124.05 – New Results from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope: SZ Selected Galaxy which we use to disentangle SMGs from SZE emission near the cluster centers. TheClusters on the Celestial Equator project benefits from multiwavelength follow-up at optical (NTT, SOAR, VLT, Gemini),M. Hasselfield, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British X-ray (Chandra), and infrared (Spitzer) wavelengths. Included in our sample is the “ElColumbia, CANADA Gordo” system, an exceptionally massive Bullet-like cluster merger at z=0.87 with two prominent complexes of radio relics.125 – Dark Matter Properties, Observations and ConstraintsOral Session – Room 101A (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 02:00 PM to 03:30 PM One of the defining properties of cold dark matter (CDM) is its ability to form abundant125.01 – Status Report on the 130 GeV Line in the Galactic Center substructure down to subgalactic -and even lower- mass scales. This characteristic hasD.P. Finkbeiner, M. Su, Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA; M. Su, lead to a series of observational challenges to CDM at small scales, since the multitudeMIT, Cambridge, MA of low-mass halos predicted by CDM seems to be at odds with the paucity of observed02:00 PM-02:10 PM low-mass galaxies (e.g. missing satellites problem, void phenomenon, etc.). We test the predicted CDM halo mass function (HMF), by using measurements of the width ofThe recent claims of a gamma-ray line in the Galactic center at 130 GeV have the 21cm line of atomic hydrogen (HI) of ~11000 galaxies detected by the ALFALFAgenerated excitement, not least because a line could be a signal of dark matter survey. The HI-linewidth of a galaxy reflects its disk rotational velocity, and it is thusannihilation. I will summarize the current state of the observations of the Galactic center, mostly determined by the host halo dynamics. We compare the measured galacticclusters, and unassociated halo sources, and speculate about models of particle dark velocity width function (WF) with the expected distribution in a CDM universe, and findmatter that could explain the data. a large discrepancy at low velocity widths (a factor of ~8 difference in abundance at w=50 km/sec). A possible solution to the discrepancy would be the suppression of125.02D – Testing the CDM Halo Mass Function with the ALFALFA Survey low-mass halo formation, best accomplished in a warm dark matter (WDM) cosmologyE. Papastergis, R. Giovanelli, M.P. Haynes, Cornell University, with a ~keV dark matter particle. Alternatively, the discrepancy could be caused by the fact that dwarf galaxies often display rising rotation curves, and hence their velocityIthaca, NY; A. Martin, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, width may underestimate the true mass of their host halos. In this latter case, we deriveVA an average relation between the measured HI rotational velocity of a galaxy and the02:10 PM-02:30 PM mass of its halo. This relation, when combined with measurements of resolved rotation
  • 26. curves of dwarf galaxies from the literature, constitutes an important new observational Dobler, Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Santa Barbara, CAchallenge to CDM on galactic scales. (The research presented in this abstract was 03:00 PM-03:10 PMmade possible by NSF grants AST-0607007 and AST-1107390 and by grants from theBrinson Foundation.) The thermal or interaction properties of dark matter are expected to lead to different levels of sub-galactic structure within Milky-Way scale galaxies. Through observations125.03 – Weak Lensing Calibration of the Galaxy Cluster Mass Scale in the South Pole of galaxies acting as strong gravitational lenses, it is possible to statistically map theTelescope Sunyaev-Zeldovich Survey details of these structures. In recent theoretical and simulation work examined through Importance Sampling approaches, we demonstrate how efficiently dark matterF.W. High, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL substructures can be statistically constrained through select ground- and space-based02:30 PM-02:40 PM measurements, and map out forecasts for how well possible Hubble Space TelescopeThe South Pole Telescope (SPT) has detected clusters above a nearly uniform mass and possible future space based experiments may perform.threshold over an extremely broad range in redshift by searching for the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. The observed abundance of clusters from such a well selected sample 125.06 – Constraints on Dark Matter Annihilation by Radio Observations of M31is directly sensitive to the growth function of matter perturbations over the majority of A. Egorov, E. Pierpaoli, Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles,the history of the universe, and provides powerful constraints on dark energy with CA; E. Pierpaoli, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CAsystematics that are complementary to traditional distance-based measures. Thedominant source of uncertainty on dark energy constraints from this technique is our 03:10 PM-03:20 PMestimate of total cluster mass. We have observed 19 SPT clusters at 0.3 < z < 0.6 with We used radio observations of the neighbour galaxy M31 in order to put constraints onMegacam on the Magellan-Clay 6.5 m telescope, and 14 SPT clusters at 0.6 < z < 1.3 dark matter particle mass and annihilation cross section. Dark matter annihilation in M31with HST-ACS, to estimate total mass for these ~ (3-10)x10^14 Msun systems with halo produces highly energetic leptons, which emit synchrotron radiation on radioweak gravitational lensing. We present results on the scaling of Y_SZ and Y_X with frequencies in the galactic magnetic field. We predicted corresponding radio fluxes fortotal mass, as well as the improvement in cosmological constraints afforded by the weak the two important annihilation channels: χχ → bb* and χχ → τ+τ-. We considered thelensing data. central region of M31 with the radius 5 arcmin around the center, which was shown to be an optimal choice. In our computations we assumed standard NFW dark matter125.04D – Evidence for Self-interacting Dark Matter: A Call for a Regime Change density profile. Specific values of the parameters of this profile for the M31 halo caseW. Dawson, D.M. Wittman, M.J. Jee, M. Bradac, J.A. Tyson, S. were found from previous studies. These studies showed significant uncertainty inSchmidt, P. Thorman, University of California Davis, Davis, CA; determination of M31 dark halo concentration parameter (c100) - it lies in the wideJ.P. Hughes, Rutgers University, Rutgers, NJ; J. Bullock, M. range of values between about 12 and 28. This variation causes main uncertainty in our final constraints. Also we used conservative magnetic field distribution insideKaplinghat, M. Rocha, A. Peter, University of California, Irvine, Andromeda. Afterwards we compared expected radio fluxes with real availableIrvine, CA; J. Merten, Caltech/JPL, Pasadena, CA observations of M31. For this purpose we selected four radio surveys: VLSS (74 MHz),02:40 PM-03:00 PM WENSS (325 MHz), NVSS (1400 MHz) and GB6 (4850 MHz). This comparison excluded at 99.7% confidence level WIMP masses lower than approximately 180 GeVDLSCL J0916.2+2951 (Musket Ball Cluster) is a galaxy cluster merger where the darkmatter and galaxies have become dissociated from the collisional gas. Because the time and 83 GeV for annihilation into bb* and τ+τ- respectively for the case of thermal relicsince first pass-through is longer than for any other such merger, this system is the one cross section <σv> = 3×10-26 cm3/s. These constraints significantly exceed bestmost sensitive to a nonzero dark matter self-interaction cross-section (σDM), which up-to-day known constraints from Fermi telescope: about 40 GeV and 19 GeVwould be observed as the dark matter trailing the collisionless galaxies. We detect an respectively. Presented limits are the most conservative ones with respect to theoffset of 19 between the weak lensing mass centroid and the galaxy density centroid assumptions about another astrophysical background radiation - no other radio sourceconsistent with expectations of a dark matter cross-section between 0.2 and 1.0 cm2/g. than dark matter was not introduced. However, we continue our work towards realisticWe are able to rule out the hypothesis of a zero dark matter cross-section at ~85% background treatment, which will improve our current constraints even further.confidence. In addition to discussing this measurement I will introduce a new regime ofdark matter constraint with merging clusters. In the past, constraints have been 125.07 – Improved Predictions of Kepler Microlensing Rates for Primordial Black Holedetermined in an ad hoc cluster-by-cluster basis without estimate of uncertainty. I will Dark Matterdiscuss the present efforts of the Merging Cluster Collaboration to systematically create A. Cieplak, K. Griest, University of California San Diego, La Jolla,and analyze a sample of dissociative cluster mergers capable of either measuring thedark matter self-interaction cross-section (at the 3-σ level) or constraining it to such a CAdegree that self-interacting dark matter becomes astrophysically uninteresting (σDM<0.1 03:20 PM-03:30 PMcm2/g). Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) remain a viable Dark Matter (DM) candidate of the Standard Model of Particle Physics. Previously, we have proposed a new method to125.05 – Strong Gravitational Lensing Insights into Dark Matter Physics constrain the remaining PBH DM mass range using microlensing of Kepler source stars, with the possibility of closing up to 40% of the remaining mass window. Here weL.A. Moustakas, F. Cyr-Racine, JPL/Caltech, Pasadena, CA; C.R. re-address this analysis using a more accurate treatment of the distribution of the sourceKeeton, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ; P.J. Marshall, Oxford stars, including limb-darkening as well as reflecting a more accurate number of variableUniversity, Oxford, UNITED KINGDOM; K.R. Sigurdson, stars. Including the extended Kepler mission the theoretically detectable PBH DM massUniversity of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, range could be extended down to 2*10^-10 solar masses. We address the possible PBH parameters that could be detected if such an event would be observed as well asCANADA; R. Fadely, New York University, New York, NY; G. possible improvements for future survey satellite missions.126 – Exoplanet Interiors and AtmospheresOral Session – Room 104A (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 02:00 PM to 03:30 PM planets CoRoT-7b, GJ 436b, HAT-P-11b, and GJ 1214b. We describe how Bayesian126.01D – Formation, Structure and Habitability of Super-Earth and Sub-Neptune analysis can be applied to account for observational, model, and inherent uncertainties inExoplanets a rigorous way when constraining exoplanet compositions. Using models of planetL. Rogers, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA; L. formation, structure, and survival, we delimit the minimum plausible planet mass for aRogers, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA measured planet radius and equilibrium temperature. Finally, we comprehensively explore and constrain the scenarios in which a hydrogen-rich sub-Neptune planet could02:00 PM-02:20 PM harbor a liquid water ocean on its surface. The pace of low-mass exoplanet discoveriesInsights into a distant exoplanets composition are possible given a synergy between is poised to accelerate, and this thesis will contribute to constraining the interiormodels and observations. Spectral observations of a stars radial velocity wobble induced properties of newfound planets.by an orbiting planets gravitational pull measure the planet mass. Photometric transitobservations of a planet crossing the disk of its star measure the planet radius. This 126.02 – Near Infra-red Integral Field Spectroscopy of the HR8799 Planetary Systemthesis interprets the measured masses and radii of super-Earth and sub-Neptuneexoplanets, employing models to constrain the planets bulk compositions, formation L. Pueyo, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; B.R.histories, and habitability. We develop a model for the internal structure of low-mass Oppenheimer, D. Brenner, R. Nilsson, American Museum ofexoplanets consisting of up to four layers: an iron core, silicate mantle, ice layer, and gas Natural History, New York, NY; C.A. Beichman, NASA Exoplanetlayer. We apply the model to constrain the bulk compositions of low-mass transiting Science Institute, Pasadena, CA; R. Burruss, E. Cady, E. Lingon,
  • 27. T. Lockhart, L.C. Roberts, J. Roberts, M. Shao, G. Vasisht, F. super-Earths and discuss their possible formation scenarios using new andVescelus, J.K. Wallace, C. Zhai, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, comprehensive hybrid models of their interiors, non-gray atmospheres, and formation conditions. Our model constraints are based on the masses and visible radii, as well asPasadena, CA; L. Hillenbrand, S. Hinkley, Department of the latest infrared measurements of transmission and emission spectrophotometry whereAstronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA; R. available, in addition to revised estimates of the stellar parameters. We will present aDekany, Caltech Optical Observatories, Pasadena, CA; R. Fergus, comparative analysis of several transiting super-Earths currently known and will discussDepartment of Computer Science, Courant Institute of in detail two super-Earths (GJ 1214b and 55 Cancri e) which have atmospheric data available and which represent two distinct end members in the thermo-chemical phaseMathematical Sciences, New York, NY; D.W. Hogg, Center for space of super-Earth conditions. We will also discuss the implications of our results forCosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York the diversity of geochemical and geophysical conditions on super-Earths. We willUniversity, New York, NY; D. King, Institute of Astronomy, conclude with comments on new observational, theoretical, and experimental efforts thatCambridge University, Cambridge, UNITED KINGDOM; E.L. are critical to detailed characterization of super-Earths.Rice, Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of 126.05 – The Effect of Clouds and Hazes on the Transmission Spectrum of GJ 1214bStaten Island, Staten Island, NY; L. Pueyo, A. Sivaramakrishnan,R. Soummer, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD; N. C. Morley, J.J. Fortney, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA; E.Zimmerman, Max Planck Institute, Heidelberg, GERMANY; J.R. Kempton, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA; C.W. Visscher, SwRICrepp, Notre Dame University, South Bend, IN Planetary Science Directorate, Boulder, CO; M.S. Marley, NASA02:20 PM-02:30 PM Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA 02:50 PM-03:00 PMWe have obtained spectra, in the wavelength range 0.98 - 1.76 microns, of three of thefour known putative planets orbiting the star HR 8799. Using the complex suite of The formation of clouds in exoplanet atmospheres is expected to significantly change theinstrumentation known as Project 1640 on the Palomar 5-m Hale Telescope, we observable spectra. This is widely understood for solar system planets and brownacquired data at two different epochs for confirmation and data fidelity purposes. This dwarfs. For exoplanets, the gray opacity of hazes or clouds has been invoked as aallowed for multiple imaging detections of the companions and multiple extractions of possible explanation for the observed flat transmission spectrum of transitinglow-resolution (R ~ 40) spectra. Data reduction employed two different methods for super-Earth GJ 1214b [1]. Previous atmosphere models for irradiated planets havespeckle suppression and spectrum extraction, both yielding results that agree. The included the most important condensates expected to form in brown dwarf and giantspectra do not directly correspond to those of any known objects, although similarities planet atmospheres — iron, silicate, and corundum — but have not included thewith L- and T-dwarfs are present, as well as some characteristics similar to planets such condensates expected to form at colder temperatures. The most important of these newas Saturn and Jupiter, but without methane absorption. Recent broad-band photometry of clouds are sodium sulfide, potassium chloride, and zinc sulfide. These clouds should bethese objects in other studies suggests red colors for these faint companions, and our most prominent at low surface gravity, strongly super-solar atmospheric abundances,data confirm those observations. Cloudy models that have recently emerged may and at the slant viewing geometry appropriate for transits. Hence they could be quiteprovide the best explanation for the spectra observed. An interesting aspect of these important for affecting the transmission spectra of cool low density super-Earth andspectra is that presumably co-eval objects of similar luminosity have significantly Neptune-class planets. Another class of clouds may also dramatically alter the spectradifferent spectra. This implies that the diversity of planets may be greater than of irradiated planets: photochemical hazes. We additionally include a hydrocarbon hazepreviously known. We note that these spectra represent observations of the early layer similar to the tholin haze in Titan’s atmosphere. We motivate the location andevolution of what may be giant planets, and that the technique and methods employed density of the haze layer using photochemical models from Kempton et al. 2012 [2].for this work represent the ability to observe and rapidly characterize exoplanetary Here, we present results from a series of 1D atmospheric models that include thesesystems in a routine manner over a broad range of planet masses and separations for previously ignored condensates for the transiting super-Earth GJ 1214b. We vary boththe first time. the metallicity of the atmosphere and the thickness of the cloud layer, and we determine whether these clouds and hazes could be sufficiently optically thick to reproduce126.03 – Carbon and Oxygen in the Spectrum of HR 8799c observations of GJ 1214b. [1] Bean et al. (2011) ApJ, 743, 92. [2] Kempton et al. (2011) ApJ, 745, 3.Q.M. Konopacky, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario,CANADA; T.S. Barman, Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ; B. 126.06 – Transmission Spectroscopy of Exoplanet XO-2b Observed with HSTMacintosh, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, NICMOSCA; C. Marois, NRC NSI, Victoria, British Columbia, CANADA N. Crouzet, P.R. McCullough, D. Long, STScI, Baltimore, MD;02:30 PM-02:40 PM C.J. Burke, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CAThe field of exoplanet spectroscopy has grown tremendously in the last decade. With 03:00 PM-03:10 PMthe discovery of gas giant planets at wide separations from their host stars via direct Spectroscopy during planetary transits is a powerful tool to probe exoplanetimaging, it is now possible to obtain exoplanet spectra with unprecedented spectral atmospheres. We present the near-infrared transit spectroscopy of XO-2b obtained withresolution. We present a medium resolution spectrum of the directly imaged exoplanet HST NICMOS. Uniquely for NICMOS transit spectroscopy, a companion star of similarHR 8799c. This K band spectrum was obtained using the integral field spectrograph properties to XO-2 is present in the field of view. We derive improved star and planetOSIRIS on the Keck II telescope. Our spectrum shows numerous, well-resolved parameters through a photometric white-light analysis. We show a clear correlation ofmolecular lines from water and carbon monoxide (CO). There is no clear evidence for the spectrum noise with instrumental parameters, in particular the angle of the spectralmethane absorption, in spite of a best fit temperature of ~1100 K. We find a best fit trace on the detector. An MCMC method using a decorrelation from instrumentalsurface gravity log(g) ~ 4.0, consistent with the inferred young age for the system (~30 parameters is used to extract the planetary spectrum. Spectra derived independentlyMyr), and a continuum morphology consistent with previously-inferred dust clouds. from each of the 3 visits have a RMS of 430, 510, and 1000 ppm respectively. The sameUsing the water and CO lines, we are able to estimate the C/O ratio for this planet. We analysis is performed on the companion star after numerical injection of a transit with afind a ratio slightly higher than stellar (~0.65), favoring a core-accretion process for its depth constant at all wavelengths. The extracted spectra exhibit residuals of similarformation rather than gravitational instability. amplitude as for XO-2, which represent the level of remaining NICMOS systematics. This shows that extracting planetary spectra is at the limit of NICMOS capability. We126.04 – Chemical Characterization of Extrasolar Super-Earths - Interiors, derive a spectrum for the planet XO-2b using the companion star as a reference. TheAtmospheres, and Formation Conditions derived spectrum can be represented by a theoretical model including atmospheric waterN. Madhusudhan, K. Lee, I. Uts, Yale University, New Haven, CT; vapor, or by a flat spectrum model. We derive a 3-sigma upper limit of 1570 ppm on theO. Mousis, Universite de Franche-Comte, Besancon, Franche- presence of water vapor absorption in the atmosphere of XO-2b. We also perform a similar analysis for the gas giant planet XO-1b.Comte, FRANCE; O. Mousis, Universite de Toulouse, Toulouse,FRANCE 126.07 – Atmospheric Characterization of Extrasolar Planets in the Era of Kepler02:40 PM-02:50 PM J. Desert, Caltech, Pasadena, CARecent observations are allowing unprecedented measurements of masses and radii of 03:10 PM-03:20 PMlow-mass transiting extrasolar planets, particularly super-Earths which are defined asplanets with masses between 1 and 10 Earth masses. The observed masses, radii, and The study of transiting planets has been a particularly important component of exoplanettemperatures of super-Earths provide constraints on their interior structures, geophysical characterization over the last decade. This is because it is only for transiting exoplanetsconditions, as well as their atmospheric compositions. Some of the most recently that we can determine masses and radii, and therefore examine their atmospheresdetected super-Earths span a wide gamut of possible compositions, from super- without degeneracies. Knowing a planet’s mass and radius together give us powerfulMercuries and lava planets to water worlds with thick volatile envelopes. In this work, constraints on its bulk composition, and spectroscopic studies can reveal further detailswe report joint constraints on the interior and atmospheric compositions of several about atmospheric composition (e.g., metallicity and carbon-to-oxygen ratio) and
  • 28. physical conditions (e.g., temperature-pressure profile, evaporation, presence of clouds Chicago, IL; J. Desert, Caltech, Pasadena, CA; N. Madhusudhan,and hazes, and winds). I present multi-wavelength ground and space-based observation Yale, New Haven, CTprograms to characterize planetary systems transiting nearby stars through theobservation of their atmospheres. These observations are the only effective way at 03:20 PM-03:30 PMpresent to address the composition of exoplanets quantitatively, which is critical when Transit spectroscopy using multi-object spectrographs with wide slits has recentlyunderstanding their formation, evolution and nature. I also discuss these observational emerged as a powerful way to investigate exoplanet atmospheres. I will present newadvances in the context of new opportunities offered by the discovery of transiting giant results from the application of this technique, with an emphasis on trying to determineplanets detected by the Kepler Space Telescope. the composition, chemistry, and conditions in hot-Jupiter atmospheres and what technical challenges remain. Case study targets include the potentially carbon-rich planet126.08 – The State Of The Art For Ground-Based Transit Spectroscopy Wasp-12b, for which we have obtained transmission data in the red optical, and theJ. Bean, K.B. Stevenson, A. Seifahrt, University of Chicago, super-hot planet Wasp-19b, for which we have obtained near-infrared transmission and emission data.127 – Family Leave Policies and Childcare for Graduate Students and PostdocsSpecial Session – Room 201B (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 02:00 PM to 03:30 PM This special session will provide a forum in which individuals in positions to influence policy (including university faculty and department chairs, and program directors from funding agencies) and those who may directly benefit from such policies (graduate students and postdocs) can discuss the current practices regarding parental leave and childcare for graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, and the means by which departments and funding agencies can establish more supportive policies. The session will begin with the results from the recent national survey of graduate student parental leave policies in US departments of astronomy and astrophysics. We will then hear from a department chair and graduate student who together implemented a departmental paid leave policy. Additional speakers include program directors from NSF and NASA, as well as the AAS President David Helfand. Attend this session to learn about the recent changes in many university departments nationwide, and to ask questions that inform any policy changes you are considering in your own workplace. or chronic medical condition, as well as paid parental leave for both male and female127.01 – A National Survey of Parental Leave and Childcare Policies for Graduate graduate research assistants. Building on the graduate student perspective of GosnellStudents in Departments of Astronomy (2012), I will discuss the process of this successful development of a departmentalD. Charbonneau, Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA family and medical leave policy for graduate students from the perspective of a faculty02:00 PM-02:10 PM member and chair. In particular I will discuss implications of university policies, the importance of faculty and staff support, the role of private funds, and issues of effortThe AAS Committee on the Status of Women in Astronomy conducted a national certification.survey to determine current policies regarding parental leave and childcare for graduatestudent parents. We sent a letter to the Chair of each U.S. department of astronomy 127.04 – NSFs Career-Life Balance Initiative and the NSF Astronomy andand/or astrophysics that offers the PhD degree. The letter inquired both about leave Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowshipsfollowing the birth or adoption of a child (including questions about eligibility, whether theleave was paid or unpaid, and whether benefits including health care and housing were E.A. Ajhar, National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA; E.A.retained during leave), as well as childcare (including questions about eligibility, access, Ajhar, St. Thomas University, Miami Gardens, FLand financial assistance). The letter sought to determine the official departmental 02:25 PM-02:40 PMpolicies, but also inquired about any unofficial policies. We also inquired as tomechanisms to cover costs associated with both parental leave and childcare, and the In the fall of 2011, the National Science Foundation (NSF) began the Career-Lifemeans by which graduate students were informed about the policies. The response rate Balance Initiative to support graduate students, postdoctoral students, and early-careerwas 100%. We will present the results at this special session, and then lead a discussion researchers in STEM fields. NSF is focusing first on its most prestigious programs forof the changing landscape of parental leave for graduate students in our field. early-career scientists---the CAREER program and the postdoctoral programs, including the NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowships (AAPF)---where career–life balance opportunities can help retain a significant fraction of early career127.02 – Implementing a Paid Leave Policy for Graduate Students at UW - Madison: talent. Subject to budget constraints, NSF plans to further integrate and enhanceThe Student Perspective career–life balance opportunities over time through other programs, like the GraduateN.M. Gosnell, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI Research Fellowships Program and ADVANCE, and subsequently through the broader02:10 PM-02:18 PM portfolio of NSF activities. In addition, to comply with Title IX, NSF has regulations to ensure that educational programs that receive NSF funds are free of genderIn 2010 the University of Wisconsin - Madison Astronomy Department developed and discrimination and harassment. A primary goal of this presentation is to put facts aboutimplemented a departmental paid leave policy for our graduate students, even though the NSF into the hands of students, faculty, staff, administrators and other policy makers touniversity lacks a campus-wide policy and cannot provide institutional funding for such benefit the advancement of career-life balance in the astronomical community. Theprograms. This policy includes 12 weeks of paid leave in event of a medical emergency presentation focus areas will (1) address common misconceptions about NSF rulesor chronic medical condition, as well as paid parental leave for both male and female regarding parental leave; (2) discuss benefits already available through the AAPFgraduate research assistants. (The policy in its entirety can be found at program, Graduate Research Fellowships, and other programs; and (3) listen tohttp://www.astro.wisc.edu/grad-students/policies-procedures/medical-and-family-leave- community concerns and issues to bring these back to the foundation for consideration.policy.) This is the first of two presentations describing our policy implementation using a Did you know that NSF allows paid parental leave under many circumstances? Forbottom-up approach, beginning with the graduate students. I will present the example, the AAPF program currently allows two months of paid parental leave duringperspective of the graduate students who led the effort and will discuss the steps we the fellows tenure. What are the rules for NSF Graduate Research Fellowships? Cometook to put our policy in place, from the conception of the plan to the full implementation. to the session and find out; the answers to such questions might surprise you.These steps included identifying faculty allies, becoming knowledgeable about universitypolicies and resources, involving department staff, and anticipating procedural andbureaucratic hurdles in order to come up with creative solutions in advance. Although 127.05 – NASAs Postdoctoral Fellowship Programseach individual institution and departments path to implementing a similar plan will be C.A. Beichman, D.M. Gelino, JPL, Pasadena, CA; R.J. Allen,unique, we hope the methods used to implement our policy at UW - Madison may serve STScI, Baltimore, MD; A.H. Prestwich, CfA, Cambridge, MAas an example. 02:40 PM-02:55 PM127.03 – Implementing a Paid Leave Policy for Graduate Students at UW-Madison: The The three named fellowships --- the Einstein, Hubble and Sagan programs --- are amongDepartment Chair Perspective the most prestigious postdoctoral positions in astronomy. Their policies are closely coordinated to ensure the highest scientific quality, the broadest possible access to aR.D. Mathieu, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI diverse community of recent PhD graduates, and flexibility in completing the 3 year02:18 PM-02:25 PM appointments in light of individual personal circumstances. We will discuss practicalIn 2010 the University of Wisconsin - Madison Astronomy Department developed and details related to family-friendly best practices such as no-cost extensions and theimplemented a departmental paid leave policy for our graduate students, even though the ability to transfer the host institution in response to two body problems. We note,university lacks a campus-wide policy and cannot provide institutional funding for such however, that the terms of the NASA fellowships are such that fellows becomeprograms. This policy includes 12 weeks of paid leave in event of a medical emergency employees of their host institutions which set specific policies on issues such as parental
  • 29. leave. We look forward to participating in the discussion at this special session and departments, collegial persuasion involving both those affected and senior leadership canconveying to NASA any suggestions for improving the fellowship program. be successful in overcoming sociological resistance, although financial constraints may be harder to surmount. Universities are constrained by internal policies and the structure127.06 – Confronting Barriers, Creating Solutions: Parental Leave for Junior Colleagues of their fringe benefits pools which are in turn limited by reimbursement rates that must be negotiated with their federal oversight agencies. Federal effort-reporting rules alsoD.J. Helfand, AAS, Squamish, British Columbia, CANADA complicate the situation. I will describe the type of creative solutions that can work at02:55 PM-03:10 PM the departmental level, as well as discussing the actions the Society is pursuing in anBarriers to instituting parental leave policies for graduate students and postdoctoral attempt to lower the external barriers to local action.fellows are present at the departmental, university/institute, and federal levels. Within128 – Galaxy Clusters IIOral Session – Room 103A (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 02:00 PM to 03:30 PM some massive clusters, and/or the gas has been redistributed outwards.128.01 – MHD Cosmological Simulations of Radio Relics in Galaxy Clusters andImplications for Observations 128.04 – The Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH): MassJ.O. Burns, S.W. Skillman, E. Hallman, Univ. of Colorado at Distributions in and Around Relaxed vs. Merging ClustersBoulder, Boulder, CO; H. Xu, H. Li, D.C. Collins, Los Alamos E. Medezinski, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; K.National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM; B.W. OShea, Michigan Umetsu, ASIAA, Taipei, TAIWAN; J. Merten, JPL, Pasadena, CAState University, East Lansing, MI; M.L. Norman, University of 02:50 PM-03:00 PMCalifornia at San Diego, La Jolla, CA The Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) is a 524-orbit02:00 PM-02:10 PM multi-cycle treasury program to observe 25 galaxy clusters each in 16 broadband filtersNon-thermal radio emission from cosmic ray electrons in the vicinity of merging galaxy with WFC3 and ACS. One of the most important drivers of this program is to accuratelyclusters is an important tracer of cluster merger activity, and is the result of complex map the mass distributions of these clusters and to interpret their cosmologicalphysical processes that involve magnetic fields, particle acceleration, gas dynamics, and implications. Gravitational lensing provides a direct probe of the total mass, regardless ofradiation. In particular, radio relics are thought to be the result of shock-accelerated its physical state or composition. A combination of strong lensing (SL) analysis in clusterelectrons that, when embedded in a magnetic field, emit synchrotron radiation at radio centers, with weak lensing (WL) analysis that trace the cluster mass out to the virialwavelengths. In order to properly model this emission, we utilize adaptive mesh radius, is required in order to measure cluster mass and its distribution on all scales. Ourrefinement simulations of the magnetohydrodynamic evolution of galaxy clusters from wide-field analysis of CLASH clusters utilizes complementary multi-band ground-basedcosmological initial conditions. We locate shock fronts and apply models of cosmic ray Subaru/Suprime-Cam photometry, ideal for WL measurements. I present 1D/2D lensingelectron acceleration that are then input into radio emission models. We have determined mass reconstructions to beyond the virial radius of two massive clusters of galaxies:the thermodynamic properties of this radio-emitting plasma and constructed synthetic MACSJ1206, a relaxed cluster, and MACSJ0717, a complex merging cluster. I discussradio observations to compare to observed galaxy clusters. We find a significant the differences in approach required to analyze clusters in different relaxation states.dependence of the observed morphology and radio relic properties on the viewing angleof the cluster, raising concerns regarding the interpretation of observed radio features in 128.05D – The Bolocam SZ Program: Model-Independent Cluster Profiles and Y-Mgasclusters. We also find that a given shock should not be characterized by a single Mach Scaling Relationsnumber. We find that the bulk of the radio emission comes from gas with T > 5 keV, N.G. Czakon, J. Sayers, S.R. Golwala, T.P. Downes, S. Siegel,magnetic field strengths of 0.01-0.1 μG, and shock Mach numbers of M~3-5. We California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA; A. Mantz, Kavlipresent an analysis of the radio spectral index which suggests that the spatial variationof the spectral index can mimic synchrotron aging. Finally, we examine the polarization Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago,fraction and position angle of the simulated radio features, and compare to observations. IL; E. Pierpaoli, J. Shitanishi, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA; P.M. Koch, K. Lin, S. Molnar, K. Umetsu,128.02D – Adaptive Mesh Refinement Simulations of Cosmic Rays in Clusters of Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academica Sinica, Taipai,Galaxies TAIWANS.W. Skillman, University of Colorado, Boulder, Boulder, CO 03:00 PM-03:20 PM02:10 PM-02:30 PM Bolocam has observed more than 45 galaxy clusters at 143 GHz--including all 25Galaxy clusters are unique astrophysical laboratories that contain many thermal and clusters in the CLASH HST strong lensing survey and all 12 clusters in the MACS highnon-thermal phenomena. In particular, they are hosts to cosmic shocks, which propagate redshift sample. Typical map coverage goes out to 14 arcmins in diameter with a 58through the intracluster medium as a signature of structure formation. It is believed that arcsec resolution and a median RMS of 22 uK-arcmin. Resolved, high-S/N SZ imagesat these shock fronts, magnetic field inhomogeneities in a compressing flow may lead to provide unique insight into the physics of the outer ICM and we have generated scalingthe acceleration of cosmic ray electrons and ions. These relativistic particles decay and relations between the integrated Compton y-parameter and X-ray derived gas massradiate through a variety of mechanisms, and have observational signatures in radio, measurements. To characterize selection biases in our fits we model the clusterhard X-ray, and Gamma-ray wavelengths. Modelling these dynamics require a population with a Tinker mass function and refit the data with various selectioncombination of cosmological hydrodynamics coupled with a model to follow the scenarios. Although our maps have coverage beyond r500 for most clusters, we findmomentum-space distribution of cosmic ray electrons and protons. I will present our that integrating the signal within r2500 produces a tighter relation with reducedwork combining Enzo (enzo-project.org), an Adaptive Mesh Refinement hydrodynamics measurement uncertainty. We account for differences in our X-ray mass model and find+ N-body particle-mesh gravity solver, with CRT, a numerical library for cosmic ray our Ysz scaling relations to be consistent with those predicted from the X-ray scalingtransport. I then use these simulations, together with synthetic observation tools written relations.within the yt (yt-project.org) framework, to produce simulated radio, X-ray, Gamma-ray,and thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect observations. I highlight their relationships with 128.06 – Constraints on the Stellar Mass Growth of Brightest Cluster Galaxieseach other as well as the underlying fluid quantities. Y. Lin, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica,128.03D – Suzaku Observations of the X-ray Brightest Galaxy ESO3060170 Taipei, TAIWAN; M. Brodwin, University of Missouri, Kansas City,Y. Su, R.E. White, J. Irwin, Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL; Kansas City, MO; A.H. Gonzalez, University of Florida,E.D. Miller, MIT, Cambridge , MA Gainesville, FL; S.A. Stanford, UC Davis, Davis, CA; P.R.02:30 PM-02:50 PM Eisenhardt, JPL, Pasadena, CA; P.W. Bode, J.P. Ostriker, Princeton University, Princeton, NJIn the hierarchical Universe, groups are regarded as the building blocks of clusters ofgalaxies. Yet groups differ from clusters in their baryon fractions, iron mass-to-light 03:20 PM-03:30 PMratios, and various global scaling relations. Fossil galaxy groups, each dominated by a The details of the stellar mass assembly of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) remain onerelatively isolated giant elliptical galaxy, have many properties intermediate between of much debated topics in galaxy formation. We have developed a novel approach thatregular groups and clusters of galaxies. We observed the X-ray brightest fossil group allows us to construct a sample of clusters that form an evolutionary sequence, and haveESO3060170 out to its virial radius, with the Suzaku X-ray Observatory, in order to applied it to the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey to examine the evolution of BCGs inbetter elucidate the relation between fossil groups, normal groups, and clusters. We find progenitors of present-day clusters with mass of (3-4)x10^{14}Msun. After developingthat the gaseous entropy and pressure profiles in the outer regions are flatter than found a method that infers the cluster mass based on the ranking of cluster luminosity, wein numerically simulated clusters. This may indicate that the gas is clumpy, as found in make use of detailed cluster mass growth history extracted from high resolution
  • 30. cosmological simulations, and select high-z clusters of appropriate mass to be much growth in the same period. Our finding may point to the need of moreprogenitors of the given set of z=0 clusters. We find that the BCGs have grown by a sophisticated treatment of galaxy mergers in models.factor of 3 since z=1.5, while a state-of-the-art semi-analytic model predicts twice as129 – Galaxy Evolution at z > 2Oral Session – Room 104C (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 02:00 PM to 03:30 PM infrared population synthesis models, as well as in the interpretation of other mid-IR129.02 – [OIII] Emission and Gas Kinematics in a Lyman-alpha Blob at z ~ 3.1 high-z galaxies in particular those detected by the recent all sky WISE survey.E. McLinden, The University of Texas - McDonald Observatory,Austin, TX; J.E. Rhoads, S. Malhotra, Arizona State University, 129.05 – HST/WFC3 Confirmation of the Inside-Out Growth of Massive Galaxies at 0Tempe, AZ; P. Hibon, Gemini Observatory, La Serena, CHILE; V. S. Patel, M. Franx, A. Muzzin, Leiden University, Leiden, SouthTilvi, Texas A&M, College Station, TX Holland, NETHERLANDS; P.G. Van Dokkum, Yale, New Haven,02:10 PM-02:20 PM CT; R. Quadri, R.J. Williams, Carnegie, Pasadena, CA; D.We present spectroscopic measurements of the [OIII] emission line from two Marchesini, Tufts, Medford, MA; B. Holden, UCOLick/UCSC,subregions of strong Lyman-alpha emission in a radio-quiet Lyman-alpha blob (LAB). Santa Cruz, CA; M. Stefanon, Universitat de Valencia, Valencia,The blob under study is LAB1 at z ~ 3.1 first reported, by Steidel et al (2000). The Valencia, SPAIN; M. Stefanon, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS[OIII] detections are from the two Lyman break galaxies embedded in the blob halo. We 02:50 PM-03:00 PMmade our [OIII] measurements with LUCIFER on the 8.4m Large Binocular Telescopeand NIRSPEC on 10m Keck Telescope. Comparing the redshift of the [OIII] to We study the structural evolution of massive galaxies by linking progenitors andLyman-alpha redshifts allows us to take a step towards understanding the kinematics of descendants at a constant cumulative number density of n_c=1.4x10^{-4} Mpc^{-3} tothe gas in the blob. Using both LUCIFER and NIRSPEC we consistently find velocity z~3. Structural parameters were measured by fitting Sersic profiles to high resolutionoffsets between the [OIII] and Lyman-alpha redshifts consistent with 0 km/s in both CANDELS HST WFC3 J_{125} and H_{160} imaging in the UKIDSS-UDS at 1subregions studied (ranging from -43.88 $pm$ 69.01 -- 36.58 $pm$ 63.85 km/s). Wediscuss the possible implications of this result, as it could downplay the role of winds and 129.06 – The Deepest HST Near-UV Image and the Ultraviolet Luminosity Function atoutflows in powering the Lyman-alpha emission in this LAB, since a velocity offset z=2between nebular emission lines and Lyman-alpha are often interpreted as evidence of A. Alavi, B.D. Siana, University of California Riverside, Riverside,large-scale outflows. CA; J. Richard, Centre de Recherche Astronomique de Lyon, Saint-129.03D – Revisiting The First Galaxies: The Epoch of Population III Stars Genis-Laval, FRANCE; D. Stark, University of Arizona, tucson,A. Muratov, O.Y. Gnedin, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; AZ; C. Scarlata, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis,N.Y. Gnedin, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL; MN; H.I. Teplitz, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CAN.Y. Gnedin, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL; M.K. Zemp, 03:00 PM-03:10 PMKavli Institute for Astronomy & Astrophysics, Peking University, Given the steep faint-end slope of the ultraviolet luminosity function at z > 2, lowBeijing, CHINA luminosity galaxies (SFR < 5 M⊙/yr) appear to dominate the global star formation density, and likely the ionizing background, in the early universe. Unfortunately, these02:20 PM-02:40 PM feeble galaxies are often beyond the detection limits of most surveys and, when they areWe study the formation of the first galaxies using new hydrodynamic cosmological detected in the deepest fields, follow-up spectroscopy is impossible.Given these currentsimulations with the ART code. Our simulations feature a recently developed model for shortcomings, we have conducted a deep HST ultraviolet survey of the rich galaxydust-based formation of molecular gas. Here, we develop and implement a new recipe cluster, Abell 1689. The strong gravitational lensing provides large magnifications of afor the formation of metal-free Pop III stars. We reach a spatial resolution of 2 pc at large number of faint, background galaxies. I will present the HST UV images of Abellz=10 and resolve star-forming galaxies with the masses above 10^6 solar masses. We 1689, including the deepest near-UV image ever obtained. We use these new data tofind the epoch during which Pop III stars dominate the energy and metal budget of the identify z=2 galaxies via identification of a Lyman break at F275W band.Theseuniverse to be short-lived. While these stars seed their host galaxies with metals, they ″dropout″ candidates are used to extend the z~2 luminosity function ~100 times faintercannot drive significant outflows to enrich the IGM in our simulations. Feedback from than previous determinations. We also investigate the dust content and variation in UVpair instability supernovae causes Pop III star formation to self-terminate within their spectral slope of these faint star forming galaxies.host galaxies, but is not strong enough to suppress star formation in external galaxies.Within any individual galaxy, Pop II stars overtake Pop III stars within ~50-150 Myr. A 129.07 – Herschel Detection of Dust Emission from UV-Luminous Star-Formingthreshold of M = 3 * 10^6 solar masses separates galaxies that lose a significant fraction Galaxies at 3.3of their baryons due to Pop III feedback from those that do not. Understanding the K. Lee, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; D.W. Atlee, A. Dey,nature of the transition between Pop III and Pop II star formation is of key importancefor studying the dawn of galaxy formation. B. Jannuzi, NOAO, Tucson, AZ; B. Jannuzi, Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ; N.A. Reddy, University of California, Riverside, CA; S.129.04 – The Evolution of Dusty Galaxies as seen Through Their Infrared Spectral Alberts, A. Pope, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA; M.J.Energy Distributions Brown, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, AUSTRALIAA. Sajina, Tufts University, Medford, MA; L. Yan, ipac, pasadena, 03:10 PM-03:20 PMCA; D. Fadda, nasa herschel science center, pasadena, CA; K. We report the Herschel SPIRE detection of dust emission arising from UV-luminous (L>Dasyra, Observatoire de Paris, Paris, FRANCE; M.T. Huynh, L*) star-forming galaxies at 3.3International Center for Radio Astronomy Research, Crawley,Western Australia, AUSTRALIA 129.08 – Modeling X-ray and CO Line Emission from z≥6 Galaxies02:40 PM-02:50 PM J.A. Munoz, S.R. Furlanetto, UCLA, Los Angeles, CAI will present recent results on characterizing the infrared spectral energy distributions 03:20 PM-03:30 PM(SEDs) of mid-IR selected z~0.3-3.0 and L_IR~10^11-10^13Lsun galaxies, and study I present a model for the internal physics of the earliest known galaxies. As at lowerhow their SEDs differ from those of local and high-z analogs. Infrared SEDs depend redshift, star formation and black hole growth are modulated by galactic accretion,both on the power source (AGN or star-formation) and the dust distribution. Therefore, momentum driven winds, and angular momentum transport through the disk. However,differences in the SEDs of high-z and local galaxies provide clues as to differences in because the physical conditions in the interstellar media at z≥6 differ from those intheir physical conditions. Our mid-IR flux-limited sample of 191 sources is unique in size, today’s galaxies, local empirical relations are insufficient for predicting the observationaland spectral coverage, including Spritzer mid-IR spectroscopy. We add Herschel signatures of this physics. I calculate the X-ray emission from a central active galacticphotometry at 250um, 350um, and 500um, which allows us, through fitting an empirical nucleus, which, while faint, is expected to dominate that from high-mass X-ray binaries,SED model, to obtain accurate total IR luminosities, as well as constrain the relative and show that Chandra observations can already constrain the way in which gas iscontributions of AGN and starbursts to those luminosities.our results show that there is transported through the disk. I further describe realistic predictions for the resulting COstrong evolution in the SEDs between local and z~2 IR-luminous galaxies, as well as that line emission in the model, its detectability with JVLA and ALMA, and how it may be athere is a wide range of SEDs among high redshift IR-luminous sources. The publicly- probe of gas-phase metallicity at high-redshift.available SED templates we derive from our sample will be particularly useful for
  • 31. 130 – HAD V History of Astronomy, with Osterbrock Book PrizeOral Session – Room 103B (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 02:00 PM to 03:30 PM 02:30 PM-02:45 PM130.01 – Almagest Declinations: Timocharis, Aristyllus, and HipparcusP.C. Zimmer, J.C. Brandt, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; The 18th-century Mongol astronomer Mingantu (1692-1765) has been honored with a city named after him and a nearby solar telescope array. During the IAU/Beijing, myP.B. Jones, Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ wife and I went to the new Chinese solar radioheliograph, the Mingantu Observing02:00 PM-02:15 PM Station, in Inner Mongolia, ~400 km northwest of Beijing, a project of the NationalDeclinations in the Almagest provide an opportunity to determine the observational Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It currently contains 40precision of the ancient observers and their epochs. The basic data are the original dishes each 4.5 m across, with a correlator from Beijing. Within a year, 60 2-m dishesobservations (O) and the declinations calculated (C) by precessing modern positions and will be added. We passed by the 12-century ruins of Xanadu (about 20 km north ofincluding refraction. The plots of (O) – (C) can be analyzed using several different Zhangbei) about halfway. The radioheliograph is in a plane about 1 km across, forming aapproaches. All of the original positions appear to be valid except Timocharis’s value for three-armed spiral for interferometric solar mapping, something colleagues and I hadArcturus. Consistent results for the precisions and epochs, respectively, are: carried out with the Jansky Very Large Array, taking advantage of the lunar occultationTimocharis--8.1 arc min, near 296BC; Aristyllus--5.3 arc min, near 258BC; and before annularity at the 20 May 2012 solar eclipse. In the central square of MingantuHipparcus--6.8 arc min, near 130BC. See the papers by Pannekoek (1955), Maeyama city, a statue ~10-m high of the Mongol astronomer Mingantu appears. Its base bears a(1984), Rawlins (manuscript, c. 1983), and our earlier (Brandt, Zimmer, and Jones, 2011) plaque ~1-m high of IAU Minor Planet Circular MPC 45750 announcing the naming inreport for the development of this subject. The precisions in the range 5-8 arc min are 2002 of asteroid 28242 Mingantu, discovered at a Chinese observatory in 1999.remarkable and the dates are compatible with historical evidence. Mingantu carried out orbital calculations, mapping, mathematical work on infinite series, and other scientific research. He is honored by a modern museum behind the statue. The museums first 40% describes Mingantu and his work, and is followed by some130.02 – Blurring the Boundaries Among Astronomy, Physics, and Chemistry: The artifacts of the region from thousands of years ago. The final, large room contains aMoseley Centenary two-meter-square scale model of the radioheliograph, flat-screen televisions runningV.L. Trimble, Physics & Astronomy, UC, Irvine, Irvine, CA Solar Dynamics Observatory and other contemporary visualizations, orreries and other02:15 PM-02:30 PM objects, and large transparencies of NASA and other astronomical imagery. See my post at http://www.skyandtelescope.com/community/skyblog/newsblog/ specficallyScientists, like other human beings, are territorial animals, not just about our parking Astro-Sightseeing_in_Inner_Mongolia-167712965.html. We thank Yihua Yan forspaces and seats in the colloquium room, but also about our scientific territories, from arranging the visit and Wang Wei (both NAOC) for accompanying us. My solarthe narrowest thesis topic (Whos been working on my Nebula and left it covered with research is supported by grant 1047726 from the Solar Research Program/Atmosphericdust?) to the whole of physics, or chemistry, or astronomy. Many 19th century and Geospace Sciences Division/NSF. I am also grateful for a NSF travel grant throughastronomers resented spectroscopes invading their observatories; chemists objected to AAS.Moseleys use of X-ray outgaming their retorts and test tubes in 1913; and chemists andphysicists typically disbelieve astronomers suggesting new science on the basis ofastronomical data (three other combinations are also possible). The talk will explore 130.04 – Astronomical Records in the Hieroglyphic Writing of the PreColumbian Mayasome of these transgressions, both a few spectacular successes and rather more H. Bricker, Tulane University & University of Florida, Newawkward failures. Moseleys own contributions included sorting out the rare earths, Orleans, LAputting paid to nebulium and coronium as elements between H and He, many years 02:45 PM-03:30 PMbefore improved understanding of atomic structure led to correct identifications of theionization states and transitions actually responsible for the lines credited to them, and The four screen-fold hieroglyphic books of the Precolumbian Maya that have survivedputting Prouts hypothesis on a firm foundation ready for the structure Cameron and into modern times, known collectively as the Maya codices, provide the most detailedB2FH would eventually erect there. Back in 1935, Gamow asked whether a new information about the astronomical knowledge and practices that can be attributed to thisdiscipline should be called nuclear physics or nuclear chemistry (both now exist, within New World civilization. Four explicitly dated documents in the Dresden Codex treat theAPS and ACS respectively), and 30+ years later, chemist L.S. Trimble was still cyclical movements of Venus and Mars and both solar and lunar eclipses during severalcomplaining that the physicists had grabbed away the territory of atomic and nuclear centuries of the Maya Classic and Postclassic, primarily the 8 th through the 14thcomposition, which should have been part of chemistry! centuries. In addition, these documents deal with the effects on peoples lives that were considered to result from these celestial phenomena. A heavily damaged document in130.03 – Mingantu, 18th-Century Mongol Astronomer and Radioheliograph Namesake the Paris Codex provides information about the Precolumbian Maya view of zodiacal constellations. The lecturers will explain what is in these astronomical records andJ.M. Pasachoff, Williams College, Williamstown, MA; J.M. discuss some of the techniques used to understand them.Pasachoff, Caltech, Pasadena, CA131 – HEAD II: New Revelations from the Transient SkySpecial Session – Room 104B (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 02:00 PM to 03:30 PM The transient sky has long been a driver for new astrophysical insights. The combination of large energies and short timescales of change allow for sensitive and innovative probes of physics beyond the established models for the fundamental forces. Indeed, over the past decade, satellites focused onhigh-energy transient phenomena have opened up new vistas on the violent and energetic universe: from probes of the innermost regions of black holes, to the internal structure of compact objects, to the microphysical processes in relativistic flow. With the advent of a new generation of facilities probing transient sources of gravitational waves and neutrinos, the coming multi-messenger era promises to expand the traditional boundaries of “high-energy astrophysics”. This special session will explore the teeming, energetic universe as view through the pan-chromatic and trans-spectral lens. 02:18 PM-02:36 PM131.01 – Discovery and Follow-up of High Energy Transients with SwiftN. Gehrels, NASAs GSFC, Greenbelt, MD The tidal disruption of a star near a massive black hole was first proposed by theorists in the late 1970s, and a decade later it was suggested that the flare of radiation from such02:00 PM-02:18 PM events could be used as a probe for dormant black holes otherwise undetectable lurkingThe Swift mission lives in the time domain, observing transients every day. It is an in the nuclei of normal galaxies. The first observational candidates emerged frominternational space mission from the US, UK and Italy that detects transients in the hard archival searches in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey in the soft X-ray band (0.1-2.4 keV). InX-ray band and autonomously slews for sensitive X-ray and optical follow-up. Source the last 5 years, major progress has been made in discovering tidal disruption eventcoordinates can also be rapidly sent up to the satellite for follow-up of transients candidates with searches in wide-field surveys across the electromagnetic spectrum, indetected by other observatories. Targets of interest include GRBs, supernovae, tidal the X-rays, ultraviolet, and optical, and with follow-up observations in the radio. I willdisruption events, AGN flares, galactic transients and flare stars. Much is being learned present a census of these candidates, and discuss how they, and future large samples,about these sources. Also interesting are the odd-ball events observed every year that can be used to study accretion and jet physics, as well as black hole demographics.defy classification. 131.03 – Electromagnetic Counterparts of Advanced LIGO Gravitational Wave Sources131.02 – Tidal Disruption Events: New Transient Probes of Accretion, Jet Physics, and E. Quataert, UC, Berkeley, Berkeley, CABlack Hole Demographics 02:36 PM-02:54 PMS. Gezari, University of Maryland, College Park, MD
  • 32. In the next ~ 5 years, ground-based interferometers such as Advanced LIGO are likely telescope, and two data pipelines: an image-subtraction pipeline for prompt detection ofto provide the first direct detections of gravitational waves, with the most promising transients, and a photometric/astrometric pipeline for point source identification andsources being the mergers of two neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole. light-curve generation. PTF achieves a single epoch limiting magnitude in R-band ofMaximizing the scientific return of this new window into the universe requires about 20.5 and an astrometric precision of about 0.1 FWHM. Co-added imagesconnecting gravitational wave detections to the wealth of electromagnetic data on typically reach an R-band magnitude of 22 or fainter. This talk will describe the PTFsimilar sources. In this talk I will describe the most promising electromagnetic survey with particular emphasis on PTF detections and observations of high-energycounterparts to compact object mergers and the prospects for detecting them in blind transients and other sources for which relativistic astrophysics plays an important role.transient surveys and by following up Advanced LIGO detections. 131.05 – Super-luminous Supernovae131.04 – The Palomar Transient Factory View of the Transient and Variable Sky A. Gal-Yam, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, ISRAELT.A. Prince, Caltech/JPL, Pasadena, CA 03:12 PM-03:30 PM02:54 PM-03:12 PM Supernovae, the luminous explosions of stars, have been observed since antiquity.The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) is an automated wide-field optical survey However, various examples of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe; luminosities >7 ×designed to detect and characterize transient and variable sources. PTF has been in 1043 ergs per second) have only recently been documented. From the accumulatedoperation since early 2009, and has covered more than 20,000 square degrees in multiple evidence, SLSNe can be classified as radioactively powered (SLSN-R), hydrogen-richepochs. It has detected and spectroscopically confirmed over 2000 supernovae and over (SLSN-II), and hydrogen-poor (SLSN-I, the most luminous class). The SLSN-II and200 cataclysmic variables (CVs). Variable objects detected by PTF include several new SLSN-I classes are more common, whereas the SLSN-R class is better understood. Icompact AM CVn binaries, a redback milisecond pulsar system, as well as intermediate will review recent observations, our current understanding of the physical origins of thepolar (IP) systems. The survey consists of a 7 sq deg CCD imager mounted on the extreme luminosity emitted by SLSNe, and briefly describe potential future avenues ofPalomar Samuel Oschin Schmidt 48 telescope, a dedicated photometric follow-up research.132 – Large Scale Structure, Cosmic Distance Scale and GRBs IOral Session – Room 202B (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 02:00 PM to 03:30 PM for hydrodynamic turbulence, and a minimally diffusive 2nd-order scheme at resolutions132.01 – The Challenge of the Largest Structures in the Universe to Cosmology of up to 1024^3 in the case of relativistic MHD. For the hydrodynamic case, weC. Park, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul, KOREA, simulate a relativistically hot gas in a cubic periodic domain continuously driven at largeREPUBLIC OF scales with Lorentz factor of about 3. We find that relativistic turbulent velocity fluctuations with Γ β > 1 persist from the driving scale down to scales an order of02:00 PM-02:10 PM magnitude smaller, demonstrating the existence of a sustained relativistic turbulentLarge galaxy redshift surveys have long been used to constrain cosmological models and cascade. The power spectrum of the fluid 4-velocity is broadly Kolmogorov-like, roughlystructure formation scenarios. In particular, the largest structures discovered obeying a power law with 5/3 index between scales 1/10 and 1/100 of the domain.observationally are thought to carry critical information on the amplitude of large-scale Departures from 5/3 scaling are larger for the power spectrum of 3-velocity. We finddensity fluctuations or homogeneity of the universe, and have often challenged the that throughout the inertial interval, 25% of power is in dilatational modes, which obeystandard cosmological framework. The Sloan Great Wall (SGW) recently found in the strict power law scaling between 1/2 and 1/100 of the domain with an index of 1.88. OurSloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) region casts doubt on the concordance cosmological program also explores turbulent amplification of magnetic fields in the conditions ofmodel with a cosmological constant (i.e. the flat LCDM model). Here we show that the merging neutron stars, using a realistic equation of state for dense nuclear matter (ρ ∼existence of the SGW is perfectly consistent with the LCDM model, a result that only 10^13 g/cm^3). We find that very robustly, seed fields are amplified to magnetar strengthour very large cosmological N-body simulation (the Horizon Run 2, HR2) could supply. (≥ 4 * 10^16 Gauss) within ∼1 micro-second for fluid volumes near the size of the NSIn addition, we report on the discovery of a void complex in the SDSS much larger than crust thickness <10 meters. We present power spectra of the kinetic and magneticthe SGW, and show that such size of the largest void is also predicted in the LCDM energy taken long into the fully stationary evolution of the highest resolution models,paradigm. Our results demonstrate that an initially homogeneous isotropic universe with finding the magnetic energy to be in super-equipartition (4 times larger) with the kineticprimordial Gaussian random phase density fluctuations growing in accordance with the energy through the inertial range. We believe that current global simulations of mergingGeneral Relativity, can explain the richness and size of the observed large-scale NS binaries are insufficiently resolved for studying field amplification via turbulentstructures in the SDSS. Using the HR2 simulation we predict that a future galaxy processes. Larger magnetic fields, as found in our high resolution local simulations, mayredshift survey about four times deeper or with 3 magnitude fainter limit than the SDSS have consequences for gravitational wave signals, GRB precursor events, radioshould reveal a largest structure of bright galaxies about twice as big as the SGW. afterglows, and optical afterglows due to emission from ejected radioactive r-process material.132.02 – Voids, Walls and Low Surface Brightness GalaxiesG. Galaz, N.D. Padilla, Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, 132.04 – Local Ensemble N-body Simulations: Generating Multiple Local Paths ofPontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, CHILE; L. Galaxy FormationCeccarelli, D. Garcia-Lambas, Observatorio Astronomico de M. Aragon Calvo, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MDCordoba, Cordoba, ARGENTINA; R. Herrera-Camus, Department 02:40 PM-02:50 PMof Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD I will introduce a new powerful technique for generating ensemble N-body simulations02:10 PM-02:20 PM where individual realizations are cross-correlated at scales defining the Cosmic Web while being independent at galactic scales. With this technique we can increase the localWe present recent results on the spatial distribution of low surface brightness galaxies halo number density to an arbitrary level only limited by computational resources. Thiswithin voids and walls, observed in the large scale distribution of galaxies. The study, allows us to compute, for the first time, halo statistics on a point-by-point basis even atobtained from an analysis of SDSS data, allows us to examine the behaviour of the the most underdense regions. Computational cost increases linearly with the number ofabundance of LSBGs and HSBGs at a fixed local density and distinguish the large-scale realizations, making local ensemble simulations extremely efficient to run, store andenvironment defined by the void geometry. We find a significant decrement, a factor of analyse. I will present the first results obtained using this technique that demonstrate its∼4, of the relative fraction of blue, active star-forming LSBGs in equal-mass groups at unique ability to study the role of environment in halo formation and evolution.the void walls and the field. This decrement is consistent with an increase of the fractionof blue, active star-forming HSBGs. In contrast, red LSBGs and HSBGs show negligible 132.05 – Topology of SDSS Luminous Red Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Surveychanges. We argue that these results are consistent with a scenario where LSBGs withblue colours and strong star formation activity at the void walls are fuelled by gas from Y. Choi, S.S. Kim, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi,the expanding void regions, which could lead to LSBG to HSBG transformations. KOREA, REPUBLIC OF; J. Kim, G. Rossi, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul, Seoul, KOREA, REPUBLIC OF; G. Rossi,132.03D – High Resolution Simulations of Relativistic Hydrodynamic and MHD CEA Saclay/Service d’Astrophysique, Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette,Turbulence FRANCEJ. Zrake, A. MacFadyen, New York University, New York, NY 02:50 PM-03:00 PM02:20 PM-02:40 PM We present measurements of the genus topology of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) fromWe present a program of simulations designed to investigate the basic properties of the final data release (DR7) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) catalog, withrelativistic hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We employ a unprecedentedstatistical significance. To estimate the uncertainties in the measuredwell-tested 5th-order accurate numerical scheme at resolutions of up to 2048^3 zones genus, we construct 81 mock SDSS LRG surveys along the past light cone from the
  • 33. Horizon Run 3, one of the largest N-body simulations to date that evolved 7210^3 three other candidate bound superclusters in the local universe. In order to verify thatparticles in a 10815 h^{-1}Mpc boxsize. After carefully modeling and removing all they are bound we assess the likelihood that the cores of these superclusters haveknown systematic effects due to finite pixel size, survey boundary, radial and angular broken from the Hubble Flow and begun to collapse. Using a variety of secondaryselection function and shot noise, we find the observed genus amplitude to reach 296 distance indicators, such as the Fundamental Plane for early type galaxies, thewith an uncertainty of 3.5% at a smoothing scale of 22 h^{-1}Mpc. This is the most Kormendy Relation and the Photometric Plane, we investigate the dynamical state ofaccurate constraint on the genus amplitude to date, which significantly improves on our each of these structures. Photometric and spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Skyprevious results. We find that the shape of the genus curve agrees very well with the Survey are used to study the Corona Borealis Supercluster using the Fundamental Planeprediction of perturbation theory and with the mean topology of the SDSS LRG mock and the Kormendy Relation. We use photometric data gathered by our group at thesurveys. However, comparison with simulations show that the observed genus curve Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory to study the Aquarius and Microscopiumslightly deviates from the theoretical Gaussian expectation. For the first time, we are Superclusters using the Kormendy Relation and the Photometric Plane of Grahamable to isolate and quantify this non-Gaussian contribution directly from the observed (Graham, A. W., 2002, MNRAS, 334, 859). Techniques for calibrating these secondarygenus curve; upon removal of all known systematics, the detected deviation from distance indicators, and reducing the uncertainty in cluster distance estimates, areGaussianity has to be ascribed to gravitational evolution effects and primordial investigated in an effort to accurately assess the likelihood that each of these structuresnon-Gaussianity. is bound.132.06D – Identifying Gravitationally Bound Superclusters of Galaxies in the Local 132.07 – Defining Galaxy Environments Using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic DatabaseUniverse (NED)M. Batiste, D.J. Batuski, University of Maine, Orono, ME B.F. Madore, Carnegie Obs., Pasadena, CA; B.F. Madore,03:00 PM-03:20 PM NED/IPAC/CALTECH, Pasadena, CAGravitationally bound superclusters are the largest bound structures in the universe, and 03:20 PM-03:30 PMunderstanding their dynamics provides valuable information about the formation and In its January 2013 release NED will provide users with quantitative environmentalevolution of all types of structure in the universe. Work by Gramann and Suhhonenko information for galaxies known to the database that have spectroscopic redshifts. A(2002, MNRAS, 337, 1417) suggests that a small number of these bound superclusters quick-look Environmental Vector will provide the hierarchical space density of radial-should exist, and that sufficient time should have passed for their cores to be in the early velocity-confirmed galaxies in predefined physical regions of space (shells) surroundingstages of collapse. To date the existence of only one such structure, the nearby Shapley the selected galaxy. A tabular census of those galaxies making up the environment willConcentration, has been convincingly demonstrated, significantly limiting the conclusions be provided to the user for off-line analysis. A number of visualizations and diagnosticthat can be drawn from detailed study of this type of supercluster. We have identified plots will be provided on the NED interface in real time.133 – Quasars and Their Hosts, Near and FarOral Session – Room 103C (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 02:00 PM to 03:30 PM Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) footprint. We exploit the K-band excess (KX) of all133.01D – Observations on Dust-Rich Quasars at z~1.5 quasars with respect to Galactic stars in combination with a custom-built photometricY.S. Dai, G.G. Fazio, M. Elvis, J. Huang, Harvard-Smithsonian redshift/classification scheme to identify quasar candidates for spectroscopic follow-upCenter for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA; A. Omont, J. Bergeron, observations. The survey is complete to K≤16.6, and includes >3200 known quasars from the SDSS, with more than 250 additional confirmed quasars from the KX-selectionInstitute of Astrophysique de Paris, Paris, FRANCE which eluded the SDSS quasar selection algorithm. The selection is >95% complete with02:00 PM-02:20 PM respect to known SDSS quasars and >95% efficient, largely independent of redshift andDo black holes coevolve with their host galaxies? At least current active galaxy magnitude. The KX-selected quasars will provide new constraints on the fraction ofevolution theories claim so. In the merger driven model, the collision of dust-rich galaxies luminous quasars reddened by dust with E(B-V)≤0.5 mag. Several projects utilizing thedrives gas inflows fueling starbursts and buried quasars until feedback disperses the gas KX quasars are ongoing, including a spectroscopic campaign searching for dusty quasarallowing the quasar to be briefly visible as a bright optical source. Alternatively, the cold intervening absorption systems. The KX survey is a well-defined sample of quasarsflow model introduces cold gas streams rather than collision to fuel the star formation useful for investigating the properties of luminous quasars with intermediate levels ofand quasar, and better explains the clumpy disks observed for high-z galaxies. In 2011, dust extinction either within their host galaxies or due to intervening absorption systems.we discovered a population of dust-rich broad-emission-line quasars at z~1.5 in theLockman Hole field, using Herschel and Spitzer 24μm imaging. This redshift range is 133.03 – An HST Snapshot Survey for Gravitationally Lensed z=6 Quasarscrucial to models of host-supermassive black hole (SMBH) co-evolution, as it witnesses I.D. McGreer, X. Fan, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; G.T.the peak epochs of both the host star formation rate (SFR), and the co-moving spacedensity of X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We investigated the spectral properties Richards, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA; Z. Haiman,of these sources, estimated the Virial black hole masses based on their line profiles, and Columbia University, New York, NY; M.A. Strauss, Princetontested the Eddington ratios for this z~1.5 dust-rich population. From the spectral energy University, Princeton, NJ; L. Jiang, Arizona State University,distributions (SEDs), we noticed a lack of connection between their far-infrared (FIR) Tempe, AZ; D.P. Schneider, Penn State University, University Park,and shorter wavelengths (λ_rest = 0.3--20μm) properties, and the bolometric PAluminosities derived using the 5100A index may be underestimated for the dust-richquasars. These sources have dust temperatures and FIR luminosities (L_FIR) 02:30 PM-02:40 PMcomparable to ultra-/hyper-luminous infrared galaxies, and represent a dust-rich Gravitational lensing magnification bias, boosted by the observed steep luminositypopulation, but with lower redshifts and fainter luminosities than quasars observed at ~ 1 function of high redshift quasars, strongly suggests that lenses should be commonmm. Follow up (sub)mm observations show that the CO luminosities tend to be amongst the highest redshift quasars. Currently over 60 quasars at z>5.7 have beenoverestimated by empirical correlations based on L_FIR for dust-rich quasars and other discovered in wide-area ground-based imaging surveys; however, only a handful haveX-ray luminous galaxies. This indicates more depleted dust in the quasar hosts than been imaged with sufficient resolution to identify subarcsecond scale lenses. I willstarbursts of comparable L_FIR, possibly due to suppressed star formation in the host present results from an ongoing HST SNAP survey of all known z~6 quasars, includingby luminous AGNs. We expect following multi-λ observations to separate the starburst some promising candidates for gravitational lenses. The observed sample is large enoughfrom AGN contribution, a crucial step to accurately derive the SFR and BH accretion to place strong constraints on the quasar luminosity function at z~6, particularly on therate in these systems. contribution of faint quasars to the reionizing photon budget. Constraining the lensing rate among this unique sample is also needed to correctly derive physical parameters133.02 – The Large Area KX Quasar Survey: Photometric Redshift Selection and the related to black hole growth from the observational data and to interpret quasar / hostComplete Quasar Catalogue galaxy correlations at high redshift.N. Maddox, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Western Cape, 133.04 – LoBAL QSOs Found in Host Galaxies with Disturbed MorphologiesSOUTH AFRICA; P.C. Hewett, University of Cambridge,Cambridge, UNITED KINGDOM; C. Peroux, Laboratoire M.S. Lazarova, Pomona College, Claremont, CA; G. Canalizo, UCdAstrophysique de Marseille, Marseille, FRANCE - Riverside, Riverside, CA; M. Lacy, NRAO, Charlottesville, VA02:20 PM-02:30 PM 02:40 PM-02:50 PM We present the first high-resolution morphological analysis of a volume-limited sample ofWe have completed a large area, ∼600 square degree, spectroscopic survey for 22 SDSS-selected Low-ionization Broad Absorption Line QSOs (LoBALs) at 0.5 < z <luminous quasars flux-limited in the K-band. The survey utilises the UKIRT Infrared 0.6 using observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS) in regions of sky within the in the IR F125W (observed J) and UVIS F475W (observed SDSS g) channels. Signs of
  • 34. recent or ongoing tidal interaction are seen in most of the host galaxies, including Supermassive black holes are thought to reside in the nuclei of essentially all massiveinteracting companions, tidal tails, bridges, asymmetries, and plumes. The presence of a galaxies with bulges, however the origin of these black holes is largely unknown. Dwarfsecond nucleus within ~1 (6.4 kpc) is revealed in seven of the systems. A detailed galaxies with low masses and relatively quiet merger histories are potential hosts of thetwo-dimensional surface brightness analysis with GALFIT indicates that three-quarters smallest black holes, and can provide valuable constraints on the properties of the firstof the galaxies have prominent early-type (bulge, n>4) morphology and only four primordial seed black holes as well as their formation mechanism. I will present a newsystems have exponential disk profiles (n<2). Most of the targets were best fit by Sersic sample of dwarf galaxies hosting active galactic nuclei, with black hole masses amongindex n>>4, indicating presence of extended low-surface brightness emission or PSF the least-massive known.mismatch. Two of the disks and one bulge are better described as pseudobulges (n<2.2).We find that the binary systems have smaller Sersic indices, larger effective radii, less 133.07 – Do z>1 Clumpy Galaxies in CANDELS Fuel AGNs?luminous QSOs, lower infrared luminosities, lower star formation rates (SFRs), buthigher star formation contribution to the total infrared flux than the single-nucleus J.R. Trump, G. Barro, D.C. Koo, S.M. Faber, UC Santa Cruz,mergers. The dominance of bulges and unambiguous signs of tidal interaction strongly Santa Cruz, CA; B.J. Weiner, Univ of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; N.suggests that the population LoBALs are QSOs that result from major mergers. Konidaris, Caltech, Pasadena, CA; D. Kocevski, R. Yan, Univ ofNevertheless, this sample of LoBALs represents merger systems at various stages of Kentucky, Lexington, KY; S. Juneau, CEA/Saclay, Paris, FRANCEthe interaction process, hence, either the outflows which characterize these systemspersist for as long as the interaction signs are observable in the galaxy, or very 03:10 PM-03:20 PMshort-lived outflows are triggered and die out during various stages of the merger In contrast with the relatively smooth galaxies that dominate the local universe, galaxiesprocess. at z>1 frequently exhibit peculiar clumpy morphologies. We investigate the nature of these galaxies using spectroscopy, HST imaging, and deep multiwavelength photometry133.05 – Extreme Star Formation in the Host Galaxies of the Fastest Growing in CANDELS. In particular, we use kinematics from new Keck/MOSFIRE observationsSupermassive Black Holes at z=4.8 to distinguish between theoretical models of cold flows or mergers for clump formation. Spatial emission ratios, uniquely provided by 3D-HST WFC3 slitless grism spectroscopy,B. Trakhtenbrot, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, ISRAEL; are also used to measure metallicity gradients and reliably distinguish shocks fromB. Trakhtenbrot, H. Netzer, R. Mor, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, AGNs. We compare these data to mock observations of hydro simulations andISRAEL; P. Lira, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, CHILE; O. determine if clumpy galaxies are more efficient in fueling supermassive black holeShemmer, University of North Texas, Denton, TX accretion.02:50 PM-03:00 PM 133.08 – Colors and Composite SEDs of Type 1 and Type 2 Quasars with SDSS, WISE,We report new Herschel observations of 44 extremely luminous optically selected active and GALEXgalactic nuclei (AGNs) at z≈4.8. These sources have been shown to represent an epochof fast, nearly Eddington-limited growth of some of the most massive black holes known R.C. Hickox, K. Hainline, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH; A.D.to date. Our preliminary analysis suggests that about 20% of the sources have extremely Myers, M.A. DiPompeo, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY; J.E.large star-forming (SF) luminosities, LSF, corresponding to SF rates (SFRs) of Greene, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ; N.L. Zakamska, Johns2800-5600 M⊙/yr (assuming a Salpeter IMF). The remaining sources have only upper Hopkins University, Baltimore, MDlimits on their SFRs, but a stacking analysis of their Herschel images results in a mean 03:20 PM-03:30 PMSFR of 700±150 M⊙/yr. The higher SFRs in our sample are comparable to the highestobserved values so far at any redshift. Our sample does not contain obscured AGNs, We present composite spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of type 1 (broad-line) andwhich enables us to investigate several evolutionary scenarios connecting super-massive type 2 (narrow-line) quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Weblack holes and SF activity in the early universe. The most probable scenario is that we employ WISE, SDSS, and GALEX photometry to produce composite 0.2-15 micronare witnessing the peak of SF activity in some sources and the beginning of the SEDs for the two quasar types, and perform model fits using galaxy and quasar SEDpost-starburst decline in others. We suggest that all sources, which are at their peak templates. The SEDs of type 1 and 2 quasars are remarkably similar, with theAGN activity, are in large mergers. AGN feedback may be responsible for diminishing differences explained almost entirely by the dust extinction of the quasar component inthe SF activity in ~80% of them, but is not operating efficiently in the Herschel-detected the type 2 systems. We also study the mid-IR and optical colors for the type 1 and typesources. 2 quasars, and predict the evolution of these colors to high redshift. We show that photometric selection can identify large populations of obscured quasars at moderate to133.06 – Massive Black Holes in Dwarf Galaxies high redshift, enabling future studies of the abundance, clustering, and other properties of these systems. This material is based upon work supported by the National ScienceA.E. Reines, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Foundation under Grant Nos. 1211096 and 1211112, and by the NASA ADAP underCharlottesville, VA Grant No. NNX12AE38G.03:00 PM-03:10 PM134 – Science Highlights from NASAs Astrophysics Data Analysis Program II: ExtragalacticAstrophysicsSpecial Session – Room 202A (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 02:00 PM to 03:30 PM Over the years, NASA has invested heavily in the development and execution of an extensive array of space astrophysics missions that span the electromagnetic spectrum. The magnitude and scope of the archival data from those missions enables science that transcends traditional wavelength regimes and allows researchers to answer questions that would be difficult, if not impossible, to address through an individual observing program. To capitalize on this invaluable asset and enhance the scientific return on NASA mission investments, the Astrophysics Data Analysis Program (ADAP) provides support for investigations whose focus is on the analysis of archival data from NASA space astrophysics missions. This session highlights recent research results in the general area of extragalactic astrophysics from investigators supported under the ADAP Program. we conducted a comprehensive mid-infrared spectroscopic study of a sample of134.01 – A Mid-IR Spectroscopic Investigations of Non-U/LIRG Galaxy Interactions: non-U/LIRG interacting galaxies for which archival Spitzer high-resolution spectroscopicAn Unexplored Frontier observations are available. The proposed galaxy sample was strategically chosen toS. Satyapal, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA target a previously unexplored population of interacting galaxies, which will complement02:00 PM-02:20 PM more extensively studied samples of isolated normal galaxies and more infrared luminous galaxies. Together with these programs, our proposed database will enable a moreBased on the current cold dark matter paradigm, it is now well-established that galaxy comprehensive study of merger evolution from the first close pass through to finalinteractions are ubiquitous and that they play a pivotal role in the formation and evolution coalescence. I this talk, I will highlight the major results from our study.of galaxies. Although significant progress has been made in the observationalinvestigation of galaxy interactions, past studies have focused primarily on the most 134.02 – The Keck Observatory Database of Ionized Absorbers toward QSOsluminous galaxies and hence those with the most active star formation, or, have been (KODIAQ): Hunting for OVI Absorbers at z>2 to Probe the Physics and Metal Budgetlimited to observations in the UV or optical, where the emission from the youngest stars of the Circumgalactic Mediumor from a recently ignited AGN, is likely to be obscured. As a result, existing studiesgenerally capture a very specific interaction stage, which may miss the onset of star J. OMeara, A. Armstrong, Saint Michaels College, Colchester, VT;formation or accretion activity in the galaxy centers. To address this serious deficiency, N. Lehner, J.C. Howk, V. Burns, University of Notre Dame, Notre
  • 35. Dame, IN; J.X. Prochaska, UCO/Lick, Santa Cruz, CA; A.M. D. Hanish, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Pasadena, CAWolfe, UCSD, San Diego, CA; A. Fox, STScI, Baltimore, MD 03:00 PM-03:15 PM02:20 PM-02:40 PM We use the Spitzer Space Telescope Enhanced Imaging Products and the SpitzerExploring the circumgalactic medium (CGM) between galaxies and the intergalactic Archival Far-IR Extragalactic Survey (SAFIRES) to study the spectral energymedium is critical to our understanding of the formation and evolution of structures in the distributions of spectroscopically confirmed Type I quasars selected from the Sloanuniverse. OVI is a key tracer of the flows in the CGM. We have undertaken a large Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). By combining the Spitzer and SDSS data with the 2-Micronresearch program with the Keck Observatory Archive (KOA) to produce a All Sky Survey (2MASS) we are able to construct a statistically robust rest-frame 0.1 --comprehensive analysis of OVI (and other high and low ions) associated with optically 100 micron Type I quasar template. We find the quasar population is well-described by athick absorbers (Lyman Limit systems -LLS, damped Lyα absorbers - DLA) seen in single power-law SED at wavelengths less than 20 microns, in good agreement withQSO spectra at z>2 observed by Keck/HIRES. Our early results imply that the O previous work. However, at longer wavelengths we find a significant excess in infraredVI-bearing gas associated with LLS and DLA is a significant reservoir of baryons and luminosity above an extrapolated power-law along with significant object-to-objectmetals at high z. I will present and discuss these new and exciting developments from dispersion in the SED.our ADAP research program supported through NASA grant NNX10AE84G. 134.05 – Multilevel Modeling of Gamma-Ray Bursts and Other Cosmic Populations134.03 – Reionization, Intrahalo Light, and Anisotropies of the Cosmic IR Background T.J. Loredo, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NYA.R. Cooray, UC Irvine, Irvine, CA 03:15 PM-03:30 PM02:40 PM-03:00 PM We describe a framework for modeling cosmic populations that optimally accounts forUnresolved near-infrared background anisotropies are expected to have contributions survey incompleteness and measurement errors using a hierarchical Bayesian statisticalfrom the earliest galaxies during reionization and faint, dwarf galaxies at intermediate approach (i.e., multilevel modeling). In this framework there are two levels ofredshifts. Previous measurements were conclusively pinpoint the dominant origin probabilistic modeling: an upper level describing the source population (via a pointbecause they did not sample spatial scales that were sufficiently large to distinguish process, e.g., a luminosity and spatial distributions), and a lower level describingbetween these two possibilities. Here we report a measurement of the anisotropy power detection and measurement errors for individual sources (e.g., based on Poissonspectrum from sub-arcminute to one degree angular scales and find the clustering statistics for photon counting data). The framework has implications for estimating andamplitude to be larger than the model predictions involving the two existing explanations. comparing demographic models (inference), and for reporting of survey data. InferenceAs the shot-noise level of the power spectrum is consistent with that expected from requires integration over uncertainties in individual source properties (i.e.,faint galaxies, a new source population on the sky is not necessary to explain the marginalization). Proper accounting of measurement errors and survey incompletenessobservations. A physical mechanism that increases the clustering amplitude, however, is requires reporting probabilistic summaries in the form of likelihood functions for sourceneeded. Motivated by recent results related to the extended stellar light profile in dark properties, and probabilistic incompleteness summaries accounting for both detectionmatter halos, we consider the possibility that the fluctuations originate from diffuse thresholds and measurement errors. The approach reveals that no single set of best-fitintrahalo stars of all galaxies. We find that the measured power spectrum can be source properties is optimal for both estimating the properties of individual sources, andexplained by an intrahalo light fraction of 0.07 to 0.2% relative to the total luminosity in estimating properties of the population. We describe our efforts to implement thegalaxy-scale dark matter halos at redshifts of 1 to 4. framework for modeling GRBs surveyed by BATSE on CGRO, including development of public Python software for community use.134.04 – Far-Infrared Properties of Type 1 QSOs from the SAFIRES Archival Survey135 – Scientific Opportunities with the James Webb Space TelescopeSpecial Session – Room 201A (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 02:00 PM to 03:30 PM The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a general purpose observatory that will provide research opportunities and support for thousands of astronomers. In this special session, speakers will describe JWSTs potential for advancing a number of core scientific topics that are at the forefront of astrophysical research, with specific links to JWSTs observing efficiency and multiple modes of imaging, spectroscopy, and coronography. Among the range of topics that will be covered in the session are: 1.) Solar System and Exoplanets 2.) Star Formation and Stellar Evolution 3.) Galactic Archaeology and Local Volume 4.) Dark Matter and Lensing 5.) Dark Energy 6.) First Galaxies radial velocities for the most interesting subsets of stars. Potential results include: (1)135.01 – JWST and Deep Field Studies of Galaxy Evolution at High Redshift counting the intermediate age red and yellow supergiants that will give information aboutM. Dickinson, NOAO, Tucson, AZ the recent star formation history; (2) measuring the initial mass function below 1 Msun02:00 PM-02:15 PM and studying young stellar objects in known and new young star clusters; (3) using 3D dynamics to model the kinematic evolution of the entire nuclear cluster, findEarly galaxy evolution is one of the core scientific topics for which JWST was designed, hypervelocity stars, and trace the orbits of gas features and clusters in the region.and much of that science will arise from the synergy between JWST observations and Galactic Center observations with JWST will give us a more complete picture of themultiwavelength deep field data from other facilities. JWST will make important gas, stars, black hole, and their interactions in this dynamic region.photometric, morphological, and especially spectroscopic measurements of stellarpopulations, star formation, and AGN activity in galaxies out to the highest redshifts at 135.03 – Studies of Nearby Galaxies in the Era of JWSTwhich galaxies are now known, and hopefully beyond. I will discuss some ways in whichJWST will build upon the legacy of existing or upcoming multiwavelength deep field D. Calzetti, J.E. Andrews, Y. Li, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst,data, both by extending current observations to much fainter fluxes, and by contributing MAqualitatively new information that is now entirely unavailable. 02:30 PM-02:45 PM While JWST is often thought of as a `high-redshift machine, its combination of high135.02 – The Galactic Center Seen Through the Precise, Multiplexed Eye of JWST angular resolution and infrared wavelength coverage makes it a crucial facility forJ.R. Lu, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI investigating many of the open questions in galaxy evolution that can be investigated02:15 PM-02:30 PM using nearby galaxies. Questions include: the physics of star formation in relation to the cold gas that fuels it, the quenching of star formation by AGNs and the physicalThe Galactic center harbors the closest supermassive black hole and contains warm, underpinning of the bulge-black hole relation, the physics of dust and its dependence onturbulent molecular clouds, dense stellar populations, and some of the most active star environmental conditions. These questions are at the basis of our understanding of theforming regions in the Milky Way. These unique conditions make the Galactic Center a evolution of the baryonic component of galaxies across cosmic times, and of thecompelling target for understanding how star formation varies with environment, how formation of the Hubble sequence. I will highlight some of the `experiments that will benuclear star clusters in galaxies evolve, and how supermassive black holes influence possible only with JWST, many leveraging the unique synergy between JWST andtheir surroundings. Detailed studies of the Galactic center have previously been ALMA.conducted with ground-based telescopes equipped with adaptive optics in pencil-beamstudies. However, Galactic center studies can be dramatically expanded with JWSTscombination of large fields-of-view (FOV) and high spatial resolution in the infrared. Of 135.04 – Strong Lensing, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy with the James Webb Spaceparticular relevance for the Galactic Center are NIRCams suite of narrow-band Telescopeimaging filters and NIRSpecs IFU spectrograph. The narrow-band imaging should T. Treu, University of California, Santa Barbara, CAprovide precise astrometry, rough spectral types, and emission line maps for ~50,000 02:45 PM-03:00 PMstars within a 2 x 2 FOV, while follow up IFU spectroscopy will give precise types and
  • 36. Observations of strongly lensed systems with JWST will be able to address some of the 135.06 – The Science Potential of JWST for Exoplanet Studiesoutstanding open questions in astrophysics. As an example illustration of this powerfulcombination I describe an observing program of approximately 150 quadruply imaged D. Lafreniere, R. Doyon, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec,quasars. With proper ancillary data such an observing program will constrain 1) the CANADAnature of dark matter by measuring the mass function of subhalos around massive 03:15 PM-03:30 PMgalaxies; 2) the nature of dark energy by measuring time-delay distances. The four science instruments onboard JWST will offer exciting new opportunities to study exoplanets in regimes that are inherently complementary to or exceed those that135.05 – The Potential of JWST for Studies of the Magellanic Clouds and Beyond can be accessed from the ground. Within this theme, the first main domain of activityM. Meixner, STScI, Baltimore, MD; M. Meixner, Johns Hopkins will be exoplanet transit/eclipse spectroscopy, where the outstanding stability offered byUniversity, Batlimore, MD a space observatory and the availability of several grism/prism spectroscopy modes will03:00 PM-03:15 PM allow JWST to achieve far better precision than what can be done from the ground, and it will do so over a wider spectral range. JWST will easily constrain the composition andThe Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory have surveyed the physical properties of gas giants and mini-neptunes, will likely detect a few molecules inMagellanic Clouds in the Spitzer-Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) the atmospheres of super-Earths, and possibly even do so for Earth-sized planets in theLegacy programs and HERschel Inventory of The Agents of Galaxy Evolution habitable zone around low-mass stars. The second main area of activity will be direct(HERITAGE) open time key program. The discoveries from SAGE and HERITAGE imaging, exploiting the coronagraphic capabilities of NIRCam and MIRI and thewill require JWST to fully understand. In this talk, I will discuss the discovery of interferometric mode of NIRISS. The main advantages of JWST for exoplanet imagingthousands of young stellar object candidates and how these these can be used to study are its much fainter background limit, its ability to observe fainter stars, and its widerstar formation in the low metallicity environments. The capabilities of the JWST spectral coverage. The observations will focus on searching for planets aroundinstruments, especially the mid-infrared instrument, can be used to followup and low-mass stars or around stars in the nearest star-forming regions, as well as on theinvestigate these new discoveries. Some example programs of JWST observations will follow-up at longer wavelengths of planets previously detected from the ground. In thisbe outlined. In addition, the SAGE and HERITAGE investigations of the lifecycle of presentation, I will review the unique science potential of JWST for exoplanets studiesbaryonic matter as traced by dust emission can be pursued by JWST in more distant and give a few examples of the kinds of observations that could be made.galaxies. An example JWST program will be described. The work described here wassupported by NASA NAG5-12595.136 – Supernovae IOral Session – Room 102B (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 02:00 PM to 03:30 PM Bongard, A. Canto, F. Cellier-Holzem, J. Guy, R. Pain, R. Pereira,136.01 – The Discovery of the Most Distant Type Ia Supernova at Redshift 1.91 C. Wu, Laboratoire de Physique Nucelaire et des Hautes Energies,D. Jones, S.A. Rodney, A.G. Riess, The Johns Hopkins University, Paris, FRANCE; B. Charles, D.L. Rabinowitz, Yale University,Baltimore, MD New Haven, CT; C. Buton, M. Kerschhaggl, M. Kowalski, K.02:00 PM-02:10 PM Paech, Universitat Bonn, Bonn, GERMANY; N. Chotard, Y. Copin,We present the discovery of a Type Ia supernova (SN) at redshift 1.91 from the E. Gangler, M. Rigault, G. Smadja, Institut de Physique NucleaireCANDELS/CLASH multi-cycle treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope(HST). This SN was detected in the infrared using the Wide-Field Camera 3, and is the de Lyon, Lyon, FRANCE; H. Fakhouri, S. Perlmutter, University ofhighest-redshift Type Ia yet observed. We classify this SN by comparing the light curve California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA; E. Pecontal, Centre deand spectrum with a large sample of simulated Ia and core-collapse templates, finding Recherche Astronomique de Lyon, Lyon, FRANCE; N. Chotard, C.that our observations are consistent only with a Type Ia. Tao, C. Wu, Tsinghua University, Beijing, CHINA; B. Weaver, New York University, New York, NY136.02D – Searching Under the Lamp Post: Discovery of 90 Type Ia SupernovaeAmong 700,0000 Galaxy Spectra, and Measurement of their Rate 02:30 PM-02:40 PMO. Graur, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY; O. We compare Hubble residuals for Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) from the Nearby Supernova Factory to the properties of their host galaxies. We find that the stretch- andGraur, D. Maoz, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, ISRAEL color-corrected luminosities of SNe Ia show a bias with respect to the masses,02:10 PM-02:30 PM metallicities, and specific star-formation rates of their host galaxies, consistent with theType Ia supernovae have been instrumental in revealing the accelerating nature of the findings of previous studies. We combine SN light curve and host galaxy data fromUniverses expansion. And yet, we still do not know what kind of stellar system is the multiple surveys to show that the SN Ia Hubble residuals transition rapidly over aprogenitor of this type of supernova. The current consensus is that the progenitor is a relatively short range (~0.6 dex) of host galaxy stellar mass. We then examine severalcarbon oxygen white dwarf in a binary system. Different scenarios for the nature of the physical mechanisms which could be driving this observed trend, including thecompanion predict different forms of the Type Ia supernova delay-time distribution discrepancy between SN Ia intrinsic color variations and foreground reddening by dust,(DTD; the distribution of times that elapse between a burst of star formation and the as well as the shift of average SN Ia progenitor age along the galaxy mass sequence.subsequent supernovae). Using a code that detects and classifies supernovae in galaxyspectra, we have discovered 90 Type Ia supernovae among the ~700,000 galaxies in the 136.04D – Fates of the First Stars and Their Cosmological Consequences7th SDSS Data Release. Using this sample, we measure the Type Ia supernova rate per K. Chen, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MNunit mass and confirm, at a median redshift of z~0.1, that more massive galaxies host 02:40 PM-03:00 PMless Type Ia supernovae than less massive galaxies. We show that this relation can beexplained by the combination of galaxy downsizing (i.e., older galaxies tend to be more We present results from our numerical simulations of the demise of the first stars andmassive than younger galaxies) and a power-law DTD with an index of -1. We convert their cosmological consequences. Recent results of the first star formation suggest thethe mass-normalized rate into a volumetric rate at z~0.1. By comparing this rate, along mass scale of the first stars is around 100 M⊙. The first stars with initial masseswith rates from other surveys out to z~2, to the cosmic star-formation history, we once between 140 M⊙ and 250 M⊙ might die as very powerful explosions calledagain find a power-law DTD with an index of -1. Finally, we use the individual pair-instability supernovae (PSNe). We use CASTRO, a new multidimensional radiation-star-formation histories of the SDSS galaxies to recover a delayed component of the hydrodynamics code, to study the evolution of PSNe. Our 3D simulations start with theDTD, which is consistent with values obtained by other surveys. Our results add to a collapse phase and follow the explosion until the shock breaks out from the stellargrowing body of evidence that the Type Ia DTD is a power law with index ~-1, which surface. Unlike the iron-core collapse supernovae, PSNe are powered by thermonuclearimplies a second white dwarf as the binary companion. runaway without leaving compact remnants. Much Ni is forged, up to 30 M⊙, and its decay energy powers the PSN luminosity for several months. During the explosion, the136.03 – Hubble Residuals and Host Galaxies of SNe Ia from the Nearby Supernova emergent fluid instabilities cause the mixing of PSN ejecta, and the amount of mixing isFactory related to PSN progenitors. The red supergiant progenitors demonstrate strong mixing,M. Childress, R. Scalzo, The Australian National University, altering the spectrum and light curves. After the explosion, we use sophisticated cosmological simulations to study how the PSNe impact the early universe. We find theCanberra, Australian Capital Territory, AUSTRALIA; M. Childress, shocks reheat the relic H II regions built by previous stars before they die as PSNe.G.S. Aldering, C. Aragon, S.J. Bailey, H. Fakhouri, E. Hsiao, A.G. Therefore, the hot gas can stay ionized for an additional several million years. ItKim, S. Loken, P.E. Nugent, S. Perlmutter, K. Runge, R. Thomas, increases the Jeans mass of star-forming clouds, leading to the delay of later starLawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA; P. Antilogus, S. formation. The dispersed metal rapidly enriches the pristine IGM to a critical metallicity, allowing the Pop II stars to form inside the first galaxies. Our simulations provide
  • 37. observational predictions for the first supernovae and their fingerprint on the first main sequence stars above 6 solar masses as common companions to SNe Ia. Moregalaxies that will be the major targets of forthcoming high-z observatories such as recent work has focused on the effect of the SN environment, as multiple studies haveJWST, LSST, and TMT. shown a correlation between host galaxy mass and SN distances. The source of this mass correlation is unknown, but both metallicity and progenitor age are candidate136.05D – Type Ia Supernova Progenitors, Cosmology, and Systematics explanations for the observed correlation. I will present new research that attempts to determine the underlying source of the mass correlation. Lastly, I will briefly discussB. Hayden, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN current host galaxy work in the CANDELS SN Survey. This work aims to understand03:00 PM-03:20 PM systematics and progenitors in terms of the potential evolution of SN Ia host galaxies asType Ia supernovae have become fundamental tools for cosmology, but their progenitors, a function of redshift.explosion mechanism, and dependence on environment remain key problems to besolved to improve their reliability as cosmological distance estimators. In this talk I will 136.06 – UV Diversity of Type Ia Supernovae: Comparing Observations to Modelspresent my research into the nature of SN Ia explosions and their environments, and E. Walker, Yale University, New Haven, CTdiscuss ongoing efforts to understand systematic errors in SN Ia distancemeasurements. Using SDSS-II SNe, I developed the 2-stretch fitting method for SN Ia 03:20 PM-03:30 PMlight curves. The 2-stretch method allows the rise and decline portions of the light curve The UV region of Type Ia supernova spectra are strongly affected by metalto be fit separately, and as a result I discovered that SN Ia light curves with a normal line-blanketing effects and is the potential location for any signatures of progenitordecline rate show a large variation in rise times. This departure from the single stretch metallicity. Thus, studies of the UV are important for understanding the supernovamodel also results in an average rise time of about 17.5 days, 2 days shorter than explosion itself as well impacting on future cosmological studies at higher redshift. Wepreviously accepted results. While accurate measurements of the rise time do not use a well-modelled maximum light spectrum of SN2005cf to develope a grid of modelssignificantly improve cosmological results, they do improve the estimate of 56-Ni yield, with varying luminosity and metal content in the outer layers of the ejecta. We presentwhich is an important constraint in theoretical modeling of SN Ia explosions. Using the comparisons of observed restframe UV spectra of Type Ia supernovae to a grid of2-stretch fitter, I conducted the first search for shock interactions between the exploding models with varying luminosity and metallicity. We find that for a high-z dataset aroundwhite dwarf and a potential companion star in the single degenerate channel. I found no maximum light the large scatter in the UV observations can be explained as variationsevidence for shocks in an SDSS-II sample of about 100 SNe, and showed using with metal content in the supernova ejecta and luminosity. We also present comparisonssimulations that this rules out shocks above about 9% of peak SN flux. Comparing to with other datasets in difference redshift ranges.theoretical models of single degenerate progenitors, I rule out red giant companions and137 – Young Stellar Objects, Very Young Stars, T-Tauri Stars, H-H Objects - DisksOral Session – Room 101B (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 02:00 PM to 03:30 PM periodic occulations of spotted star, potentially sustained or driven by a proto-planet or a137.01 – A Resolved Keplerian Disk Around the Class 0 Protostar L1527-IRS warped disk, at or near the co-rotation radius.J.J. Tobin, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville,VA 137.03 – Disk Evolution in Young Stellar Associations02:00 PM-02:10 PM A.J. Weinberger, A.P. Boss, Carnegie Inst. Of Washington,I will present the detection of a resolved, edge-on (R ~ 150 AU) Keplerian disk around Washington, DC; G. Anglada-Escud?, Universitat Gottingen,the Class 0 protostar L1527 in Taurus. These results were obtained from dust continuum Gottingen, GERMANYobservations taken at the CARMA and SMA sub/millimeter interferometers at 3 mm 02:30 PM-02:40 PMand 870 micron wavelengths, with ~0.3 (42 AU) resolution. Additional observations ofthe 13CO (J=2-1) transition at 1.3 mm using CARMA (~ 1 resolution) are found to We have measured parallactic distances to young stars in the TW Hydrae Associationtrace the disk rotation curve and we derive a protostellar mass of 0.19 +/- 0.04 M_sun. (TWA), Upper Scorpius, and Chamaeleon I associations. All the observations wereThe disk structure is constrained through simultaneous radiative transfer modeling of the made with the CAPSCam instrument at the 2.5m DuPont Telescope at Las Campanasmillimeter data, mid-infrared imaging, and spectral energy distribution, finding properties Observatory. We use these combined with available photometry to infer the ages of thesimilar to those of T Tauri disks aside from a large amount of flaring. These individual stars, via pre-main sequence tracks. We compare stars with and without disksobservations represent the first direct measurement of protostellar mass from disk and as a function of Galactic position. For TWA, we find the median parallax is 18 masrotation and the most definitive evidence for a large disk around a typical Class 0 or 56 pc. The stars appear to have a range of ages with a median of 10.5 Myr and noprotostar. This result indicates that large disks can form in the earliest phase of correlation between age and Galactic location. The TWA stars may have formed fromprotostellar evolution, contrary to disk formation models which consider magnetic an extended and filamentary molecular cloud but are not necessarily precisely coeval.braking. For Upper Sco, we find the median parallax for the low mass stars is 7.2 mas, or 140 pc, consistent with that obtained with Hipparcos for the high mass stars. For Cha I, we find a preliminary average distance for 12 Class II and III T Tauri stars of 150 pc. This is the137.02D – Stellar Rotation and Proto-Planetary Disks: What Interferometric Imaging first determination of parallactic distances to stars known to be Cha I cloud members.and High Cadence Photometry Can Tell Us We compare the distances and ages of the stars with less evolved and more evolvedJ. Parks, R.J. White, G. Schaefer, J. Jones, H.A. McAlister, Georgia disks.State University, Atlanta, GA; J. Parks, P. Plavchan, IPAC,Pasadena, CA; G. Schaefer, T. Ten Brummelaar, C.D. Farrington, 137.04D – The Star-formation History and Accretion Disk Fraction of the Scorpius-H.A. McAlister, J. Sturmann, L. Sturmann, N.H. Turner, S.T. Centaurus OB AssociationRidgway, Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy, Mt. M. Pecaut, E.E. Mamajek, University of Rochester, Rochester, NYWilson, CA; J.D. Monnier, F. Baron, X. Che, University of 02:40 PM-03:00 PMMichigan, Ann Arbor, MI; M. Zhao, Penn State, University Park, We present a study of the star-formation history and accretion disk fraction of ~0.6-1.8PA; S.T. Ridgway, National Optical Astronomical Obervatory, Msun stars in the nearest OB Association, Scorpius-Centaurus (Sco-Cen; ~10-20 Myr; d~100-200 pc). We have performed a low-resolution spectroscopic survey for new,Tuscon, AZ; E. Pedretti, N. Thureau, St. Andrews University, St. low-mass K- and M-type members of all three subgroups -- Upper Scorpius (US),Andrews, Scotland, UNITED KINGDOM; G.W. Henry, Tennessee Upper Centaurus-Lupus (UCL) and Lower Centaurus-Crux (LCC). We find that young,State University, Nashville, TN; B.K. Kloppenborg, Max Planck pre-main sequence stars are generally redder and hotter for a given spectral type thanInstitute, Munich, GERMANY their main-sequence counterparts and therefore main-sequence intrinsic colors and02:10 PM-02:30 PM temperatures are unsuitable for de-reddening the low-mass members of Sco-Cen and placing them on an H-R diagram. Using nearby, young moving groups within 75 pc, wePresented are the results of a dissertation project. We present the first interferometric derive a spectral type--intrinsic color sequence appropriate for pre-main sequence stars,images of cool starspots on the magnetically active giant lambda Andromeda (Lam and use synthetic spectral energy distribution fits to infer the proper temperature scaleAnd). The 12 images span various rotational phases in 2010 and 2011, which allow us to for these young stars. We use this new pre-main sequence intrinsic color anddirectly characterize the starspots temperature, location and size. Stellar rotation can be temperature calibration to place our ~200 newly identified members of Sco-Cen on anidentified in the 6 images from 2011 that comprise ~40% of one rotation of Lam And. In H-R diagram. We derive isochronal ages for the F-type members of Uppera complementary starspot study, we highlight results of a 3 year near-IR photometric Centaurus-Lupus (UCL; 16 Myr; =142 pc) and Lower Centaurus-Crux (LCC; 17 Myr;monitoring of young stars in the rho Ophiuchus star-forming region based on 2MASS =118 pc) which are consistent with the most recent results from the high-mass stars andcalibration field observations. Of 101 variable stars identified, 32 exhibit periodic the G- and K-type stars. However, our results for Upper Scorpius (US; 11 Myr; =145variability. For 6 variable stars, two different physical mechanisms are believed to be pc) indicate it is a factor of two older than previously thought. Finally, we find anoperating concurrently. The variability of 3 of these stars is believed to be caused by
  • 38. accretion disk fraction for UCL and LCC of ~3% for K-type stars decreasing to 2% for High-energy radiation from T Tauri stars (TTS) influences the amount and longevity ofF-type stars at ~16-17 Myr, while US has an accretion disk fraction of 5% for K-type gas in disks, thereby playing a crucial role in the creation of gas giant planets. Here westars decreasing to <19% (95% C.L.) for F-type stars at ~11 Myr. probe the high-energy ionizing radiation from TTS using mid-infrared (MIR) Spitzer IRS Neon forbidden line detections in a sample of disks from IC~348, NGC~2068, and137.05 – Tracing High-Energy Radiation from T Tauri Stars Using Mid-Infrared Neon Chamaeleon. We report three new detections of [Ne III] and use their [Ne III]/[Ne II]Emission from Disks ratios in conjunction with X-ray emission measurements to probe Extreme-UltravioletC. Espaillat, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, (EUV) radiation from TTS. We report the first observational evidence for EUV dominated heating in a T Tauri disk: [Ne III]/[Ne II] ~ 1. Our results provide a uniqueCambridge, MA insight into the EUV emission from TTS.03:00 PM-03:10 PM138 – Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Thinking and ComputingPlenary Session – Grand Ballroom (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 03:40 PM to 04:30 PM astrophysical processes: gravitational collapse to black holes or neutron stars, the138.01 – Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Thinking and Computing synthesis of the elements, supernova explosions, and turbulent motion in stars. OriginallyD. Arnett, Steward Obs., Tucson, AZ; D. Arnett, Kavli Institute of computers were thought of as tools for solving differential equations by numericalTheoretical Physics, Santa Barbara, CA, CA integration, but modern use of computers more closely resembles the construction of a digital model of reality based on conservation laws. Implications of our new abilities to03:40 PM-04:30 PM solve nonlinear problems, and the synergism developing between analytic and digitalComputers have become powerful conceptual and intellectual tools. Examples will be theory will be discussed, with historical comments.given showing how computer simulations clarified the nature of some important139 – From Gas to Stars Over Cosmic TimePlenary Session – Grand Ballroom (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 04:30 PM to 05:20 PM pressure appears less likely to be a dominant driver of the turbulence than has been139.01 – From Gas to Stars Over Cosmic Time argued because Rayleigh-Taylor instability tends to release photons before manyM. Mac Low, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY scatterings have occurred, but supernovae and magnetorotational instabilities remain04:30 PM-05:20 PM viable driving mechanisms. Gravity alone cannot be the main driver, because otherwise well-resolved models without feedback would accurately predict star formation rates.The formation of stars from gas drives the evolution of galaxies. Yet, this remains one of Understanding ionization heating and radiation pressure from the most massive starsthe hardest processes to understand when trying to connect observations of modern and requires much higher resolution models (sub-parsec scale) than resolving supernovahigh-redshift stellar and galactic populations to models of large scale structure formation. feedback. Star formation rate surface density correlates well with observed molecularThe star formation rate at redshifts z>2 now appears to drop off rather more quickly gas surface density, as well as with other tracers of high density material. Correlationthan was thought even five years ago. Theoretical models have tended to overpredict does not, however, necessarily imply causation. In this case, it appears that boththe star formation rate at these high redshifts substantially, primarily due to overcooling. molecule formation and star formation occur as a consequence of gravitational collapse,Overcooling in models of galaxies typically occurs because of unphysical radiative with molecules typically playing an important but not an essential role in cooling. Thecooling caused by insufficient numerical resolution of interfaces between hot, rarefied basic concept that gravitational instability drives star formation appears to remain a trueand cold, dense gas. As a result, insufficient turbulence is driven by stellar feedback in guide through the thickets of complexity surrounding this topic. I acknowledge fundingthese model galaxies. Such turbulence has the net effect of inhibiting star formation, from NSF grant AST11-09395.despite its ability to intermittently promote star formation by compression. Radiation141 – Astronomy Outreach to the PublicPoster Session – Exhibit Hall A (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 09:00 AM to 06:30 PM In the past few years the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) website has been141.01 – One Click to the Cosmos: The AstroPix Image Archive developing a presence on social media. As with APODs ~20 foreign language mirrorR.L. Hurt, J. Llamas, G.K. Squires, C. Brinkworth, Caltech, sites, these social media pages have been created and are maintained by volunteers. AsPasadena, CA of this writing in 2012 October 1, the APOD Twitter feed has over 520,000 followers,09:00 AM-06:30 PM the APOD Facebook page has over 28,000 Likes, and the APOD Google Plus mirror has been circled over 8,700 times. In addition three new social media sites -- APODImagine a single website that acts as a portal to the entire wealth of public imagery Sky and Universo (in Spanish) on Facebook and APOD River on Google Plus -- havespanning the worlds observatories. This is the goal of the AstroPix project been added that update more often than once daily, many times featuring unique image(astropix.ipac.caltech.edu), and you can use it today! Although still in a beta submissions or classic APODs from the 17+ year archive. Preliminary indicationsdevelopment state, this past year has seen the inclusion of thousands of images spanning indicate that the doubling time for readers of most of these social media pages issome of the most prominent observatories in the world, including Chandra, ESO, Galex, typically less than a year. Volunteering opportunities exist to develop and contribute toHerschel, Hubble, Spitzer, and WISE, with more on the way. The archive is unique as it APOD-related social media.is built around the Astronomical Visualization Metadata (AVM) standard, whichcaptures the rich contextual information for each image. This ranges from titles and 141.03 – A Public Outreach Blog for the CANDELS Projectdescriptions, to color representations and observation details, to sky coordinates. AVMenables AstroPix imagery to be used in a variety of unique ways that benefit formal and J.S. Kartaltepe, J. Pforr, National Optical Astronomy Observatory,informal education as well as astronomers and the general public. Visitors to Astropix Tucson, AZcan search the database using simple free-text queries, or use a structured search 09:00 AM-06:30 PM(similar to Smart Playlists found in iTunes, for example). We are also developing publicapplication programming interfaces (APIs) to allow third party software and websites to In May 2012 the CANDELS collaboration launched a public outreach blog, aimed at theaccess the growing content for a variety of uses (planetarium software, museum kiosks, general public, where we discuss CANDELS related science. CANDELS (the Cosmicmobile apps, and creative web interfaces, to name a few). Contributing image assets to Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey) is a large Hubble SpaceAstroPix is as easy as tagging the images with the relevant metadata and including the Telescope Multi-Cycle Treasury Program to image portions of the five most commonlyweb links to the images in a simple RSS feed. We will cover some of the latest studied deep fields in the near-infrared with WFC3. This large collaborationinformation about tools to contribute images to AstroPix and ways to use the site. encompasses a wide range of science topics including galaxy evolution and observational cosmology. We seek to understand how galaxies in the early universe formed and evolved to become the galaxies we see today. We post on a wide variety of141.02 – Astronomy Picture of the Day on Social Media topics including general background discussion on many issues in extragalacticR.J. Nemiroff, Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI; J. astronomy, current science results and papers, highlights from meetings that we haveBonnell, NASAs GSFC, Greenbelt, MD; J. Bonnell, Univ. attended, and what life as an astronomer is like (going on observing runs, writingMaryland, College Park, MD; S.R. Lowe, Las Cumbres proposals, and how we became interested in astronomy). The posts are written by a large number of collaboration members at different career stages (including students,Observatory Global Telescope, Goleta, CA postdocs, and permanent staff/faculty members) and is widely read and advertised on09:00 AM-06:30 PM Facebook, Twitter, and Google+. Our blog can be found here: http://candels-
  • 39. collaboration.blogspot.com 141.07 – Deaf Education in a Planetarium141.04 – Engaging the Public Through a Joint Outreach Program with the Appalachian M. Liu, E.G. Hintz, M. Jones, J. Lawler, A. Fisler, H. Mumford,Mountain Club – A Successful First Year Brigham Young University, Provo, UTD.N. Arion, K. Anderson, C. Tatge, Z.D. Troyer, Carthage College, 09:00 AM-06:30 PMWhitefield, NH; S. DeLucia, Appalachian Mountain Club, Bretton Over the years we have struggled with the difficulty of giving a planetarium show to aWoods, NH deaf audience. This is especially true for a younger audience with limited reading abilities. You must illuminate the ASL signer which causes light splash onto the dome.09:00 AM-06:30 PM You must slow the presentation down to allow for time to interpret and then point. ACarthage College and the Appalachian Mountain Club (AMC) formed a partnership to slower presentation can have an adverse impact on the learning of the hearing studentsdeliver hands-on astronomy programs to the public, train mentors and docents, and if the presentation is made to a mixed audience. To address these issues, we areprovide experiential learning opportunities for astronomy students. In its first year of currently working on methods to improve deaf education in a planetarium environment.operation the program reached over 2000 visitors, and engaged them in daytime and We will present an overview of the current project along with efforts to establishnighttime observing, lectures and presentations, and workshops. The AMC serves more baselines comprehension levels for both deaf and hearing children. This work is partiallythan 500,000 visitors each year at its lodges, centers, and high-mountain huts and funded by an NSF IIS-1124548 grant and funding from the Sorenson Foundation.delivers a wealth of experiences in nature and the environment. Through this projectCarthage and the AMC have added astronomy to the education programming to provide 141.08 – First Use of Heads-up Display for Astronomy Educationa holistic, integrative picture of the workings of the universe to the lay public. Thepresentations given are atypical of astronomy outreach, as they emphasize the physical H. Mumford, E.G. Hintz, M. Jones, J. Lawler, A. Fisler, Brighamconnections and linkages among many disciplines with astronomy. For example, the Young University, Provo, UTcoincidence between eye color sensitivity and the solar spectrum; the evolutionary 09:00 AM-06:30 PMpatterns that resulted from asteroid impacts; and the seasonal variation in animal coat As part of our work on deaf education in a planetarium environment we are exploringcolors are emphasized as much as the scale of the Universe and the typical stellar the use of heads-up display systems. This allows us to overlap an ASL interpreter withnucleosynthesis (the ‘we are stardust’ analogy) that are often covered. An extensive our educational videos. The overall goal is to allow a student to watch a full-domeevaluation and assessment process has been implemented, and results of those studies planetarium show and have the interpreter tracking to any portion of the video. We willshow significant impact on participants. Participants ranged from older, more present the first results of using a heads-up display to provide an ASL ‘sound-track’ forexperienced AMC visitors to elementary and middle school students in the Mountain a deaf audience. This work is partially funded by an NSF IIS-1124548 grant and fundingClassroom program, as well as a wide range of visitors from across the country. In from the Sorenson Foundation.addition to these programs, training workshops have been implemented for all AMCstaff who work with the public, including those at the high mountain huts, the naturalists,and AMC volunteers. This work was supported in part by the National Science 141.09 – Enhancing the Impact of NASA Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach:Foundation AST Division. Community Collaborations D.A. Smith, B.L. Lawton, STScI, Baltimore, MD; L. Bartolone,141.05 – The Public Nights Program at Appalachian State Universitys Dark Sky Adler Planetarium, Chicago, IL; G.R. Schultz, Astronomical SocietyObservatory Cline Visitor Center: Our First Year’s Results of the Pacific, San Francisco, CA; W.P. Blair, Johns HopkinsD.B. Caton, A.B. Smith, R.L. Hawkins, Appalachian State Univ., University, Baltimore, MDBoone, NC 09:00 AM-06:30 PM09:00 AM-06:30 PM The NASA Astrophysics Science Education and Public Outreach Forum is one of fourWe have completed our first year of public nights at our Dark Sky Observatory’s scientist-educator teams that support NASAs Science Mission Directorate and its32-inch telescope and the adjacent Cline Visitor Center. Our monthly public nights are nationwide education and public outreach community in increasing the coherence,composed of two groups of 60 visitors each that arrive for 1.5-hour sessions. Shorter efficiency, and effectiveness of their education and public outreach efforts. NASAsummer nights limit us to one session. We use two large (70-inch) flat panel displays in Astrophysics education and outreach teams collaborate with each other through thethe Center for a brief pre-observing discussion and to entertain visitors while they await Astrophysics Forum to place individual programs in context, connect with broadertheir turn at the telescope’s eyepiece. One of them runs a Beta version of Microsoft’s education and public outreach activities, learn and share successful strategies andWorldwide Telescope for Kinect. While the facility is fully ADA compliant, with techniques, and develop new partnerships. This poster highlights examples ofeyepiece access via a DFM Engineering Articulated Relay Eyepiece, and a wheelchair collaborative efforts designed to engage youth and adults across the full spectrum oflift if needed, we have only had one occasion to use this capability. We present some of learning environments, from public outreach venues, to centers of informal learning, toour experiences in this poster and encourage readers to offer suggestions. The Visitor K-12 and higher education classrooms. These include coordinated efforts to supportCenter was established with the support of Mr. J. Donald Cline, for which we are very major outreach events such as the USA Science and Engineering Festival; pilotgrateful. The Kinect system was donated by Marley Gray, at Microsoft/Charlotte. The Astro4Girls activities in public libraries to engage girls and their families in sciencetelescope was partially funded by the National Science Foundation. during Women’s History Month; and a pilot NASAs Multiwavelength Universe online professional development course for middle and high school educators. Resources to141.06 – Interaction and Learning Outcomes in Live, Public Planetarium Presentations assist scientists and Astro101 instructors in incorporating NASA Astrophysics discoveries into their education and public outreach efforts are also discussed.M. Neece, A. Sayle, P. Nleya, T. Boyette, Morehead Planetariumand Science Center, Chapel Hill, NC 141.1 – Enhancing the Impact of NASA Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach:09:00 AM-06:30 PM Sharing Best PracticesAlthough formative assessment has been shown to help teachers cultivate stronger L. Bartolone, Adler Planetarium, Chicago, IL; D.A. Smith, Spacepositive student outcomes in traditional classrooms, it has not been well researched in Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MDplanetariums. We studied the impact of formative assessment—as measured by the 09:00 AM-06:30 PMinteractivity between presenter and study participants—on learning success in mixed-audience, live planetarium constellation programs. Audio recordings of ten programs The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums support the NASA Sciencegiven by five experienced planetarium educators in late 2009 were transcribed and Mission Directorate (SMD) and its education and public outreach community inanalyzed. Ninety of 328 attendees participated in the study. Their ages ranged from 7 to enhancing the coherence, efficiency, and effectiveness of SMD-funded education and65. Interactivity was measured as the number of verbal “hand-offs” per hour between public outreach programs. As part of this effort, the four Forums (Astrophysics, Earthpresenter and attendees. Pre-program and immediate post-program written surveys Science, Heliophysics, and Planetary Science) work together to coordinate resourceswere administered to assess participants’ learning outcomes, such as identification of and opportunities that enable sharing of best practices relevant to SMD-fundedcardinal directions, objects in the night sky and the Moon’s phase. Participants whose education and public outreach. Efforts include collaborating with SMD-funded educationprograms had either high (79 – 96 interactions/hr) or low (19 – 42 interactions/hr) and public outreach programs to identify community needs for professional development;interactivity scored 7 - 16% higher on learning outcomes than those whose presenters raising awareness of the existing body of best practices and educational research; and,had mid-range levels (56 – 62 interactions/hr). Because of the low number of organizing distance learning and face-to-face professional development opportunities.presenters, it was difficult to disentangle the influence of the presenters’ interactivity Topics include best practices in navigating NASA SMD education and public outreachfrom the influence of the presenters’ other characteristics and behaviors. Study redesign program requirements, social media, engaging girls in science, and studentwould likely allow for better control to determine the relation between interactivity and misconceptions / reasoning difficulties. Opportunities to share best practices and learnoutcomes, thus allowing presenters to modify their presentations to maximize benefits to from experts are extended to the broader astronomy and astrophysics communitytheir audience members. through the annual Astronomical Society of the Pacific education and public outreach conference. Evaluation of community professional development resources and
  • 40. opportunities is in progress. A.C. Fredericks, J.L. Bartlett, U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington, DC; S. Bell, HM Nautical Almanac Office, Taunton, UNITED141.11 – Enhancing the Impact of NASA Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach:Using Real NASA Data in the Classroom KINGDOM 09:00 AM-06:30 PMB.L. Lawton, D.A. Smith, STScI, Baltimore, MD09:00 AM-06:30 PM On 21 August 2017, “…as the last ray of sunlight vanishes, a scene of unexampled beauty, grandeur, and impressiveness…” (Newcomb 1890) will break upon fortunateThe NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums support the NASA Science observers along a narrow band, approximately 73 mi (118 km) wide, that crosses twelveMission Directorate (SMD) and its education and public outreach (E/PO) community in states from Oregon to South Carolina. In response to growing interest in the first totalenhancing the coherence, efficiency, and effectiveness of SMD-funded E/PO programs. solar eclipse to sweep the continental United States in nearly a century, the U.S. NavalAs a part of this effort, the Astrophysics Forum is coordinating a collaborative project Observatory has developed an on-line resource center with direct links to 2017-specificamong the NASA SMD astrophysics missions and E/PO programs to create a broader services: the 2017 August 21 Total Solar Eclipse page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docsimpact for the use of real NASA data in classrooms. Among NASAs major education /Eclipse2017.php). The Solar Eclipse Computer (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docsgoals is the training of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math /SolarEclipses.php) calculates tables of local circumstances for events visible throughout(STEM) disciplines. The use of real data, from some of the most sophisticated the world. A similar service is available for lunar eclipses, Lunar Eclipse Computerobservatories in the world, provide educators an authentic opportunity to teach students (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/LunarEclipse.php). The USNO Eclipse Portalbasic science process skills, inquiry, and real-world applications of the STEM subjects. (http://astro.ukho.gov.uk/eclbin/query_usno.cgi) provides diagrams and animationsThe goal of this NASA SMD astrophysics community collaboration is to find a way to showing the global circumstances for events visible throughout the world and localmaximize the reach of existing real data products produced by E/PO professionals circumstances for events visible at selected locations. The Web site, which includes bothworking with NASA E/PO grants and missions in ways that enhance the teaching of the solar and lunar eclipses, is a joint effort with Her Majesty’s Nautical Almanac Office.STEM subjects. We present an initial result of our collaboration: defining levels of basic The Eclipses of the Sun and Moon page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docsscience process skills that lie at the heart of authentic scientific research and national /UpcomingEclipses.php) links to electronic copies of the visibility maps from Theeducation standards (AAAS Benchmarks) and examples of NASA data products that Astronomical Almanac. The Eclipse Reference List (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/faq/docsalign with those levels. Our results are the beginning of a larger goal of utilizing the new /eclipse_ref.php) is a representative survey of the available literature for thoseNASA education resource catalog, NASA Wavelength, for the creation of progressions interested in delving into these phenomena, either technically or historically. Less than 7that tie NASA education resources together. We aim to create an informational sampler years after the 2017 total solar eclipse, another such spectacular event will cross athat illustrates how an educator can use the NASA Wavelength resource catalog to different swath of the continent on April 8, 2024. The U.S. Naval Observatory isconnect NASA real-data resources that meet the educational goals of their class. planning a resource center for that event as well. If your plans for 2017 are not yet made, visit the 2017 August 21 Total Solar Eclipse page to prepare for up to 2 minutes141.12 – On-line Eclipse Resources from the U.S. Naval Observatory: Planning Ahead 45 seconds of “unexampled beauty, grandeur, and impressiveness” and of darkness.for August 2017142 – Binary Stellar Systems, X-ray BinariesPoster Session – Exhibit Hall A (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 09:00 AM to 06:30 PM means of finding distant low mass companions to the central binary. In order to constrain142.01 – New Measurement of Position Angle and Separation of Binary Stars Selected the masses of any such companions, precise masses and other parameters of the centralfrom the Washington Double Star Catalog binary are needed. We have conducted several observing runs at KPNO and LowellR.J. Muller, J.C. Cersosimo, E. Franco, R. Rodriguez, M. Rosario, Observatory to obtain blue spectra of these systems, that when combined withM. Diaz, Y. Nieves, B.S. Torres, Univ. of Puerto Rico, Humacao, photometry from Kepler, will yield joint radial velocity and light curve solutions. Here we present results from our sample of 41 eclipsing binaries, including double-lined radialHumacao, Puerto Rico, velocity curves and the orbital fit parameters derived from our spectroscopic09:00 AM-06:30 PM observations. In addition, we use Doppler tomography to reconstruct the spectra of theWe report on separation and position angle measurements of binary star systems individual components of each binary. These spectra are then fit with synthetic spectraselected from the Washington Double Star catalog. The data is gathered at the 31 inch from model atmospheres to determine temperatures, gravities, and metallicities.NURO telescope, located 20 miles east of Flagstaff, Arizona. The NASACAM CCDcamera, with 27-micron pixels and a field of view of 16 arc minutes is attached to the 142.04 – Keplers Hot Binary Starstelescope for our measurements. We follow the standard procedure to calibrate the L. Butler, S.B. Howell, NASA Ames Reach Center, Moffett Field,images using bias and flats. Then we pixelize the images to measure the separation andthe position angle of the star system. We also use software to check our results. Our CA; R. Chandar, University of Toledo, Toledo, OHdata is published at the Washington Double Star catalog. This research project is part of 09:00 AM-06:30 PMan ongoing gathering of data that has been active for various years. Using a UBV survey of the Kepler Field we selected sources matching the colors of O and B main sequence stars. Producing spectral energy distributions ( SEDs) of our142.02 – Updating the Census of Massive Binaries in Cygnus OB2 candidates using UBV, Kepler Input Catalogue, 2MAST databases, we matched them toH.A. Kobulnicky, M.J. Alexander, M.J. Lundquist, G.R. Long, R. template SEDs. We examined all O and B candidates which had Kepler Light Curves for periodicity. We will summarize our results including the determination of whichSmullen, A. Bhattacharjee, C. Vargas Alvarez, Univ. of Wyoming, objects are eclipsing binaries.Laramie, WY09:00 AM-06:30 PMThe Cygnus OB2 Association contains one of the largest collections of massive stars inthe Milky Way. Its proximity, 1.4 kpc, makes it an ideal laboratory for probing thecharacteristics of massive stars such as the binary fraction and distribution of companionmasses and separations. Currently there are 25 massive binary systems with full orbitalparameters in Cyg OB2, most of these resulting from the Cygnus OB2 Radial VelocitySurvey conducted at the University of Wyoming. In this contribution we presentadditional massive binary systems from the 2011-2012 observing campaigns at theWyoming Infrared Observatory. The ensemble of nearly 30 OB systems are used toreconstruct the underlying distribution of orbital parameters for massive binaries. Suchsystems become the progenitors of some of natures most energetic events, includingmany classes of supernovae and gamma ray bursts.142.03 – Spectroscopic Orbits for Kepler Field of View BinariesR.A. Matson, D.R. Gies, S. Williams, Z. Guo, GSU, Atlanta, GA09:00 AM-06:30 PMWe are currently involved in a program to obtain precise photometry of eclipsing binarieswith NASAs Kepler Observatory. Using Keplers unprecedented accuracy andcontinuous observations, our goal is to search for variations in the eclipse times as a
  • 41. 142.05 – Heartbeat Stars: Dynamic Tidal Distortions and Excitations 142.07 – Close Binaries, Triples, and EclipsesS.E. Thompson, F. Mullally, C.J. Burke, J. Rowe, SETI J. Sanborn, Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ; J. Sanborn,Institute/NASA Ames, Moffett Field, CA; J. Christiansen, S.B. Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ; R.T. Zavala, UnitedHowell, T. Barclay, M.D. Still, NASA Ames, Moffett Field, CA; K. States Naval Observatory, Flagstaff, AZHambleton, Villanova, Villanova, PA; M.E. Everett, NOAO, 09:00 AM-06:30 PMTucson, AZ Observations of the variable radio source b Per (HR1324) are part of an ongoing survey09:00 AM-06:30 PM of close binary systems using the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer. Historical observations of b Per include sparse photometric and spectroscopic observations datingKepler with its high precision, nearly continuous observations of stars has discovered a back to 1923, clearly showing this object to be a non-eclipsing, single-lined ellipsoidalclass of highly eccentric binary stars noted for dynamic tidal distortions and tidally variable. This is where the story for b Per stopped until recent inclusion of opticalinduced pulsations. As the star passes through periastron, the stars are tidally distorted interferometric data which led to the detection of a third, long-period component. As thecausing a sudden increase in the variability of the lightcurve. The exact shape of the interferometric observations continue to build up so to is the understanding of this binaryvariability depends on the eccentricity and viewing angle of the system. In many cases system, with the modeled orbital parameters pointing to an edge-on orientation that maythe large tide that occurs at periastron acts like a mallet, inducing pulsations that allow us allow for the detection of an eclipse by the long-period component. These types ofto perform asteroseismology on would otherwise be non-pulsating stars. We present eclipse events are quite rare for long-period binaries due to the nearly edge-onsome of the global properties of this class of binaries and discuss how the tidal forces orientation required for their detection, leaving open the opportunity for more traditionalare influencing these systems. Additionally we utilize the unprecedented timespan of the methods of observation to add to the body of knowledge concerning this understudiedKepler light curves to place limits on the orbital evolution of these binaries and constrain system. Here we present the latest observational data of the b Per system along with anthe presence of a third body. This work includes data collected by the Kepler mission. introduction to the best fit orbital parameters governing the eclipsing nature of thisFunding for the Kepler mission is provided by the NASA Science Mission directorate. complex triple-system.142.06 – Statistical Constraints on Stellar Multiplicity from Time-Resolved Spectroscopy 142.08 – High-Resolution Speckle Imaging at Gemini-North: Exoplanets and Beyondin SDSST. Hettinger, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI; C. S.B. Howell, NASA ARC, Moffett Field, CA; E. Horch, SouthernBadenes, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; S.J. Bickerton, Connecticut State University, New haven, CT; M.E. Everett, NOAO,IPMU, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Chiba, JAPAN; T.C. Beers, Tucson, AZ; D. Ciardi, NASA Exoplanet Science institute,NOAO, Tucson, AZ Pasadena, CA09:00 AM-06:30 PM 09:00 AM-06:30 PM Using our state-of-the-art 2-channel speckle imaging instrument, we have recentlyUnderstanding the multiplicity fraction and orbital period distribution of stars within the obtained diffraction-limited optical images at the 8-m Gemini-N telescope. The primaryMilky Way (MW) has implications for various fields in astronomy. Multiplicity influences science goal was to search for faint (delta_mag = 4-6 mag) and nearby (<0.05) stellarthe interpretation of the initial mass function, poses constraints on star formation models, companions around potential planet hosting stars as part of the small small exoplanetand provides key perspective on stellar interactions and merger rates. Historically, validation for the NASA Kepler and ESA CoRoT missions. As a demonstration of themultiplicity has been determined for various populations using limited statistics, most instrument capabilities on Gemini, we achieved an angular resolution of ~20 mas whichoften with only hundreds of systems. Measuring the multiplicity of stellar systems with yielded the highest resolution ground-based optical image of the Pluto-Charon systemshort periods requires the use of radial velocity measurements. Short-period stellar ever obtained. Our instrument is likely to return to Gemini-N in mid-2013 forsystems with small semi-major axes do not have the angular size to be readily detected observations by general community programs.~through astrometric and speckle techniques. Additionally, multiple epochs of radialvelocity measurements are required to determine orbital parameters. The Sloan DigitalSky Survey (SDSS) provides a large sample of multi-exposure, spectroscopic 142.09 – Study of Eclipsing Tertiary System KIC 6543674observations for some half-million field stars. This provides the largest current data set B. Thackeray-Lacko, M. Hill, J.A. Orosz, W.F. Welsh, T. Fetherolf,capable of performing an extensive statistical assessment of the multiplicity of stars in T.A. Gregg, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA; B.the MW. As an added benefit, these sets of spectral images are complemented withphysical parameters determined from the Sloan Stellar Parameter Pipeline, allowing an Thackeray-Lacko, California State University San Bernardino, Sananalysis of binary fractions as a function of stellar properties such as metallicity. In our Bernardino, CA; M. Hill, University of California, Berkeley,study, we utilize spectroscopic sub-exposures in SDSS. We cross-correlate each unique Berkeley, CA; D.W. Latham, Harvard-Smithsonian Center forpair of sub-exposures, recording the largest difference in radial velocity. This yields a Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA; A. Prsa, Villanova University,distribution of radial velocity differences dominated by a Gaussian core of Villanova, PAnon-detections with measurement error. Above the threshold of measurement errors, atail in the distribution emerges from true differences in radial velocity of multi-star 09:00 AM-06:30 PMsystems. Distributions in radial velocity changes are compared by running a grid of KIC 6543674 is bright 2.4 day eclipsing binary discovered by NASAs Kepler mission.Monte-Carlo simulations of stellar systems for a given binary fraction with various There is strong evidence for a third body in the system with a roughly 1300 day orbitmasses, separations, and eccentricities, while maintaining our samples distributions in based on a transit event observed in the Kepler quarter Q2 and on eclipse timingexposure coverage and measurement error. We present our results on the constraints in variations seen in both the primary and secondary eclipses. Observations of the systemmultiplicity implied by our first analysis of F-type stars in the MW. were taken at the Mount Laguna Observatory using the 24 and 40 inch telescopes to obtain photometry in the B, V, R, and I filters during the 2011 and 2012 seasons. The resulting light curves were analyzed along with radial velocity measurements obtained from Kitt Peak Observatory and the Fred L. Whipple Observatory in order to solve for the absolute masses and radii of the stars in the eclipsing binary. We will present the results of that investigation. Although a complete orbit of the outer body has not yet been observed, we can place modest constraints on the mass and radius of the third star. 142.1 – Mass and Radii Measurements of the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Star System KIC 8736245 T. Fetherolf, W.F. Welsh, J.A. Orosz, G. Windmiller, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 09:00 AM-06:30 PM The stellar mass-radius relationship is well understood for stars greater than about 0.8 solar masses. However, for late K and M class stars there is a well-known discrepancy between theory and observations, in that the observed radii are larger than predicted by several percent. We examine the low-mass binary star system KIC 8736245 to help understand the nature of the discrepancy. KIC 8736245 has a Kepler magnitude of 13.8 with stars on nearly circular orbits that exhibit a 36% primary eclipse depth and 15% secondary eclipse depth. Its orbital period is 5.07 days, making the binary more widely separated than most low-mass binary systems that have precise dynamical mass and radius estimates. This is important since tidal effects are suspected as the cause of
  • 42. bloating the stars. The mass of the primary star is ~0.96 solar masses and the mass of literature were combined to calculate the improved ephemeris: HJD min I =the secondary star is ~0.76 solar masses. We use the extremely accurate photometry 2455099.6664 ± 0.0027 + 0. 2835173 ± 0.0000006 d*E. Our light curves show low levelfrom NASA’s Kepler Mission, supplemented with multicolor photometry from Mount ripples, surface activity and asymmetries due to magnetic activity. Light curveLaguna Observatory and spectroscopy from Kitt Peak National Observatory. amplitudes vary from 0.4-0.6 mags (V) in the primary and secondary eclipses. ThePreliminary results show that the stars’ radii are indeed larger than predicted for their difference in adjacent maxima varies from ~3-5%. Wilson-Devinney synthetic lightmass and ages. curve models include two spot regions, one hot and one cool, both at equatorial positions of the primary, more massive, component. A firm 34% fill-out and a small mass ratio of142.11 – The Eclipsing Binary KIC 3557421 0.31 is also determined. A total eclipse of 33 minutes is found to occur in the secondary eclipse making GSC 2765-0348 a W Type (less massive star is hotter) W UMa variable.M. Hill, W.F. Welsh, J.A. Orosz, T. Fetherolf, T.A. Gregg, B.Thackeray-Lacko, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA; M. 142.15 – Light Curves and Analyses of the Eclipsing Overcontact Binaries V546 And &Hill, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA; B. Thackeray- V566 And & the Discovery of a New Variable StarLacko, California State University, San Bernardino, San D.H. Bradstreet, S.J. Sanders, Eastern Univ., Saint Davids, PA;Bernardino, CA C.G. Volpert, Agnes Irwin School, Bryn Mawr, PA09:00 AM-06:30 PM 09:00 AM-06:30 PMObservations and modeling of the eclipsing binary KIC 3557421 were conducted in New precision V & Rc light curves of the eclipsing binaries V546 And and V566 Andorder to make accurate determinations of the masses and radii of the stars. A long-lived have been obtained using the 41-cm telescopes at the Eastern University Observatorydiscrepancy exists between the observed radii of low-mass main sequence stars versus equipped with SBIG ST-10XME CCD’s. V546 And (GSC 2828:18, P = 0.3831 days, mtheir predicted values; theoretical models currently underestimate their radii by up to = 11.2) has only one published discovery light curve with significant scatter in the data.15%. It is known, however, that many of these low-mass systems have stars with high The system was observed on seven nights from 30 Aug – 20 Sep 2012, accumulatingrotation velocities, spun up by their companion stars in tight orbits. This may create approximately 900 observations in both V and Rc. The light curves show distinctly thatenhanced stellar activity, and has been suggested as a possible explanation for the the system is totally eclipsing and preliminary analysis indicates that the binary is W-typeobserved over-sized stars. KIC 3557421 is a bright (Kp=10.027), short period (P=9.4 (the larger, more massive star is the cooler component), has a mass ratio of 0.34, smallhr), double-line spectroscopic binary system showing both primary and secondary temperature difference between the stars of 300 K, and a fillout of 0.30. There is alsoeclipses. Both stars are near 1 solar mass, and so are expected to have radii near 1 solar strong evidence of the presence of starspots influencing the slopes of both eclipses.radius. However, the short orbital period and large stellar spin (V sin i > 100 km/sec) V566 And (GSC 2321:257, P = 0.3897 days, m = 10.9) is a totally eclipsing overcontactsuggest that the stars have been spun up and thus may provide a test of the hypothesis system likewise showing obvious O’Connell effects likely due to starspots. V566 Andthat tidal forces lead to enlarged radii. was observed on seven nights from 30 Aug – 25 Sep 2012, accumulating more than 900 observations in both V and Rc. Preliminary light curve models indicate a W-type system142.12 – A Syzygy of KIC 4150611 with a small temperature difference between the stars of 200 K and a mass ratio of onlyT.A. Gregg, W.F. Welsh, J.A. Orosz, T. Fetherolf, San Diego State 0.20. The original comparison star for V566 And, GSC 2321:911 (m = 12.0), turned outUniversity, San Diego, CA; A. Prsa, Villanova University, to be a previously unknown variable star with a period of approximately 0.466 days and a light amplitude in Rc of 0.15 mag. This new variable has no information concerning itVillanova, PA in the online archives and initial analysis seems to indicate that this may be an ellipsoidal09:00 AM-06:30 PM variable. The complete light curve analyses will be presented for both systems and theWe present ground-based photometry of the stellar syzygy of KIC 4150611. KIC new variable’s light curves will also be discussed.4150611 is a quintuple-star system, composed of a pulsating δ-Sct A-star, a pair ofeclipsing G-stars, and another pair of eclipsing K-stars. The Kepmag of the system is 142.16 – Red Giants in Eclipsing Binaries: First Look at Kepler Light Curves7.9, and the pair of G-type stars have an orbital period of 8.6 d with the K-type dwarfs M.L. Rawls, P. Gaulme, J. McKeever, J. Jackiewicz, New Mexicohaving a 1.5 d orbital period. The A-star has a period of 94 days. We utilized the Kepler State University, Las Cruces, NMdata to predict the occurrence of a syzygy of the A-star and the G-stars in the summerof 2011, which we then observed with BVI CCD photometry at Mt. Laguna 09:00 AM-06:30 PMObservatory. These data supply additional constraints on the temperatures of the We present a catalog and initial analysis of eclipsing binaries in the Kepler field thateclipsing stars. contain at least one red giant star to test theories of stellar evolution. We estimate stellar parameters using two independent techniques: asteroseismology and light curve transit142.13 – Long Term Optical Photometry of the Black Hole Binary J1118+480 modeling. Our sample is derived from overlaps in the Kepler red giant and eclipsingL. Monroy, P.A. Mason, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, binary catalogs, and yields 53 candidate red giants in eclipsing binaries, of which 33 clearly show the global oscillation modes expected in red giant stars. We carefullyTX; E.L. Robinson, University fo Texas Austin, Austin, TX; R.I. consider whether the oscillating red giants belong to the eclipsing binaries they areHynes, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA associated with, infer red giant masses and radii from global oscillation modes, and09:00 AM-06:30 PM present orbital parameters derived from light curve modeling for a subsample of stars. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-0849986 and LANL IGPP grant 10-054.The black hole LMXB J1118+480 was observed using the Argos photometer on the 2.1m telescope of McDonald Observatory on 30 nights from 2004 to 2012. Integrationtimes were 10s and a broad-band (BVR) filter was used. All the light curves display a 142.17 – The Orbital Period Distribution of Hot Subdwarf B Binariestwo-humped orbital modulation that has been interpreted as ellipsoidal variations. In B. Barlow, R.A. Wade, The Pennsylvania State University,addition, flickering is observed predominately during the bright phases of the orbital University Park, PA; S. Liss, University of Virginia, Charlottesville,variation. The bright phase intensity and flickering variability is found to change from run VAto run over the course of our observations, while both minima in the ellipsoidal variationsremain relatively constant. High quality light curves covering many full orbital cycles and 09:00 AM-06:30 PMa baseline of eight years allow for an improved orbital ephemeris. Hot subdwarf B (sdB) stars represent one of the least understood stages of stellar evolution. Theory shows they probably form from red giant branch stars that lost their142.14 – Analysis of UBVRI Photometry of the Totally Eclipsing, Very Short Period, W outer envelopes due to Roche lobe overflow and common envelope interactions with aUMa Binary, GSC 2765-0348 companion, but the details of these processes are unclear. Binary population synthesisD.R. Faulkner, University of South Carolina Lancaster, Lancaster, (BPS) models predict a wide array of companion types and orbital periods for the sdB binaries resulting from these interactions. Although BPS models are generally successfulSC; R.G. Samec, D. Flaaten, T. Rehn, B. Oliver, Bob Jones at reproducing the observed periods of systems with M dwarf and white dwarfUniversity, Greenville, SC; W.V. Van Hamme, Florida International companions, there is no theoretical consensus on whether the orbital periods ofUniversity, Miami, FL sdB+F/G/K binaries are long (years) or short (days). Relatively few observational09:00 AM-06:30 PM constraints have been published for these composite-spectra systems. We have been monitoring the radial velocities (RVs) of 15 sdB binaries with F-K dwarf companionsGSC 2765-0348 is a very short period (P = 0.2835d), solar type, G4V contact binary. since 2005 using the Medium and High Resolution Spectrographs on the Hobby-EberlyComplete BVRI light curves and a partial U light curve covering the secondary eclipse Telescope. Here we present RV measurements and orbital parameter estimates (whenare presented along with a period study, surface temperature determination and a appropriate) for selected systems in our sample and discuss the constraints they placesimultaneous UBVRI light curve solution. Four mean times of minimum light were on BPS models. We also present an up-to-date period histogram for all known hotdetermined from the oservations in each of the bands, two primary and two secondary subdwarf binaries, which for the first time includes both short- and long-period systems.eclipses: HJD I = 2455099.6673±0.0002, 2455099.9506±0.0002, HJD II = Our initial results suggest those with F-K main sequence companions tend to have2455098.6729±0.0007, 2455099.8066±0.0001. These timings along with all others in the orbital periods on the order of several years. Such long periods challenge the predictions
  • 43. of conventional BPS models, although a larger sample is needed for a thorough periods in our dataset. Rather, a given night exhibits short lived quasi-periodic variationsassessment of the models predictive success. Supported by the National Science covering a variety of timescales, especially 10-40 min and even as long as two hours.Foundation under Grant No. AST-0908642. This short period variability combined with recent spectroscopic abundance studies suggests that the likely donor in this binary is a white dwarf.142.18 – Hα Emission in Post-Common-Envelope Binaries: White Dwarf Illuminationvs. Chromospheric Activity 142.22 – On the Conservation of Angular Momentum During Roche Lobe OverflowR. Spiewak, U. WI Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI; R. Spiewak, V. Direct Impact Mass TransferStrelnitski, G.E. Walker, Maria Mitchell Obs., Nantucket, MA; B. J.F. Sepinsky, University of Scranton, Scranton, PA; V. Kalogera,Pomerantz, Cornell U., Ithaca, NY; T. Krajci, Astrokolkhoz Obs., CIERA at Northwestern University, Evanston, ILCloudcroft, NM 09:00 AM-06:30 PM09:00 AM-06:30 PM We compare a number of popular assumptions about angular momentum transfer during Roche lobe overflow direct impact accretion mass transfer. In many cases, assumptionsWe revisit and augment the narrow-band photometry of two post-common-envelope of the conservation of angular momentum combined with assumptions about changes inclose binary systems, V471 Tau and DE CVn, composed of a white dwarf (WD) and a the rotation rates of the donor and accretor may create unrealistic systemic constraints.red dwarf (RD). The photometry was accomplished using the 24-inch telescope of the We highlight some of these constraints and provide a possible avenue to ameliorateMaria Mitchell Observatory and the 0.35-m telescope of the Astrokolkhoz Observatory. them, namely relying on direct calculation of the ejection, transport, and accretionThe filters allowed us to separate the temporal behavior of the Hα emission and the process of the transferred matter. We use Double White Dwarf direct impact accretionadjacent continuum. The latter shows in both binaries the well-known double wave with as a specific example of this situation, and examine the angular momentum exchangemaxima around phases 0.25 and 0.75 and with an amplitude of several percent, which that results in a number of cases.has been ascribed to the ellipsoidal shape of the red dwarf. We confirm our previous,preliminary conclusion that the phase curves of Hα emission in these two stars aredifferent: in DE CVn, it is similar to the two-peak curve of the continuum, whereas in 142.23 – Comparing Circular and Eccentric Roche Lobe Models using the BinaryV471 Tau it has only one maximum – at phase 0.5. We interpret this difference by the Population Synthesis Code StarTrackdifference in the WD temperature, previously determined as 34,500 and 8,000 K, for C. Culver, J.F. Sepinsky, University of Scranton, Scranton, PA; C.V471 Tau and DE CVn respectively. We show that the sub-WD area of the RD in Belczynski, University of Warsaw, Warszawa, POLANDV471 Tau intercepts enough ionizing photons from the hot WD to produce the observed 09:00 AM-06:30 PMHα luminosity, whereas the relatively cold WD in DE CVn lacks several orders ofmagnitude in UV luminosity to create the observed Hα luminosity, which therefore It is commonly assumed that eccentric roche lobe overflow happens instantaneously andshould be ascribed to the chromospheric activity of the RD. This project was supported therefore not over an appreciable timescale when compared with other evolutionaryby NSF/REU grant AST-0851892 and the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association. effects. Sepinsky et al. (2007) developed a more complete mathematical model for the roche lobe in eccentric systems and the roche lobe overflow process. Here we include142.19 – Orbital Period of SDSSJ0256 (a DA + M Binary System) these changes in the population synthesis code Star Track to examine the long term effects on various types of systems. We first examine the timescale for eccentric rocheC. Gilfrich, Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory (CTIO), La lobe overflow as compared to the other important evolutionary timescales. We thenSerena, CHILE compare the evolution of systems using the eccentric roche lobe overflow calculations to09:00 AM-06:30 PM the commonly adopted ones.Studying WD+M binaries can give insight into the evolution of cataclysmic variablesbecause of their presence in CVs evolutionary process. SDSSJ0256 is a WD + M 142.24 – Broad-Band Optical Photometry of the LMXB PSR J1023+0038binary found in the SLOAN Digital Sky Survey which has not previously been studied; E. Gonzalez, P.A. Mason, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso,the SLOAN data does not include an orbital period. I used spectroscopic data from the TX; E.L. Robinson, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TXGoodman Spectrograph on SOAR collected at various dates to find the changes in H- αemission lines from the main sequence star throughout its orbit. From these wavelengths, 09:00 AM-06:30 PMI calculated the velocities, which were analyzed using a Lomb-Scargle periodogram to Optical observations of the low-mass X-ray binary PSR J1023+0038 are presented.find SDSSJ0256s orbital period to be 2.6 hours (with a false-positive probability of CCD photometry was collected with 10s integrations using the Argos camera on the 2.110%), its radial velocity semi-amplitude to be 32 ± 5 km/s, and its gamma velocity to be m Otto Struve Telescope of McDonald Observatory. Data was obtained during seven19 ± 4 km/s. We compared this to other possible periods from the Lomb-Scargle nights in February 2011 and January 2012. The light curves are quite similar to thoseperiodogram using their power, false-positive probability as outlined by Frescura et al obtained in previous studies, allowing a systematic period study of new data combined(2008), and χ2 testing. Although the fit to our data is far from perfect, the phase diagram with three epochs of published light curves, covering a span of 8 years. An unambiguousshows a reasonably close trend. As such, this study points to an orbital period of period of 0.1980962(4) days is derived. An O-C diagram of the residuals is constructedapproximately 2.6 hours for SDSSJ0256, to be made more certain by additional and does not clearly require a significant period change.observations. 142.25 – The Case for a Low Mass Black Hole in the LMXB V1408 Aquilae (= 4U142.2 – Time Series Photometry of Two Southern Hemisphere AM CVn Stars 1957+115)B. Laderman, NYU, New York, NY; T. Abbott, CTIO, La Serena, S. Gomez, P.A. Mason, University of Texas-El Paso, El Paso, TX;Coquimbo, CHILE E.L. Robinson, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX09:00 AM-06:30 PM 09:00 AM-06:30 PMThe AM CVn stars CP Eri and V406 Hya were observed from the CTIO 0.9m The optical light curve of the persistent low-mass X-ray binary V1408 Aquilae (= 4Utelescope when both were in a period of quiescence. The data were reduced, and light 1957+115) has a sinusoidal modulation at the systems 9.33 h orbital period. We obtainedcurves generated by comparing the interacting binary white dwarfs to other non-variable new broadband high-speed optical photometry of V1408 Aql on five successive nights instars in the field. Periodograms were then generated from the light curves using both 2012 July and another four nights in 2012 August. Its brightness varied from night toleast-squares and phase dispersion minimization techniques. A signal corresponding to a night by almost a factor of two in both months, obscuring the orbital modulation. Afterpossible 32 minute periodicity was identified in CP Eri, but not the previously known 29 these long-term variations were removed, the July photometry showed the orbitalminute periodicity. No clear periodicity was observed in V406 Hya. sinusoidal modulation clearly. We used the July data to refine the orbital period. We have previously shown that the orbital modulation is caused by the varying aspect of the142.21 – High Speed Optical Photometry of V1055 Orionis (=4U 0614+091) heated face of the secondary star. This model requires a mass ratio not far from unity, suggesting that the compact object in the system is a neutron star. However, the X-rayI. Lopez, P.A. Mason, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX; spectrum of V1408 Aql suggests that its compact object is a black hole. The optical andE.L. Robinson, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX X-ray data can be reconciled if the compact star is a black hole with a low mass,09:00 AM-06:30 PM possibly less than 4 solar masses.V1055 Orionis (=4U 0614+091) is thought to be an ultra-compact binary containing aneutron star primary with a white dwarf companion. High-speed (10s) broad-band 142.26 – A New Black Hole X-ray Transient Candidate in M51optical observations using the McDonald Observatory, 2.1m, Otto Struve Telescope R.E. Kilgard, Wesleyan Univ., Middletown, CT; K.D. Kuntz, Johnswere obtained on 13 nights in 2010, 2011, and 2012. The nightly mean brightness Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; K.S. Long, Space Telescoperemained quite stable over the dataset. The light curve is dominated by complexoscillatory behavior reminiscent of the beating of hidden frequencies. A variety of Science Institute, Baltimore, MD; T.D. Desjardins, University ofphotometric periods have been previously reported and none are found to be coherent Western Ontario, London, Ontario, CANADA
  • 44. 09:00 AM-06:30 PM the white dwarf does not reach the critical mass) are expected in the Milky Way. We are conducting a comprehensive search through archived data to identify unusual brightEven with more than 13 years of high spatial resolution observations of external sources that may correspond to white dwarfs accreting at high rates. A significantgalaxies, black hole X-ray transients have been rarely identified in galaxies beyond the fraction of the progenitors may appear as x-ray sources that are either supersoft orlocal group. Using a new set of Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of the nearby quasisoft some of the time. We have therefore searched the ROSAT, Chandra, andinteracting galaxy M51, we report on the discovery of a new black hole X-ray transient XMM databases to identify all such soft sources in the Milky Way that are detectablecandidate. The source reaches a maximum luminosity of just over 1e39 erg/s with a from Earth. We report on our results and their implications.featureless multicolor disk blackbody spectrum with temperature 1.2 keV, consistentwith Galactic black hole X-ray binaries in the disk-dominant state. Using archival Hubble 142.3 – Probing the Mysteries of the X-Ray Binary 4U 1210-64 with ASM, MAXI andSpace Telescope observations, we determine that the source does not have a high-mass Suzakucompanion star, and there is no significant nearby H-alpha emission. As such, it isprobably not associated with the star formation triggered by the interaction. While the J.B. Coley, R. Corbet, K. Mukai, K. Pottschmidt, UMBC,X-ray luminosity makes this source a borderline ultraluminous X-ray source, the spectral Baltimore, MD; J.B. Coley, R. Corbet, K. Mukai, K. Pottschmidt,properties demonstrate that the source is likely a stellar-mass black hole LMXB similar NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MDto those in the Milky Way. 09:00 AM-06:30 PM142.27 – Chandra X-Ray Observations of Low Mass X-Ray Binary Candidates in S0 Optical and X-ray observations of 4U 1210-64 (1ES 1210-646) suggest that the sourceGalaxies is a High Mass X-ray Binary (HMXB) probably powered by the Be mechanism. Data acquired by the RXTE All Sky Monitor (ASM), the ISS Monitor of All-sky X-ray ImageD. Hsu, C.L. Sarazin, G.R. Sivakoff, University of Virginia, (MAXI) and Suzaku provide a detailed temporal and spectral description of this poorlyCharlottesville, VA; G.R. Sivakoff, University of Alberta, Edmonton, understood source. Long-term data produced by ASM and MAXI indicate that theAlberta, CANADA; A. Jordan, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de source shows two distinct high and low states. A 6.7-day orbital period of the systemChile, Santiago, CHILE; J. Irwin, University of Alabama, was found in folded light curves produced by both ASM and MAXI. A two day SuzakuTuscaloosa, AL observation in Dec. 2010 took place during a transition from the minimum to the maximum of the folded light curve. The two day Suzaku observation reveals large09:00 AM-06:30 PM variations in flux indicative of strong orbit to orbit variability. Flares in the Suzaku lightChandra X-ray observations of nearby galaxies continue to resolve tens to hundreds of curve can reach nearly 1.4 times the mean count rate. From a spectral analysis of thelow-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) per galaxy. Ongoing studies have brought up issues Suzaku data, emission lines in the Fe K alpha region were detected at 6.4 keV, 6.7 keVwith the behavior of this population of stellar corpses, in particular the connection and 6.97 keV interpreted as FeI, FeXXV and FeXXVI. In addition, emission lines werebetween LMXBs and globular clusters (GCs) and the nature of the LMXB luminosity observed at approximately 1.0 and 2.6 keV, corresponding to NeX and SXVIfunction (LF). We present 195 LMXB candidates detected from Chandra images of of respectively. Thermal bremsstrahlung or power law models both modified by interstellarthree S0 galaxies, NGC1380, NGC2768, and NGC4477. 16 sources in NGC1380 were and partially covering absorption provide a good fit to the continuum data. This source ismatched with globular clusters identified from the ACS Fornax Cluster Survey done by intriguing for these reasons: i) No pulse period was observed; ii) 6.7 day orbital period isHubble. We show that the results of spectral fitting and hardness ratio analysis indicate much less than typical orbital periods seen in Be/X-ray Binaries; iii) The opticalthe population of LMXBs are consistent with Galactic absorption and a power-law companion is a B5V--an unusual spectral class for an HMXB; iv) There are extendedX-ray spectrum. We discuss the asymmetric distribution of sources in NGC4477 and the high and low X-ray states.new observation of NGC 1380-ULX1. We compare the population of LMXBs in thesample S0 galaxies to other populations in elliptical galaxies. 142.31 – Finding an Emission Line Signature in the H-alpha/H-beta Plane for High Mass X-ray Binaries142.28 – A Multivariate Approach Towards Understanding Cygnus X-1 E.G. Hintz, M.D. Joner, Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UTS. Buchan, University of Southampton, Southampton, Hampshire, 09:00 AM-06:30 PMUNITED KINGDOM; C. Peris, Northeastern University, Boston, Using a new spectrophotometrically developed system we have examined the relativeMA; S. Buchan, C. Peris, S.D. Vrtilek, SAO, Cambridge, MA strengths of the H-alpha and H-beta lines in a sample of 18 High Mass X-ray Binaries09:00 AM-06:30 PM (HMXB) and 1 Low Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB). This sample defines a very distinct path in the H-alpha/H-beta plot. This signature can be used to identify potential opticalThe diverse behaviors displayed by X-ray binaries make it difficult to determine the counterparts to x-ray sources that might be HMXB systems. We will present our resultsnature of the underlying compact objects. In particular, identification of systems for this initial sample based on spectral observations taken at the Dominioncontaining black holes is currently considered robust only if a dynamical mass is Astrophysical Observatory 1.2-m Telescope. In addition, we will present long termobtained. We have recently developed a model-independent means of identifying the monitoring of a number of systems. Finally, we will present a sample of photometriccentral bodies – neutron star or black hole – of accreting binary systems. We find that observations from the BYU West Mountain 0.9-m. The photometric observations weredifferent categories of object (black holes, pulsars, and non-pulsing neutron stars) used to confirm the identification of known HMXB systems. This work is partiallyoccupy distinct regions in a 3-dimensional color-color-intensity (CCI) diagram. Here we supported by NSF Grant AST-0618209.present a detailed analysis of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1. By taking advantage ofthe higher temporal resolution of the PCA instrument on RXTE we have probed muchdeeper into the structures that form in the CCI phase space. By doing this in depth 142.32 – Looking for Emission Line Objects with X-ray Signatures in the Fields of NGCanalysis, we have started to make sense of the underlying properties of Cygnus X-1 884 and NGC 869which drive its complex behavior. A. Hernandez, E.G. Hintz, M.D. Joner, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT142.29 – The Type Ia Supernovae Progenitor Problem: Searching for Progenitors in the 09:00 AM-06:30 PMMilky Way Using a plot of H-beta vs. H-alpha a system has been developed to find emission lineA. Birchall, University of Southampton, Southampton, Hampshire, objects with photometric observations. In particular the system was designed to findUNITED KINGDOM; A. Birchall, R. Di Stefano, F. Primini, High Mass X-ray Binary (HMXB) systems. We have used the BYU West MountainHarvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA; R. 0.9-m Telescope to obtain H-beta wide and narrow observations and H-alpha wide andScalzo, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian narrow observations of NGC 884 and NGC 869. We used DAOPhot to obtain photometry in each of the four filters. We then plotted the H-beta index vs. the H-alphaCapital Territory, AUSTRALIA index to find a sample of targets with emission line signatures similar to those seen in09:00 AM-06:30 PM HMXB systems. This list was then cross-reference with x-ray sources out of theOne of the most active areas of current astrophysical research is the search for the Simbad database. We will present the results of this analysis. This work is partiallyprogenitors of Type Ia supernovae. Understanding the nature(s) of the progenitors is supported by NSF Grant AST-0618209.crucial if we are to use these supernovae to conduct high-precision measurements of thehistory of cosmic expansion, because in order to confirm them as standardizable candles 142.33 – Swift Multiwavelength Monitoring of the Black-Hole Binary LMC X-3we need to understand the mechanism by which they are produced. Type Ia supernovae T. Torpin, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC; T.occur when carbon/oxygen white dwarfs explode, having gained mass either byaccretion from a companion or by merging with another white dwarf. The white dwarfs Torpin, P.T. Boyd, A.P. Smale, Goddard Space Flight Center,in all Type Ia progenitors must go through a stage of high-rate accretion and possibly of Greenbelt, MDnuclear burning. They should then be detectable as bright objects, with luminosities as 09:00 AM-06:30 PMhigh as a few times 1038 erg s-1. Furthermore, whatever the correct model(s), more LMC X-3 is a bright (up to ~3 x 1038 erg s-1) high-mass X-ray binary with a 1.7 daythan 1000 bright progenitors (and other systems that may be equally bright but in which
  • 45. orbital period (Cowley et al. 1983). The compact object is a black hole with a minimum LS I +61 303 is a high mass X-ray and γ-ray binary system comprised of a Be star andmass of at least ~6 MSun. Its optical counterpart is believed to be a ~B5 Roche-lobe a compact companion, which is most likely a neutron star, that emit in the radio, optical,filling subgiant (Soria et al. 2001). The system displays some unusual properties, X-ray and γ-ray regimes. The system has periodic emission over the 26.496 day orbit asincluding high-amplitude long-term variability in the X-ray and UV light curves, much well as a 1667 day super-orbital period. Here we present recent optical spectralonger than the orbital period, on the order of 100-300 days. LMC X-3 is typically collected at the KPNO Coudé Feed Telescope during December 2011-January 2012.observed in the high/soft state, however recently, LMC X-3 has also been observed by We present new equivalent width measurements of Hα and report a burst of emissionRXTE to undergo anomalous low states (ALSs), where the X-ray flux drops near orbital phase 0.4. We also present new radial velocity measurements for the Bedramatically (below about ~5 x 1035 erg s-1) and the spectrum can be described by a star which are consistent with previous results. Finally, we also investigate the super-simple power law. The cause of this long-term variability and the ALSs is not clear orbital modulation to better understand the interactions between the Be star and the(Smale & Boyd 2012). Simultaneous X-ray, Optical, and UV observations at a variety of compact companion. We are grateful for support provided by NSF awardsX-ray fluxes may allow us to disentangle the various sources of UV radiation, by PHY-0849416, AST-1109247 and for the support of Lehigh University.measuring time delays and tracking changes in the broadband spectrum. NASA’s Swiftsatellite has the unique ability to observe the system in the Optical, UV, and X-ray 142.37 – Gamma-Ray Emission from LS I +61 303simultaneously. Swift observed LMC X-3 in a series of closely spaced observations in L. Schaefer, M.V. McSwain, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; L.2007, followed by monthly monitoring from 2011 Nov through 2012 Sep. This data set Schaefer, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, PAincludes good coverage of an ALS. We present evidence that the X-ray variability lagsthe Optical/UV by ~8 days, consistent with previous studies (Brocksopp et al. 2001). 09:00 AM-06:30 PMThrough continued Swift multiwavelength observations it should eventually be possible to LS I +61 303 is a high-mass γ-ray binary with known orbital and super-orbital variabilitydetermine whether Roche-lobe overflow or wind accretion is the mechanism driving the in the radio, optical, X-ray, and γ-ray wavelengths. The compact companion is probablylong-term variability. a neutron star but remains unconfirmed. Here, we use data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to examine LS I +61 303’s γ-ray emission over both its orbital and its142.34 – RXTE, MAXI and Swift Observations of a New Anomalous Low State in super-orbital period. We find that the emission peaks at orbital phases of 0.3 and 0.5,LMC X-3 and that the energy spectrum follows a log parabola model. We also find that there isP.T. Boyd, A. Smale, NASAs GSFC, Greenbelt, MD; T. Torpin, γ-ray variability in the 1667-day super-orbit, but further investigation will be required to determine the exact parameters of this variability. We interpret these results as possibleCatholic University of America, Washington, DC evidence for a mass stream flowing from the optical star’s circumstellar disk and09:00 AM-06:30 PM colliding with a pulsar’s wind, emitting across the electromagnetic spectrum. We areWe report the discovery of a new Anomalous Low State (ALS) of the black-hole X-ray grateful for support provided through NSF grants AST-1109247 and PHY-0849416.binary LMC X-3. LMC X-3 typically varies smoothly and continuously between thehigh/soft state (with an ultra-soft spectrum plus a hard X-ray tail) and the low/hard state 142.38 – Superorbital Modulation and Orbital Parameters of the Eclipsing High-Mass(with a simpler power law spectrum, and high-frequency (0.1-100 Hz) broadband X-ray Pulsar IGR J16493-4348variability) on timescales hundreds of times the 1.7-day orbital period. Recently we A.B. Pearlman, R. Corbet, K. Pottschmidt, NASA Goddard Spacediscovered two extended low/hard states in LMC X-3 from RXTE data (Smale & Boyd Flight Center, CRESST, UMBC, Baltimore, MD; A.B. Pearlman,2012), similar to those observed in the canonical precessing accretion disk source HerX-1. During ALSs, the source is ~15 times fainter than normal low/hard states Caltech, Pasadena, CA(corresponding to about 1.3x10-4LEdd), and remains low 5-10 times longer than a 09:00 AM-06:30 PMtypical low/hard state. On ~2011Dec02, RXTE observed LMC X-3 to enter a new Previous infrared studies of the X-ray pulsar IGR J16493-4348 classified the system asALS. The source stayed flat/off through the end of the RXTE mission. We combine a supergiant high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB). A ~6.78 d orbital period was discovereddata from the MAXI X-ray All-sky monitor with the RXTE data, yielding continuous from Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE)coverage of the new ALS. Swift also regularly observed LMC X-3 from 2011Nov, Proportional Counter Array (PCA) Galactic Bulge scan observations. A coherent signalincluding excellent coverage during the new ALS. The system again drops to historically at ~20.07 d was also found using the PCA and BAT instruments, suggestive of superorbital behavior within the system. Using well-sampled PCA archival pointed datalow levels, stays consistently below ~5x1035 erg/s, often undetectable, for ~90 days (2.5-25 keV) spanning 9.5 d, we find strong evidence for a pulse period at ~1093 s frombefore quickly brightening. This is accompanied by a large decrease in the UV flux, pulse arrival time analysis and the power spectrum of the light curve after removal offollowed by a rapid brightening. The UV dimming is a function of wavelength: the low frequency noise. We present an eclipse model for the folded PCA scan and BATUVW2 flux (~1894Å) drops to 35% of its typical value, while the U flux (~ 3275Å) 66-month snapshot light curves, which constrains the systems behavior during orbitaldrops to 60%. The UV brightening leads the X-ray increase by at least 8 days, transitions. Pulse arrival times are derived using the PCA pointed light curve, andconsistent with previous optical long-term monitoring (Brocksopp et al., 2001). We circular and eccentric orbital solutions are provided. A 14.0 ± 2.3 M⊙ mass function issuggest that the system is in a true “off” state during ALSs, akin to quiescence, implying determined, which further confirms the designation of IGR J16493-4348 as a supergiantthat LMC X-3 is perhaps not truly a persistent X-ray source, but a transient whose HMXB.recurrence time is short. 142.39 – Connecting Extragalactic X-ray Point Source Populations to the Star Formation142.35 – X-ray Parameters of WR 140 from the RXTE Monitoring Campaign Histories of Nearby GalaxiesJ.R. Lomax, J.L. Hoffman, University of Denver, Denver, CO; M.F. B.A. Binder, B.F. Williams, S.F. Anderson, J. Dalcanton, D.R.Corcoran, USRA, Columbia, MD; A. Pollock, ESA XMM-Newton Weisz, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; M. Eracleous, TheScience Operations Centre, Madrid, SPAIN; A. Moffat, University of Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; T.J. Gaetz, P.P.Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, CANADA; S.P. Owocki, C.M. Russell, Plucinsky, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics,University of Delaware, Newark, DE; J. Pittard, University of Cambridge, MA; A. Kong, National Tsing Hua University,Leeds, Leeds, UNITED KINGDOM; P.M. Williams, University of Hsinchu, TAIWAN; A. Seth, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT;Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UNITED KINGDOM E.D. Skillman, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN09:00 AM-06:30 PM 09:00 AM-06:30 PMWR 140 is a colliding wind binary star system with an 8-year period and large The Chandra Local Volume Survey is a deep, volume-limited X-ray survey of fiveeccentricity (0.9) that offers a unique testing ground for the physics of shocks, in large nearby galaxies (NGC 55, NGC 300, NGC 404, NGC 2403, and NGC 4214) withpart due to the strongly variable separation between the two stars. The system is a matched Hubble observations down to M_V~0, spanning a range stellar masses,made up of a very broad-line, carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet star and a luminous, hot O-type metallicities, morphologies, and star formation histories. The X-ray emission detected instar, both of which have terminal velocities of approximately 3000 km/s. Besides coming normal, non-active spiral galaxies such as these is dominated by X-ray binaries (XRBs).from each of the winds, strong X-rays are generated in the shock where the two winds While studies of XRBs in the Milky Way often suffer from significant distancecollide and provide a direct measure of wind parameters within the system. We present uncertainties and considerable extinction along Galactic lines of sight, these difficultiesdata regularly taken over 11 years with the RXTE satellite. We discuss our spectral are minimized when studying X-ray sources in nearby galaxies: extinction effects arefitting and light curve analysis of these data with emphasis on their implications for the less problematic when observing galaxies away from the Galactic disk, and distanceproperties of the winds in WR 140. uncertainties are reduced since all X-ray sources are essentially equidistant from the observer. We present preliminary results correlating the X-ray source population142.36 – Probing the Physics of LS I +61 303 with Optical Spectroscopy properties of these five galaxies – such as the X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) andS. Napier, M.V. McSwain, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA radial X-ray source distributions down to ~10^36 erg/s – with the morphologies and09:00 AM-06:30 PM recent star formation histories of the host galaxies.
  • 46. 142.4 – Properties of the Discrete X-ray Source Population of the M82 Starburst Greenbelt, MD; C.C. Cheung, P.S. Ray, NRL, Washington, DC; M.Region Kerr, Stanford University, Stanford, CAR.E. Kilgard, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT; V. Parkash, 09:00 AM-06:30 PMUnion College, Schenectady, NY We are conducting a search for new gamma-ray binaries by making high signal-to-noise09:00 AM-06:30 PM light curves of all cataloged Fermi sources and searching for periodic variability using appropriately weighted power spectra. The light curves are creating using a variant ofIn particular, the slope and normalization of the X-ray luminosity function are constant aperture photometry where photons are weighted by the probability that they came fromacross all observations and are consistent with values obtained for the previous ten the source of interest. From this analysis we find that the light curves of a number ofyears. Spectral and temporal analysis of the diffuse emission shows no significant sources near the ecliptic plane are contaminated by emission from the Moon. Thiscontribution from unresolved point sources, indicating that we have fully resolved the shows itself as modulation on the Moons sidereal period in the power spectra. Weluminous discrete sources, and paving the way for future diffuse emission analysis in the demonstrate that this contamination can be removed by removing times when the Moonnuclear region. was too close to a source. We advocate that this data screening should generally be used when analyzing LAT data from a source located close to the path of the Moon.142.41 – Variable ASAS Counterparts to Galactic Bulge Survey X-ray SourcesM. Gabb, Department of Physics, Florida Atlantic University, Boca 142.44 – Gamma-Ray Emission from Galactic Radio TransientsRaton, FL; R.I. Hynes, C. Britt, C.C. Johnson, Department of C.R. Shrader, NASAs GSFC, Greenbelt, MD; D.J. Macomb, BosiePhysics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, State University, Boise, IDLA; P. Jonker, M. Torres, SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space 09:00 AM-06:30 PMResearch, Utrecht, NETHERLANDS; P. Jonker, G. Nelemans, We describe a recent effort using data obtained with the Fermi Gamma-Ray SpaceDepartment of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Telescope and the Swift and INTEGRAL coded-aperture telescopes to search forNijmegen, Nijmegen, NETHERLANDS; M. Torres, Harvard- gamma-ray and hard-X-ray and emission from galactic radio variables. Radio emissionSmithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA; T. was established as a ubiquitous property of gamma ray sources prior to the launch of Fermi and the composition of the two year source catalog of that mission, comprisingMaccarone, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of some 1900 individual sources, further supports this idea. More than 25% of these sourceSouthampton, Southampton, UNITED KINGDOM; D. Steeghs, S. are at |b|<10 degrees and more than half of that subset cannot be identified with longer-Greiss, Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, wavelength counterparts. Known classes of galactic variable radio sources includeCoventry, UNITED KINGDOM high-mass X-ray binaries such as Cyg X-3 and LSI +61 303 which are already09:00 AM-06:30 PM established gamma-ray emitters. Those objects are often transient in nature, are variable radio sources, and are often revealed through hard-X-ray survey observation. AdditionalThe Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) is a shallow Chandra X-ray survey of two 6x1 degree objects among this class may be revealed and establishing them as gamma-ray emittersstrips located 1 degree above and below the Galactic Plane. After removing duplicates, would be of great interest. Other possible source classes include radio-loud magnetars,the final GBS catalogue has 1640 unique X-ray sources. The goal of the survey is to test RRATs (Rotating Radio Transients) and flare stars. Most interestingly, totallybinary evolution models and increase the number of known Low Mass X-ray Binaries, in unexpected phenomena could also be revealed. We will describe our sample selection,order to investigate questions such as the distribution of black hole mass and constrain data extraction and analysis methods and present results obtained to date, including fourthe equation of state of neutron stars. We aim to identify all variable optical counterparts promising candidate detections.to the X-ray sources and analyze their periods. This lightcurve information, along withother multi-wavelength observations, enables the classifications of these GBS sources. 142.45 – Photometric and Spectroscopic Analysis for the Determination of PhysicalMany of the GBS X-ray sources coincide with stars in the All Sky Automated Survey Parameters of an Eclipsing Binary Star System(ASAS). We report here on variable counterparts to GBS sources identified within theASAS dataset, examine their characteristics, and discuss their likely classification. This P. Reid, Dripping Springs High School, Dripping Springs, TXwork is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-0908789. 09:00 AM-06:30 PMMonique Gabb also acknowledges support from the REU Site in Physics and Astronomy A binary star system is a pair of stars that are bound together by gravity. Most of the(NSF Grant No. 1004822) at Louisiana State University. stars that we see in the night sky are members of multiple star systems. A system of stars where one star passes in front of the other (as observed from Earth) on a periodic142.42 – Low-Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations and Iron Line Variability of basis is called an eclipsing binary. Eclipsing binaries can have very short rotationalDiscoseismic Corrugation Modes periods and in all cases these pairs of stars are so far away that they can only beI. Butsky, D. Tsang, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, resolved from Earth as a single point of light. The interaction of the two stars serves toCA; D. Tsang, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, CANADA produce physical phenomena that can be observed and used to study stellar properties. By careful data collection and analysis is it possible for an amateur astronomer using09:00 AM-06:30 PM commercial, low cost equipment (including a home built spectroscope) to gatherUsing a fast semi-analytic raytracing code, we study the variability of iron lines due to photometric (brightness versus time) and spectroscopic (brightness versus wavelength)discoseismic oscillations concentrated in the inner-most regions of accretion discs data, analyze the data, and calculate the physical properties of a binary star system?around black holes. The dependence of the relativistically broadened line profile on the Using a CCD camera, tracking mount and telescope photometric data of BB Pegasioscillation-phase is studied for discoseismic corrugation modes. The corrugation mode, was collected and a light curve produced. 57 Cygni was also studied using aor c-mode, is of particular interest as their natural frequency corresponds well to the spectroscope, tracking mount and telescope to prove that Doppler shift of Hydrogen0.1-10 Hz range observed for low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (LFQPOs) in Balmer absorption lines can be used to determine radial velocity. The orbital period,X-ray binaries. Comparison of the oscillation phase dependent variability and orbital velocity, radius of each star, separation of the two stars and mass of each starQPO-phase stacked Fe-Kalpha line observations will allow such discoseismic models to was calculated for the eclipsing binary BB Pegasi using photometric and spectroscopicbe confirmed or ruled out as a source of LFQPOs. data and Kepler’s 3rd Law. These data were then compared to published data. By careful use of consumer grade astronomical equipment it is possible for an amateur142.43 – Looking for Stars and Finding the Moon: Effects of Lunar Gamma-ray astronomer to determine an array of physical parameters of a distant binary star systemEmission on Fermi LAT Light Curves from a suburban setting.R. Corbet, UMBC, Baltimore, MD; R. Corbet, NASA/GSFC,143 – Black HolesPoster Session – Exhibit Hall A (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 09:00 AM to 06:30 PM Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), have been interpreted in terms of unmotivated geometric143.01 – A Geometric Crescent Model for Black Hole Images models (e.g., a symmetric Gaussian) or detailed calculations involving accretion onto aA. Bin Kamruddin, J. Dexter, University of California, Berkeley, black hole. The latter are subject to large systematic uncertainties. Motivated byBerkeley, CA relativistic effects around black holes, we propose a geometric crescent model for black hole images. We show that this simple model provides an excellent statistical description09:00 AM-06:30 PM of the existing EHT data of Sgr A*, superior to the Gaussian. It also closely matchesThe Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a global very long baseline interferometry array physically predicted models, bridging accretion theory and observation. Based on ouroperating at millimeter wavelengths, is spatially resolving the immediate environment of results, we make predictions for future observations for the accessibility of the blackblack holes for the first time. The current observations of the Galactic center black hole, hole shadow, direct evidence for a black hole event horizon.
  • 47. 143.02 – Searching for Primordial Black Holes & an Extra Spatial Dimension 09:00 AM-06:30 PMA. Larracuente, M. Kavic, Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY; S. We report results from 1.3 mm VLBI observations of AGN jets with the Event HorizonCutchin, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington , DC; J.H. Telescope focusing on the southern blazar 1921-293. We show the first 1.3 mm VLBI model image of 1921-293 using closure phase techniques obtained with four telescopesSimonetti, S. Ellingson, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA at three observatories: the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea in09:00 AM-06:30 PM Hawaii, the Arizona Radio Observatorys Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) in Arizona,Exploding primordial black holes (PBHs) are expected to produce a single pulse of and two telescopes of the Combined Array for Research in Millimeterwave Astronomyelectromagnetic radiation detectable at the low-frequency end of the radio spectrum. A (CARMA) in California in April 2009. With the greatly improved resolution compareddetection of a radio transient from an exploding PBH could be a signature of an extra with previous observations and robust closure phase measurement, the inner jetspatial dimension, which would drastically alter our perception of spacetime. We present structure of 1921-293 was spatially resolved. The inner jet extends to the northwesthere the results of a search for single-dispersed low-frequency radio pulses utilizing the along a position angle of -53° degree at a distance of 0.38 mas from the tentativelyEight-meter-wavelength Transient Array (ETA). No compelling astrophysical signal was identified core, in agreement with the inner jet structure inferred from lower frequencies,detected, and from ≈5 hours of interference-free data the implied observational upper and making a position angle difference of ~80° with respect to the cm-jet. The size oflimit on the rate of exploding PBHs is r≈ 4.8×107 pc-3 y-1 for a PBH with a fireball the compact core is 0.15 pc with a brightness temperature of 1.2 ×1011 K. Compared with those measured at lower frequencies, the low brightness temperature may argue inLorentz-factor γ = 104.3. This limit is applicable to PBHs in the halo of the Galaxy to favor of the decelerating jet model or particle-cascade models. Some results for anotherdistances ≤ 2 kpc, and dispersion measures ≤80 pc cm-3. blazar 3C 279 will also be presented.143.03 – Numerical Simulation of Low Viscous Flow in an Accretion Disk around a 143.06 – Axisymmetric Dynamos in Differentially Rotating SpacetimesBlack Hole J. Nims, B. Brown, R.D. Townsend, Univeristy of Wisconsin-S. Lee, S. Hyung, Earth Science, Chungbuk National University, Madison, Madison, WICheongju, Chungbuk, KOREA, REPUBLIC OF; I. 09:00 AM-06:30 PMChattopadhyay, ARIES, Uttarakhand, INDIA Accretion onto black holes is widely believed to drive jets and outflows when magnetic09:00 AM-06:30 PM fields are present, as well as to be affected by magnetic fields through mechanisms suchWe simulated an accretion flow around a black hole which generated a shock. We as the magnetorotational instability. Unfortunately the source of magnetic fields indevised a disk with a viscosity term which experiences a shock based on the analytical accretion disks is still not well understood. Shear amplification of magnetic fields fromapproach in a two dimensional cylindrical geometry. The simulation was done with the tidally disrupted stars far from the black holes is probably insufficient to drive jets, but inLagrangian Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) and remap routine, which was employed or near the ergosphere amplification may become significant. Amplification of magneticto attain a high accuracy of numerical shock and to handle the angular momentum fields in plasmas is termed dynamo action. In a flat spacetime axisymmetric dynamoproperly. With the high degree of specific angular momentum conservation, we showed action cannot occur. This well known result is commonly referred to as Cowlingsthat a stable shock in inviscid flow accommodated the analytical solution of two anti-dynamo theorem. However, in the Kerr spacetime around a rotating black holedimensional geometry, set up on an equatorial plane. We then calculated the case of violations of this theorem may be possible and the differential rotation of spacetime itselfviscosity, which produced a dynamically unstable flow structure, generating periodic may be able to drive a dynamo. We examine the kinematic dynamo problem for aoscillations. We found that the oscillation period is related to the low frequency of QPO. general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) dynamo near a rotating black holeThe period calculated in the simulation was different from that of the one-dimensional using a 3+1 foliation of spacetime. We seek physically acceptable growing modes andcase. The difference appears to be caused by the angular momentum transfer occurring discuss effects deriving from the generalized GRMHD Ohms law.in the vertical direction. After comparing the above two cases, we found that the QPOis not only related to the shock activity in the accretion disk but also the flow 143.07 – Prospects for Measuring Supermassive Black Hole Masses with Futurecharacteristic in the jet stream. We present the dynamic investigation of this coupling. Extremely Large Telescopes T. Do, S.A. Wright, Dunlap Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto,143.04 – Polarimetric VLBI with the Event Horizon Telescope Ontario, CANADA; T. Do, E.J. Barton, A.J. Barth, UC, Irvine,V.L. Fish, S. Doeleman, R. Lu, MIT Haystack Observatory, Irvine, CA; J.E. Larkin, UC, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; A.Westford, MA; D.P. Marrone, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Moore, Caltech, Pasadena, CA; L. Simard, Herzberg Institute ofJ.F. Wardle, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA Astrophysics, Victoria, British Columbia, CANADA09:00 AM-06:30 PM 09:00 AM-06:30 PMThe Event Horizon Telescope is a collaboration to observe the innermost accretion and The next generation of giant-segmented mirror telescopes (> 20 m) will enable us tooutflow regions around supermassive black holes with an array of millimeter-wavelength observe galactic nuclei at much higher angular resolution and sensitivity than evertelescopes. EHT observations have detected emission on scales of tens of before. These capabilities will introduce a revolutionary shift in our understanding of themicroarcseconds around the black holes in the center of the Milky Way and M87. origin and evolution of supermassive black holes by enabling more precise black holeNon-polarimetric measurements have successfully been used to identify and model the mass measurements in a mass range that is unreachable today. We present simulationsSchwarzschild-radius-scale emission around these sources as well as to identify and predictions of the observations of nuclei that will be made with the Thirty Meterpreviously unresolvable structures in more distant AGNs and blazars, but new Telescope (TMT) and the adaptive optics assisted integral-field spectrograph IRIS.polarimetric data can provide additional information on the magnetic field strength and These simulations, for the first time, use realistic values for the sky, telescope, adaptivegeometry in the jet launch and collimation region. Recent full-polarization VLBI optics system, and instrument, to determine the expected signal-to-noise of a range ofobservations with the EHT have detected polarized 1.3 mm emission arising on possible targets spanning intermediate mass black holes of ~10^4 M⊙ to the mostextremely small angular scales in a variety of extragalactic sources. We report on the massive black holes known today of >10^10 M⊙. We find that future integral-fieldresults of these detections and detail the prospects for precision polarimetry thanks to spectrographs will be able to observe Milky Way-mass black holes out the distance ofthe substantial EHT sensitivity improvements that will be realized over the next few the Virgo cluster, and will allow us to observe many more brightest-cluster galaxiesyears. where the most massive black holes are thought to reside. We also evaluate how well the kinematic moments of the velocity distributions can be constrained at different143.05 – Fine Scale Structure of AGN Jets with 1.3 mm VLBI spectral resolutions and plate scales. We find that a spectral resolution of ~8000 will beR. Lu, V.L. Fish, S. Doeleman, MIT Haystack observatory, necessary to measure the masses of IMBHs. We find by using the SDSS DR7 catalogWestford, MA; J. Weintroub, J.M. Moran, R. Primiani, K. Young, of galaxies that over 4000 massive black holes will be observable at distances between 0.005 < z < 0.3 with the estimated sensitivity and angular resolution of TMT. TheseHarvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA; observations will provide the most accurate dynamical mass measurements of blackG.C. Bower, R.L. Plambeck, M. Wright, University of California, holes to enable the study of their demography, address the origin of the M_bh-σ andBerkeley, Berkeley, CA; R. Freund, D.P. Marrone, L.M. Ziurys, M_bh - L relationships, and the origins and evolution of black holes through cosmic time.University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; P. Friberg, R. Tilanus, JamesClerk Maxwell Telescope, Hilo, HI; P.T. Ho, M. Inoue, ASIAA, 143.08 – Evolution of Spiral Arm Pitch Angle and the Masses of Supermassive Black HolesTaipei, TAIWAN; M. Honma, T. Oyama, NAOJ, Tokyo, JAPAN;S.G. Jorstad, A.P. Marscher, Boston University, Boston, MA; T. D. Shields, C.L. Henderson, B.L. Davis, J.C. Berrier, D. Kennefick,Krichbaum, A. Zensus, MPIfR, Bonn, GERMANY; Z. Shen, J.D. Kennefick, C.H. Lacy, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR;Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Shanghai, CHINA M. Seigar, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR; L. Johns, Reed College, Portland, OR; D. Shields, C.L. Henderson,
  • 48. B.L. Davis, J.C. Berrier, D. Kennefick, J.D. Kennefick, C.H. Lacy, Johannsen, A.E. Broderick, Perimeter Institute for TheoreticalM. Seigar, Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences, Physics, Waterloo, Ontario, CANADAFayetteville, AR 09:00 AM-06:30 PM09:00 AM-06:30 PM Strong gravitational lensing of light near black holes is one of the effects predicted byWe present the evolution of the mass function of supermassive black holes in spiral general relativity (GR). Emission close to a black hole will typically be lensed togalaxies since z=1. We first computed the spiral arm pitch angles in a statistically illuminate the last photon orbit, creating a feature known as the black hole shadow orcomplete local sample of spirals. We then computed the pitch angles in a random sample silhouette. The precise size and shape of the shadow is dependent on black hole mass,of the GOODS field. The two samples were adjusted for relative luminosity in order to spin, and the space-time metric. The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a (sub)mmexclude local spirals that may not be visible in the distant sample. We then used the VLBI network that can achieve Schwarzschild Radius scale resolution on SgrA*, the 4Davis et al. (2012) relation between mass and spiral arm pitch angle to estimate the million solar mass black hole at the Galactic Center. Here we present initial studies ofblack hole mass function in each sample. how recent and future EHT observations of SgrA* can be used to test the No-Hair theorem by searching for deviations from the expected shadow morphology. We have143.09 – Calculating a Galaxys Central Black Hole Mass Using the Sersic Index developed a pipeline for producing synthetic EHT data sets from black hole emission models using perturbed space-time metrics that violate the No-Hair theorem. EmployingM. Hartley, J.C. Berrier, B.L. Davis, D. Kennefick, J.D. Kennefick, imaging and modelfitting algorithms tailored for EHT data, we extract parameters of theC.H. Lacy, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR; M. Seigar, black hole shadow. Preliminary results indicate that the EHT can provide a new way toUniversity of Arkansas Little Rock, Little Rock, AR test GR in the strong gravity regime that is complementary to techniques in other fields.09:00 AM-06:30 PM 143.11 – On the Detectability of Dual Jets from Binary Black HolesHere we estimate the Sersic index of the bulge of many spiral galaxies in order toestimate the central black hole mass. Spiral galaxies are more difficult to model with the P. Moesta, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CAsersic profile than elliptical galaxies, since they have an exponential disk which needs to 09:00 AM-06:30 PMbe separated out via bulge-disk decomposition. So far, we have found that both the linear We revisit the suggestion that dual jets can be produced during the inspiral and mergerand quadratic Sersic relations (Graham Driver 2007) have more scatter than the mass of supermassive black holes when these are immersed in a force-free plasma threadedpitch angle relation (Seigar Kennefick et al. 2008) by a uniform magnetic field. By performing independent calculations of the late inspiral and merger, and by computing the electromagnetic (EM) emission in a way which is143.1 – Testing General Relativity with the Event Horizon Telescope consistent with estimates using the Poynting flux, we show that a dual-jet structure isL. Benkevitch, V.L. Fish, S. Doeleman, MIT Haystack observatory, present but energetically subdominant with respect to a non-collimated andWestford, MA; D. Psaltis, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; K. predominantly quadrupolar emission, which is similar to the one computed when the binary is in electrovacuum. While our findings set serious restrictions on the detectabilityAkiyama, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, JAPAN; J.D. Monnier, F. of dual jets from coalescing binaries, they also increase the chances of detecting an EMBaron, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; T. Johannsen, A.E. counterpart from these systems.Broderick, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, CANADA; T.144 – Circumstellar DisksPoster Session – Exhibit Hall A (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 09:00 AM to 06:30 PM by an inclined stellar magnetic dipole field. We test that these effects are144.01 – Exploring the Effects of Stellar Rotation and Wind Clearing: Debris Disks macroscopically observable in the inclination and alignment of the disk. We useAround F Stars HST/STIS coronagraphic imagery to measure the V magnitude of the star for both STISL.M. Rebull, J.R. Stauffer, SSC/Caltech/JPL, Pasadena, CA; T. corona graphic observations, compare these data with optical photometry in theMizusawa, NStED, Pasadena, CA; T. Mizusawa, Florida Institute literature and find that unlike other classical T Tauri stars observed on the same HST program, the disk is most robustly detected at optical minimum light. We measure theof Technology, Melbourne, FL; G. Bryden, JPL, Pasadena, CA; outer disk radius, major axis position angle, and disk inclination, and find that the innerM.R. Meyer, ETH, Zurich, SWITZERLAND; I. Song, University of disk, as reported in the literature, is both mis-inclined and misaligned with respect to theGeorgia, Athens, GEORGIA outer disk. AA Tau drives a faint jet which is also misaligned with respect to the09:00 AM-06:30 PM projection of the outer disk minor axis and which is poorly collimated near the star. The measured outer disk inclination, 71±1 degrees, is out of the inclination band suggestedWe have conducted a study of debris disks around F stars in order to explore for stars with UX Orionis-like variability where no grain growth has occurred in the disk.correlations between rotation, stellar winds, and circumstellar disks. We obtained new 24 The faintness of the disk, the small disk size, and visibility of the star and despite the highmicron photometry from Spitzers Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) inclination, all indicate that the disk must have experienced grain growth and settlingcamera for a sample of 188 relatively nearby F dwarfs with various rotation rates and toward the disk midplane, which we verify by comparing the observed disk with modeloptical colors, and combined it with archival MIPS data for 66 more F stars, as well as imagery from the literature.Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data for the entire sample, plus 9 more Fstars. Based on the objects K_s-[24] and [3.4]-[22] colors, we identify 22 stars in our 144.03 – Differential Proper-Motion Measurements of The Cygnus Egg Nebula; Thesample as having 22 and/or 24 micron excesses above our detection limit, 13 of which Presence of Fast Equatorial Outflowsare new discoveries. Our overall disk detection rate is 22/263, or 8%, consistent withprevious determinations of disk fractions in the Solar neighborhood. While fast rotating R. Tomasino, T. Ueta, University of Denver, Denver, CO; B.A.stars are expected to have strong winds capable of efficiently removing dust, we find no Ferguson, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MDcorrelation between rotational velocity and infrared excess. Similarly, we find no 09:00 AM-06:30 PMsignificant difference in excess detection rate between late-type F stars, which haveconvective surfaces, and early-type F stars, which have fully radiative envelopes. We present the results of differential proper-motion analyses of the dust shell structureHowever, the essentially unknown range of ages in this sample may be washing out any in the Egg Nebula (RAFGL 2688, V1610 Cyg), based on the archived two-epocheffects relating rotation, winds, and disks. imaging-polarimetric data in the optical taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. We measured the amount of motion of local structures and the signature concentric arcs in144.02 – Imaging the Disk and Jet of the Classical T Tauri Star AA Tau the nebula by determining their relative shifts over an interval of 7.25 yr. We discovered that the optical polarization characteristics of the Egg Nebula was influenced by theA. Cox, Villanova University, Saint Davids, PA; C. Grady, Eureka marginal optical thickness of the circumstellar shell and the illumination of the nebulaScientific & GSFC, Greenbelt, MD; H.B. Hammel, AURA, was done in two-step mechanism - most of the nebula is illuminated by theWashington, DC; J. Hornbeck, U. Louisville, Louisville, KY; R.W. secondary/dust-scattered starlight emanating from the bipolar lobes themselves due toRussell, Aerospace Corp. , Los Angeles, CA; M.L. Sitko, University the central concentration of dust grains of more than 10^3 AU diameter that regulates the seepage of the starlight from the central region. Nevertheless, based on two types ofof Cincinnati , Cincinnati, OH; B.E. Woodgate, NASAs GSFC , differential proper-motion analyses we revealed interesting dynamics of the lobes andGreenbelt, MD; H.B. Hammel, M.L. Sitko, Space Science Institute, concentric arcs, which should provide solid constraints on the subsequentBoulder, CO theoretical/numerical investigations.09:00 AM-06:30 PM 144.04 – Exploration of Infrared Variability of Young Disks in Taurus and ChamaeleonPrevious studies of the classical T Tauri star AA Tau have interpreted the UXOrionis-like photo-polarimetric variability as being due to a warp in the inner disk caused M.E. Landis, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ; M.E.
  • 49. Landis, C. Espaillat, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 09:00 AM-06:30 PMCambridge, MA High contrast and high angular resolution imagery obtained using the Subaru telescope09:00 AM-06:30 PM and HiCIAO in H-band polarimetric differential imaging mode has revealed an unexpected wealth of spiral structure in transitional disks associated with Herbig Ae-FeVariability at mid-infrared wavelengths is known to be a feature of Class II young stellar stars. We discuss spiral arm detection rates, how tightly the arms are wound, theobjects (YSOs). In this study, we characterize the variability of previously identified amplitudes of the arms in surface brightness, and the discovery of partial to completeClass II YSOs in the Taurus and Chamaeleon star forming regions, including new data shadowing of the disk exterior to the arms in some systems. If these arms arefrom the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) in addition to data gathered by interpreted as spiral density waves associated with massive perturbers in the disk, wethe Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), Infrared Spectrometer can directly estimate the masses of the perturbing bodies, and compare mass estimates(IRS), and Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS). We compiled data on 161 Class II with those derived from comparing luminosities to theoretical models at a given age.YSOs in Taurus and 70 Class II YSOs in Chamaeleon. We compared IRAC and MIPS Spiral density waves should also rotate: we place limits on arm rotation, and thus thedata to WISE data and detected variability in the YSOs in the two study regions. In location of perturbers in those of our disks with detections spanning 8-10 years. Wegeneral, we found a tendency towards disks with gaps and holes displaying different compare what we know of any perturbers in these systems with planetary to brownvariability than full disks. We link these differences in variability between full and dwarf mass wide companions to older, Main Sequence A stars. This study is supportedtransitional/pre-transitional disks to their distinct disk structures. This work is supported by NSF under NSF AST 1008440 (C.A.G.), 1009203 (J.C.), and 1009314 (J.P.W.), andin part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 0754568 NASA NNX09AC73G (C.A.G.) T. C. was supported by a NASA Postdoctoraland by the Smithsonian Institution. Fellowship. This study also makes use of archival data taken with the Hubble Space Telescope.144.05 – Herschel-resolved Two-belt Spitzer Debris Disks around Nearby A-type Stars:HD 70313, HD 71722, HD 159492, and F-type: HD 104860 144.08 – Characterization of a Large Sample of Be-type Emission-line Stars withF.Y. Morales, M.W. Werner, G. Bryden, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, SDSS-III/APOGEESylmar, CA; K.R. Stapelfeldt, Goddard Space Flight Center, D. Chojnowski, R. Beaton, A. Burton, S. Hasselquist, F.R. Hearty,Greenbelt, MD; K.Y. Su, G. Rieke, University of Arizona, Tucson, S.R. Majewski, R.W. OConnell, A. Perez, M.F. Skrutskie, D.G.AZ Whelan, J.C. Wilson, Unviersity of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA;09:00 AM-06:30 PM J.P. Wisniewski, Unviersity of Oklahoma, Norman, OK; D.L.We use Herschel dual−band PACS photometry for a unique set of stars that host Nidever, Unviersity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; S. Meszaros,on−going activity in the terrestrial planet zones and evidence of an outer/colder dust Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, San Cristóbal de La Laguna,component, to continue the exploration, begun with Spitzer Space Telescope, of theirdisk structure and composition. The solar− and A−type stars in this sample have SPAIN; M.D. Shetrone, Unviersity of Texas, Austin, TX; S.S.combined Spitzer IRS+MIPS (5 to 70 μm) and Herschel PACS (100 and 160 μm) SEDs Eikenberry, Unviersity of Florida, Gainesville, FL; G. Zasowski,suggesting a two−ring disk architecture that mirrors that of the asteroidal-Kuiper belt Ohio State University, Columbus, OH; P.M. Frinchaboy, Texasgeometry of our own solar system. For a subset of systems, Herschel provides the Christian University, Fort Worth, TX; K.M. Cunha, Nationalobservational sensitivity at PACS 100 μm required to successfully resolve them. Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tuscon, AZ; M. Schultheis,Spatially resolved systems breach the degeneracy between the grain properties and thedust’s radial location important for SED modeling. Also, because the warm belts in our Observatoire de Besançon, Besançon, FRANCE; J.A. Holtzman,sample across the B8 thru K0 stellar spectral range have a median dust temperature of New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM; R.P. Schiavon,190 K, slightly warmer than that expected at the snow line, we have reason to believe Gemini Observatory (North), Hilo, HIthat there is a common grain creation mechanism operating in the inner regions of the 09:00 AM-06:30 PMstar−disk systems, perhaps related to icy planetesimals in a cold outer region. Insummary, the PACS observations: 1) establish the characteristic dust temperature of the In just one year of operation, the SDSS-III/APOGEE survey has amassed the largestouter/cold dust belts and constrain the minimum mass and position for those spatially collection ever of high-resolution, H-band spectra for Be-type emission-line stars. Of theresolved; 2) advance our understanding of dust particle composition by constraining the 300 fibers used in each APOGEE observation, 35 are reserved for hot, telluric-long wavelength emission; 3) facilitate comparison of dust distributions across stellar absorption standard stars that are selected from the bluest stars (in J-Ks color) in eachspectral range; and 4) establish the overall architecture of the circumstellar dust, field and which are required to be evenly distributed across the plate to trace spatially-perhaps pointing to favorable regions where exoplanets may reside. variable telluric contamination. The 73 Be stars (245 individual spectra) targeted thus far were visually identified among the 6435 telluric standards as those showing any sign of144.06 – WISE Observations of IRAS-Observed Debris Disks emission in Br11, the strongest Brackett series line in APOGEEs spectral range. While 26/73 stars were previously tagged as emission-line stars in the literature, the rest areL. Vican, B.M. Zuckerman, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA; A. Schneider, new finds. The double-peaked hydrogen emission lines, viewed in unprecedented detailUniversity of Georgia, Athens, GA via APOGEE, are presumably formed in disks or shells surrounding rapidly-rotating,09:00 AM-06:30 PM early-type stars. A wide range of intensities, widths, and profile morphologies are included in the sample, allowing for a broad characterization of the Be phenomenon inRhee et al. 2007 compiled a list of 146 stars within 120 pc from Earth that were general. Repeated observations of most of the stars provide information on temporal lineobserved by IRAS to have an infrared excess indicative of a dusty circumstellar disk. profile variation and the Be star binary fraction. Here we use the Brackett emissionBy fitting a blackbody SED to the IR data points, Rhee et al. were able to determine a lines to derive radial velocities and line diagnostics (including FWHM, FWFM, V/R,value for the temperature of the dust, and fractional infrared luminosity (L_IR/L_bol). peak separation) to help classify the sources.Unfortunately, for about one third of the stars in the sample, there was only one datapoint to which a blackbody could be fit. In these cases, it is impossible to measure the 144.09 – An Emission-Line Star Conundrum Identified by SDSS-III/APOGEEtrue dust temperature and dust luminosity, since many different blackbody SEDs couldbe fit to a single point. Now that data from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer J.P. Wisniewski, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK; D.(WISE) have become available, we have been able to follow up observations by IRAS, Chojnowski, A. Burton, F.R. Hearty, S.R. Majewski, D.G. Whelan,ISO, and Spitzer in order to better characterize the dust around stars from the Rhee et University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA; K.M. Cunha, NOAO,al. sample. We are also able to use the smaller beam size of WISE to determine if theexcess is actually on the star in question, or if it is simply a result of confusion with a Tucson, AZ; S. Meszaros, IAC, La Laguna, Tenerife, SPAIN; D.L.nearby source. Nidever, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; R.P. Schiavon, Gemini Observatory, Hilo, HI; M.D. Shetrone, University of Texas,144.07 – The SEEDS of Planet Formation: Spiral Arms in the Disks of Herbig Ae-Fe Austin, TXStars 09:00 AM-06:30 PMC. Grady, Eureka Scientific, Laurel, MD; J.P. Wisniewski, A small fraction of the telluric standards observed as part of the SDSS-III APOGEEUniversity of Oklahoma, Norman, OK; C. Grady, M.W. McElwain, survey have been discovered to be B-type emission line stars, many of which are likelyT.M. Currie, NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD; to be classical Be stars. The H I Brackett line profiles of these systems are beingT.M. Currie, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA; J. characterized to study the properties of the circumstellar disks associated with these objects (see e.g. Chojnowski et al 2012). We present the analysis of a particularlyCarson, The College of Charleston, Charleston, SC; M. Fukagawa, unusual one of these blue emission line stars, which exhibits double-peaked H I BrackettOsaka University, Osaka, JAPAN; J. Hashimoto, M. Tamura, lines that extend to abnormally large velocities (FWHM ~1380 km/s) for typical classicalNational Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, JAPAN; T. Be stars. Analysis of follow-up 0.35 - 2.46 micron spectroscopy and the systemsMuto, Kogakuin University, Tokyo, JAPAN spectral energy distribution also reveals puzzling deviations from the behavior of typical
  • 50. classical Be stars. We discuss the range of possible evolutionary scenarios for this Disksemission-line star. D. Madera, J.A. Barranco, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA144.1 – On the Variability of Radio Emission from MWC 349 09:00 AM-06:30 PMP. Parihar, Princeton U., Princeton, NJ; P. Parihar, C. Bartlett, B. We use numerical simulations to investigate the coupled dynamics of gas and dust inPomerantz, V. Strelnitski, Maria Mitchell Obs., Nantucket, MA; C. protoplanetary disks in order to elucidate how sub-centimeter-size dust grains coalesceBartlett, MCLA, North Adams, MA; B. Pomerantz, Cornell U., to form kilometer-size planetesimals, the basic building blocks of planets. For largerIthaca, NY particles (meter-size or larger), a common approach is to evolve the gas as a continuous09:00 AM-06:30 PM fluid and follow particles in a Lagrangian way with explicit treatment of the drag forces between the gas and dust. However, when such an approach is applied to very smallWe analyze the results of 15-year monitoring of millimeter radio emission from MWC grains, the differential equations become stiff and require very small time steps to349 in hydrogen recombination α-lines and in continuum made on the 12-m and 10-m numerically resolve the coupling between gas and dust. Here, we present a new methodradio telescopes of Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). Both the masing lines and the that treats the dust as a second fluid that is allowed to drift with respect to the gas at thecontinuum show large intensity variations, up to a factor of a few, at various time scales, local terminal velocity. We use this method to investigate the concentration of smallfrom days to years. Other line parameters vary more moderately. In the best studied grains inside vortices, the mass-loading effects on the stability of vortices themselves,double-peaked H30α line, both the width of the peaks and their radial velocities (relative and the settling of dust to the mid-plane of the disk.to the systemic velocity) vary within ±10%.The narrowness of the peaks and the rate oftheir intensity variations indicate that the H30α maser is essentially unsaturated. The 144.14 – Herschel-resolved Debris Disks around Nearby Late-type Stars: HD 202628,observed single case of short-time scale correlated variability of H30α and the optical HD 92945, and HD 53143Hα line (the latter monitored with the Maria Mitchell Obs.’s 24-inch CCD telescope)confirms this conclusion. The changes of the “red” (R) and “blue” (B) peaks correlate K.R. Stapelfeldt, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt,but to varying extent, which indicates the presence of both a variable central source of MD; G. Bryden, J.E. Krist, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech,excitation and the independently varying local conditions in the portions of the Pasadena, CA; K.Y. Su, Steward Observatory, Univ. of Arizona,circumstellar disk where the B and R masers are assumed to arise. The variabilitypattern and the computer calculations of hydrogen level populations under the putative Tucson, AZ; P. Plavchan, NASA Exoplanet Science Institute,conditions in the disk allow us to estimate the unsaturated gain of the maser as |τ| ≈ 3±1. Caltech, Pasadena, CAThe observed anti-correlation of the B and R radial velocities for H30α and H35α lines 09:00 AM-06:30 PMconfirms a common variable central source of excitation and the location of the masers Debris disks are signposts of planetary systems. While hundreds are known from far−IRat opposite sides of a (quasi)-Keplerian disk. We acknowledge with gratitude the TAC excess emission around main sequence stars, the best−understood ones are those thatand the technical staff of ARO for the allocated time and help with the observations. are spatially resolved. Disk images establish the size scale of an exoplanetary system.This project was supported by NSF/REU grant AST-0851892 and the Nantucket Maria They can reveal central holes, rings, and asymmetries in the dust distribution which canMitchell Association. indicate the presence of planetary perturbers. With its unsurpassed spatial resolution, the Herschel Space Observatory is now resolving numerous debris disks for the first time in144.11 – JWST MIRI Observations of Debris Disks the far-infrared. For HD 202628, the PACS images clearly show asymmetric diskC. Chen, C. Lajoie, R. Soummer, D.C. Hines, STScI, Baltimore, emission consistent with pericenter glow, as predicted for this eccentric ring by Krist etMD; M. Wyatt, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, al. (2012), and thus provide further evidence of a perturbing planet orbiting near 100 AU. HD 92945s disk structure is found to be in good agreement with the models ofUNITED KINGDOM; K.Y. Su, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Golimowski et al. (2011). Finally, the PACS images of HD 53143 provide the firstC.M. Lisse, Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, confirmation of the disk size and orientation inferred from HST images by Kalas et al.MD (2006). The Herschel photometry are combined with Spitzer and HST measurements to09:00 AM-06:30 PM infer grain sizes and albedos using thermal emission models.The Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is 144.15 – Measuring Accretion Variability with H I Pfund βexpected to spatially resolve many nearby debris disks at mid-infrared wavelengths anddetect line emission from circumstellar molecules for the first time. We have simulated J. Brown, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; C. Salyk,(1) direct and coronagraphic images of the debris disk around Vega and (2) spectra of National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ; K.M.the debris disk around HD 172555 to ellucidate the capabilities of these MIRI modes. Flaherty, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZWe anticipate that MIRI will be able to resolve dust structures indicative of the presenceof planets and to detect molecular species indicative of recent giant collisions. 09:00 AM-06:30 PM We present multi-epoch accretion rates for 5 transitional disks observed as part of the144.12 – The Disk of 48 Lib Revealed by NPOI NIRSPEC and CRIRES surveys of CO emission in circumstellar disks. Accretion rates are derived from Pfund β line flux using the relation outlined in Salyk et al. (inL. Lembryk, C. Tycner, Central Michigan University, Mount preparation). We find that the highest levels of variability we observe are less than ±Pleasant, MI; A. Sigut, The University of Western Ontario, London, 0.50 dex, suggesting that even the most variable objects in our sample exhibit fairlyOntario, CANADA; R.T. Zavala, United States Naval Observatory, typical accretion variability. In the case of TW Hya, we find that HI Pfund β emission isFlagstaff Station, AZ uncorrelated with both CO fundamental emission and veiling estimates. Further09:00 AM-06:30 PM investigation of the association (or lack thereof) between Pfund β and CO fundamental emission can be useful for placing strong constraints on the origin of accretion variabilityWe present a study of the disk around the Be star 48 Lib, where NLTE numerical disk in protoplanetary disks. Brown was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Researchmodels are being compared to the spectral and interferometric data to constrain the Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the Nationalphysical properties of the inner disk structure. The computational models are generated Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program and theusing the BEDISK code, which accounts for heating and cooling of various atoms in the Department of Defense ASSURE program through Scientific Program Order No. 13disk and assumes solar chemical composition. A large set of self-consistent disk models (AST-0754223) of the Cooperative Agreement No. AST-0132798 between theproduced with the BEDISK code is in turn used to generate synthetic spectra and Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) and the NSF.images assuming a wide range of inclination angles using the BERAY code. The aim ofthis project is to constrain the physical properties as well as the inclination angles using 144.16 – A Sub-Millimeter Portrait of New Transitional Disks in Taurusboth spectroscopic and interferometric data. The interferometric data were obtainedusing the Naval Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI), with the focus on Hydrogen D. Powell, C. Espaillat, Harvard Smithsonian Center forBalmer-alpha emission, which is the strongest emission line present due to the Astrophysics, Cambridge, MAcircumstellar structure. Because 48 Lib shows clear asymmetric spectral lines, we 09:00 AM-06:30 PMdiscuss how we model the asymmetric peaks of the Halpha line by combining twomodels computed with different density structures. The corresponding synthetic images It is thought that when planets form in young disks, they clear out material in the diskof these combined density structures are then Fourier transformed and compared to the and leave behind signatures in the form of holes. This study looks at two T Tauri stars ininterferometric data. This numerical strategy has the potential to easily model the the ~1 Myr old Taurus star-forming region that are surrounded by circumstellar diskscommonly observed variation of the ratio of the violet-to-red (V/R ratio) emission peaks with large holes (i.e. transitional disks). In this study, we use SMA and Spitzer data toand constrain the long-term variability associated with the disk of 48 Lib as well as other model the SEDs and visibilities of IRAS04125+2902 and V410 X-ray 2. This modelingemission-line stars that show similar variability. will allow us to place constraints on the physical structure of these disks which can be used to better understand how planets form.144.13 – Simulations Of The Dynamics Of Coupled Gas And Dust In Protoplanetary
  • 51. spectra of HD32297 obtained by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS)144.17 – The Signature of Young Planetary Systems in Circumstellar Disks onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These observations enable a comparativeA. Isella, J.M. Carpenter, L.M. Perez, L. Ricci, Caltech, Pasadena, study by compiling a comprehensive gas inventory of the HD 32297 disk. The ultravioletCA; S.M. Andrews, K. Rosenfeld, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for contains a sizeable number of strong transitions, many of which are located only in thisAstrophysics, Cambridge, MA waveband. We present line profile analysis of the strongest of these transitions (e.g., MgI, MgII, MnII, ZnII, FeI, and FeII). Results indicate circumstellar absorption at a09:00 AM-06:30 PM radial velocity of ~19 km/s and interstellar absorption at ~23 km/s. Also notable in FeIIHigh angular resolution observations of the millimeter-wave, optically thin dust and MgII was a component at ~26 km/s. The observed flux of HD32297 shortward ofcontinuum emission from nearby proto-planetary disks probe the earliest phases of 1800 Angstroms is much lower than anticipated, and indicates a discrepancy betweenplanet formation by revealing the interaction between the disk material and forming the spectral type determined in the optical (A0V) than that determined in the ultraviolet.planets. In this study we present CARMA and SMA observations of three nearby We present evidence for a significantly cooler spectral type between A7V and F0V. Wetransitional disks that reveal deviations from the central symmetry in the spatial acknowledge support for this project through NASA HST Grant GO-11569 awarded bydistribution of millimeter-size dust grains. The observed asymmetries are qualitatively the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association ofconsistent with those predicted by theoretical models for the disk-planet interaction, Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS 5-26555,which depends on the mass and orbital radius of the perturbing planet(s), as well as, on and a student research fellowship from the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortiumthe age of the system. This result suggests that the observed disks are likely hosting (KNAC) Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program.young (<1Myr) planetary systems characterized by multiple giant planets. FutureALMA observations will provide more details on the structure of the disk asymmetries 144.21 – ALMA Observations of Transitional Disksand lead to a better constrain on the properties of the perturbing objects. L.M. Perez, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM;144.18 – The Circumstellar Environment of the Massive Eclipsing Binary Star V356 A. Isella, J.M. Carpenter, California Institute of Technology,Sagittarii Pasadena, CAM. Malatesta, J.R. Lomax, J.L. Hoffman, University of Denver, 09:00 AM-06:30 PMDenver, CO A small fraction of circumstellar disks show a remarkable deficit of infrared flux –09:00 AM-06:30 PM indicative of a dust-depleted inner cavity – while substantial emission at longer wavelengths points to the presence of a massive outer disk. These so-called “transitionalBecause most massive stars occur in binary systems, it is important that we understand disks” are thought to represent a brief, but extremely important, evolutionary phasethe effects of mass transfer on the subsequent stellar winds and supernova explosions. between young, optically thick protoplanetary disks and old, optically thin debris disks.Mass transfer creates circumstellar material that polarizes light from both components We have employed ALMAs exquisite sensitivity and high angular resolution, alreadyof the binary. Through spectropolarimetry we can determine the chemical make-up of available in Early Science, to study a sample of massive transitional disks in the nearbythis circumstellar material, describe the shapes and densities, and detect other features Taurus and ρ-Ophiuchus star-forming regions. These disks were selected because theysuch as disks, shells, and jets that may affect the behavior of the eventual supernova. possess large inner cavities and show little evidence for stellar-mass companions. WeWe present four years of optical spectropolarimetric data on the massive eclipsing present ALMA Band 9 observations (0.45 mm) that resolve the inner cavities and outerbinary star V356 Sagittarii, which is a likely supernova progenitor that is thought to regions of these transitional disks in the dust continuum emission, with an angularcontain an accretion disk around the primary star. The variations in polarization we resolution of ∼0.2″-0.3″ (∼25-40 AU at the distance of these objects). Additionally, weobserve as a function of wavelength and orbital phase yield detailed information about obtained observations in the CO(J = 6-5) transition, to investigate the presence of gasthe circumstellar environment of the two stars and allow us to construct a more detailed inside the dust-depleted cavities and the extent of the outer gaseous disk. These ALMApicture of the system than was previously possible. Early Science observations provide an unique opportunity to study the structure of disks with possible planetary companions.144.19 – Herschel-resolved Debris Disks around Nearby F-type Stars: HD 139664, HD127821 and HD 113337 144.22 – Extreme Contrast Direct Imaging of Planets and Debris disks with theK.Y. Su, G. Rieke, Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ; G. Bryden, Palomar P3K Adaptive Optics System and the Vector Vortex CoronagraphJPL/Caltech, Pasadena, CA; K.R. Stapelfeldt, GSFC, Greenbelt, M. Wahl, S.A. Metchev, R. Patel, Stony Brook University, Northport,MD; Z. Balog, MPIA, Heidelberg, GERMANY NY; G. Serabyn, JPL, Pasedena, CA09:00 AM-06:30 PM 09:00 AM-06:30 PMPlanetary debris disks provide the best tool to study other planetary systems at large We present first results from using the PALM-3000 extreme adaptive optics system andradii where collisions among left-over planetesimals (Kuiper-belt analogues) break imaging camera on the Hale 5m telescope. Observations using the vector vortexbodies down into fine dust, making them prominent in the far-infrared. The dust is lost coronagraph have given us direct detections of the planets in the HR8799 system andquickly; replacing it requires colliding minor bodies and a larger object to stir them, i.e., a the dusty debris disk around the star HD141569A. Due to the unprecedented innerdynamically active planetary system. We present Herschel resolved 70 micron disk working angle of the VVC, the data show a clearing within the inner ring inwards toimages of three debris systems around F-type stars: HD 139664, HD 127821 and HD ~20AU along the projected semi-major axis. Our observations of the disk in the K band113337. All three systems have dust fractional luminosity in the order of 1E-4, and show (2.2 μm) demonstrate the power of the next generation of adaptive optics systemsmarginally resolved structures in early Spitzer data. These systems probably have grown coupled with phase mask coronagraphy. We also show a comparison of the datafrom very massive protoplanetary disks and are likely the sites where the richest, reduction techniques currently being implemented in the direct imaging field. Specifically,massive and most extended families of planets will form. The orientation and disk extent the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) and the Karhunen-Loeve Imagefrom the thermal image of HD 139664 are consistent with what has been found Processing (KLIP) algorithms, the latter being a more robust method for resolving debrispreviously in the scattered light. The other two systems are resolved for the first time disks.with the HD 127821 disk being viewed at nearly edge-on while the HD 113337 disk atmore face-on. These systems properties are inferred by combining the resolved images 144.23 – Finding Asteroid-Belt Analogues with WISEand spectral energy distributions (SEDs) built from Spitzer IRS spectra and/orMIPS-SED data along with broad-band photometry from mid-infrared to R. Patel, S.A. Metchev, SUNY Stony Brook, East Setauket, NYsub-millimeters. 09:00 AM-06:30 PM In this study we present the detection of stars with infrared excesses attributed to a144.2 – Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Census of the Edge-on Debris Disk HD32297 circumstellar debris disk from the WISE All-Sky Survey at the WISE 12 and 22 μmM. Fusco, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY; M. Fusco, S. Redfield, bandpasses (W3 and W4, respectively). Excess flux at these wavelengths is significantA.G. Jensen, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT; A. Roberge, because it traces material in the regions of terrestrial planet formation. We searched for debris disks by cross-matching Hipparcos main sequence stars with the All-Sky DataK.R. Stapelfeldt, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD Release from WISE and seeking excess flux at W3 and W4. Our sample is confined to09:00 AM-06:30 PM a volume of 75 pc around the sun, and outside the galactic plane (|b|> 5°). DebrisEdge-on, optically thin, debris disks provide the unique opportunity to probe the intrinsic disk-bearing stars were identified by assessing the 95% confidence level for excessesphysical properties of gas in a disk at the late stages of planet formation. Using the host through a combination of WISE and 2MASS colors and flags, along with further visualstar as a background source, trace atomic and molecular disk species can be detected in inspections to exclude contamination from unrelated nearby objects.absorption. Beta Pictoris, at a distance of ~19.3 parsecs, is the canonical edge-on debrisdisk. A comprehensive chemical inventory of a debris disk to date indicates that carbon 144.24 – A Herschel-Detected Correlation between Planets and Debris Disksis surprisingly overabundant in the disk (Roberge et al. 2006). Redfield (2007) found that G. Bryden, J.E. Krist, JPL, Pasadena, CA; D.R. Ardila, nasathe recently discovered edge-on system HD 32297 has the strongest NaI absorption of herschel science center, pasadena, CA; G. Rieke, K.Y. Su, univ.any known debris disk (five times that of beta Pic). We present new high resolution
  • 52. arizona, tucson, AZ; C.A. Beichman, NExScI, pasadena, CA; A. cavities. We employ optical Magellan and mid-infrared Spitzer spectra as well asKospal, Leiden, leiden, NETHERLANDS; G. Kennedy, M. Wyatt, millimeter SMA data to produce spectral energy distributions, and model these using self-consistent disk models to explore the structure of these four disks and their dustIoA, cambridge, UNITED KINGDOM; K.R. Stapelfeldt, NASA composition.Goddard, greenbelt, MD; D. Fischer, yale, new haven, CT; B.Montesinos, A. Moro-Martin, CAB, madrid, SPAIN; C. Eiroa, J. 144.27 – Modeling the Near-Infrared Disk around Radio Source I in the OrionMarshall, J. Maldonado, UNAM, madrid, SPAIN; B.C. Matthews, Kleinmann-Low NebulaNRC, victoria, British Columbia, CANADA B. Sitarski, M. Morris, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA; G. Duchene, UC09:00 AM-06:30 PM Berkeley, Berkeley, CA; G. Duchene, Institut de Planétologie etThe Fomalhaut, beta Pic, and HR 8799 systems each have directly imaged planets and dAstophysique de Grenoble, Grenoble, FRANCE; J.R. Lu,prominent debris disks, suggesting a direct link between the two phenomena. Unbiased University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HIsurveys with Spitzer, however, failed to find a statistically significant correlation. We 09:00 AM-06:30 PMpresent results from SKARPS (the Search for Kuiper belts Around Radial-velocityPlanet Stars) a Herschel far-IR survey for debris disks around solar-type stars known to We previously reported the first detection of infrared emission from the disk surroundinghave orbiting planets. The identified disks are generally cold and distant (~50 K/100 the massive protostar, radio source I, which may be powering the Kleinmann-LowAU), i.e. well separated from the radial-velocity-discovered planets. Nevertheless, we Nebula in Orion. We present three-dimensional, Monte-Carlo radiative transfer andfind a strong correlation between the inner planets and outer disks, with disks around ray-tracing disk models of the infrared counterpart using the MCFOST code. Theplanet-bearing stars tending to be much brighter than those not known to have planets. models were optimized to fit the near-infrared observational constraints. In our model, the central massive protostar is is surrounded by a compact (Rout = 50 AU), flared disk that and an extended spherically symmetric envelope. The inflow of material from the144.25 – Physical Properties of the Be Star Disks in h and χ Persei envelope to the inner disk is modeled as a geometrically flat and thick disk. We alsoA.N. Marsh Boyer, M.V. McSwain, C. Aragona, Lehigh University, include a cylindrical cavity in the envelope, as would be cleared by outflows from theBethlehem, PA; Y. Touhami, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA protostar and disk. This model for Source I reproduces the observed near-infrared09:00 AM-06:30 PM emission and supports the conjecture that we are seeing light from the massive protostar scattering off the circumstellar disk and envelope.Classical Be stars are best known for their circumstellar disks, which are composed ofmaterial ejected off of the stellar surface during outburst events. The double open 144.28 – The Herschel Open Time Key Project; DUst Around NEarby Stars: Resultsclusters h and χ Persei present an optimal location for studying the physical properties from the Complete Surveyand variability of these disk structures, as they are rich in massive B-type and Be stars.Here we continue our study of the cluster Be stars by examining the disk spectral W.C. Danchi, NASAs GSFC, Greenbelt, MD; C. Eiroa,energy distributions (SEDs) via observations from WEBDA, 2MASS, Spitzer, AKARI, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, SPAINand WISE. We also present multiple observations of Hα taken between 2009-2012 with 09:00 AM-06:30 PMthe KPNO Coude Feed, KPNO 2.1m, and WIRO. We will use the Hα equivalent widthmodel of Grundstrom & Gies and the infrared flux model of Touhami et al. to constrain The Herschel DUst Around Nearby Stars (DUNES) survey (Eiroa et al. 2010) wasthe disk masses, radii, and densities for our Be star sample. We are grateful for support designed to address several fundamental questions regarding debris disks around nearbyprovided through NSF grant AST-1109247 and Lehigh University. A. N. Marsh Boyer is solar type stars, in order to put the Solar System into context. Our goals were to: (1)also supported by a Grant-In-Aid of Research from the National Academy of Sciences, determine the fraction of stars with faint, Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt (EKB)-like disks, (2)administered by Sigma Xi. explore collisional and dynamical evolution of EKB analogues, (3) observe dust properties and size distribution, and (4) determine the incidence of EKB-like disks vs. presence of planets. The final sample of stars directly observed by DUNES included144.26 – Determining Dust Properties of Protoplanetary Disks in the Orion OB1b 133 stars, including 27 F-type, 52 G-type and 54 K-type stars within 20 pc of the Sun.Association The integration time was set in order to make a 5-sigma detection of the expectedC. Tu, Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, photospheric emission at 100 and 160 microns, using the PACS instrument. In addition,MA 106 stars observed by DEBRIS survey (Mathews et al. 2010) satisfying the09:00 AM-06:30 PM photospheric detection condition are shared targets, specifically 83 FGK stars - 51 F, 24 G and 8 K (the rest are A and M stars). We report the main conclusions from theWe examine the disks around four T Tauri stars in the ~3-5 Myr old Ori OB1b survey including the frequency of detection of debris disks as a function of fractionalassociation with the aim of expanding disk modeling studies to older star-forming luminosity of the dust, Ld/L*, and correlations of Ld/L* with metallicity, bolometricregions. Our sample is composed of 1 pre-transitional disk, which has a gap separating luminosity, effective temperature, and stellar age.the inner disk from the outer disk, and 3 full disks, which do not have any known145 – DustPoster Session – Exhibit Hall A (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 09:00 AM to 06:30 PM (AGB) stars expel gas from their surfaces; as it moves away from the star, it cools and145.01 – An Exploration of the Dust Spectral Features of the Carbon-Rich Star V Cyg condenses to produce dust. Carbon monoxide (CO) is extremely stable and will trapThrough Time and Space most of the oxygen and carbon. The lesser abundant of carbon and oxygen will beM. Reel, A. Speck, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO; K. Volk, entirely trapped in CO, while the more abundant will have excess atoms available toGemini Observatory, Hilo, HI; G.C. Sloan, Cornell University, form dust. AGB stars are divided into carbon-rich (C-rich) stars or oxygen-rich (O-rich) stars. O-rich AGB stars with low mass-loss rates show a 9-15 micron feature, which isIthaca, NY attributed to various dust species, such as silicates and oxides. This broad feature is09:00 AM-06:30 PM fitted with two overlapping Gaussian functions. The parameters of the Gaussian fits areCarbon-rich AGB stars (carbon Stars) are surrounded by circumstellar shells of gas and compared to stellar chemistry properties, such as the elemental abundances (C, N, O,dust. The dust is dominated by carbon (probably graphitic) and silicon carbide (SiC), Fe, Ti, Ni, Y, Zr, and Nd) and ratios (C/N, C/O, C/Fe…) in order to assess the effect ofwhich is the source of the observed 11µm spectral feature. We investigate the nearby chemistry on dust formation.carbon star V Cyg which has been observed numerous times over the past couple ofdecades. By analyzing the temporal spectral variations associated with the stellar 145.03 – The Enigmatic 13 Micron Feature in the Spectra of AGB Starspulsation cycle we study how the pulsation cycle affects the circumstellar dust. In N. De Souza, A. Speck, University of Missouri, Columbia, MOaddition to the temporal data, we have also obtained spatially-resolved spectra of thedust shell(s) around V Cyg using Michelle on Gemini North. Combining these various 09:00 AM-06:30 PMspectral observations with AAVSO data on variations in the visual magnitude we Understanding the nature and formation of cosmic dust is crucial to understanding theinvestigate and model temporal and spatial changes in the dust around V Cyg. Universe. Evolved intermediate mass stars (i.e. AGB stars) are major contributors of dust to the cosmos. Dust around AGB stars are studied by means of infrared145.02 – The Effects of Stellar Chemistry on the Broad 9-15 Micron Spectral Feature spectroscopy from which we observe several interesting spectral features. Theof O-rich AGB Stars observed AGB star spectra have been classified according to their shapes and wavelength positions of the dust features. Alongside the main spectral features aroundD.J. Arrant, A. Speck, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 8-12 microns, there is an enigmatic 13 micron feature that appears in about half the09:00 AM-06:30 PM oxygen-rich AGB stars. The carrier of this feature has not yet been unequivocallyDust plays an important role in many astrophysical processes. Asymptotic giant branch identified but has been attributed to various dust species, including corundum (crystalline
  • 53. Al2O3), spinel (MgAl2O4), and silica (SiO2). While there have been several attempts to 145.08 – SED of Herschel Selected Sources in the Spitzer IRAC/MIPS Extragalacticdetermine the cause of this 13 micron feature, previous studies have been somewhat Survey (SIMES) of the South Ecliptic Polecontradictory. In order to investigate the origin and characteristics of this spectralfeature we have acquired spatially resolved spectroscopic observations of seven nearby I. Baronchelli, G. Rodighiero, Università degli studi di Padova,O-rich AGB stars using Michelle on Gemini North. Here we present data on the 13 Padova, Padova, ITALY; I. Baronchelli, C. Scarlata, University ofmicron feature strength mapped over space from a study of seven AGB stars. Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; H.I. Teplitz, P.L. Capak, Caltech, Pasadena, CA; M. Hayes, IRAP, Toulouse, France, FRANCE; S.145.04 – Anomalous Microwave Emission in the Perseus Molecular Cloud Mei, Universite Paris Diderot, Paris, France, FRANCEJ. Villadsen, C. Tibbs, K. Cleary, A.C. Readhead, M. Stevenson, 09:00 AM-06:30 PMCalifornia Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA; M. Sieth, We present the Spitzer IRAC/MIPS Extragalactic survey (SIMES) of the South EclipticStanford University, Stanford, CA; A. Scaife, University of Pole. The South Ecliptic Pole (SEP) is a primary target of far-infrared, sub-millimeterSouthampton, Southampton, UNITED KINGDOM; Y. Perrott, K. and millimeter telescopes, both from the ground and from space. This large field (7Grainge, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UNITED square degrees) is unique among other fields with comparable area and data coverage isKINGDOM; G. Keating, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA its highly elongated geometry (4:1), which substantially reduces its susceptibility to cosmic variance. The coverage of the field span the UV to the mm wavelength, with09:00 AM-06:30 PM far-IR data coming from AKARI, IRAC/MIPS-Spitzer, PACS/SPIRE-Herschel. WeAnomalous microwave emission is a form of radio emission that peaks at tens of GHz. will present our preliminary results of the characterization of Herschel selected sourcesThis emission, primarily observed in Galactic sources, most likely comes from spinning in the SEP field. The IRAC data that we have been obtaining are critical for determiningdust grains with an electric dipole moment. This explanation is based on the remarkable accurate stellar masses, star-formation histories and redshifts for the sources identifiedspatial correlation between large-scale 15-GHz emission and long-wavelength infrared at longer wavelengths: obscured AGN, dusty ultra-luminous galaxies, and high redshiftemission, discovered in 1997 at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory and since galaxy clusters. At longer wavelength, the Spitzer and Herschel data provide anconfirmed by many subsequent observations. Anomalous emission presents a new accurate measure of the emission due to the star formation, allowing the SF-rate (SFR)window on the physical conditions in the interstellar medium, especially the properties of estimation. The combination of all these data allow for accurate investigation of thevery small dust grains. It is also a foreground for studies of the cosmic microwave dusty early universe.background. This emission mechanism has so far been studied mostly on large spatialscales - tens of arcminutes to degrees. I present arcminute-resolution 30-GHz 145.09 – The Nature of the Second Parameter in the IRX-β Relation for Local Galaxiesobservations of known anomalous emission regions in the Perseus molecular cloud, andcombine these data with 15-GHz observations in order to understand spectral properties. K. Grasha, D. Calzetti, J.E. Andrews, University of Massachusetts,I also compare the radio observations to infrared data in order to clarify the Amherst, MA; J.C. Lee, Space Telescope Science Institute,environmental conditions that lead to anomalous emission. Baltimore, MD; D.A. Dale, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 09:00 AM-06:30 PM145.05 – Measuring Reddening in 3D: Bayesian Photometric Parallax We present an analysis of 98 galaxies of low-dust content, selected from the SpitzerG. Green, Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA Local Volume Legacy (LVL) survey, aimed at examining the dust attenuation relation in09:00 AM-06:30 PM normal star-forming galaxies. The infrared-excess (IRX-β) diagram is a technique used to correct star-forming galaxies for dust attenuation solely from observations of theWe construct a 3D Galactic extinction map using broadband stellar photometry. We first ultraviolet (UV) colors, β. The UV colors are tightly related to the total attenuation asapply standard Bayesian techniques to simultaneously constrain stellar type, distance and measured by the ratio of the infrared (IR) to the far-UV (FUV) flux in starburstforeground dust for individual stars. An extinction map may then be constructed by galaxies. However, normal star-forming galaxies, when compared to their starburstcombining information from many stars, grouped into pixels (see Edward Schaflys counterparts, have a much larger spread in the IR to FUV luminosity for a fixed UVposter). We have applied this technique to ~500 million stars in the Galactic plane for spectral slope. We examine the role that the age of the stellar population plays as thewhich the PanSTARRS-1 survey has thus far collected sufficient multi-band ``second parameter responsible for the observed deviation in normal star-formingphotometry. We present here the technique used to produce distance and reddening galaxies. We model the FUV to far-IR spectral energy distribution of each galaxy usingestimates, and tests of our method for individual stars. Starburst99 synthetic stellar spectra, varying the metallicity, attenuation, and age with either constant star formation or instantaneous bursts. We find that, in virtually dust-free145.06 – 3D Maps of the Galaxys Dust using PanSTARRS-1 galaxies, the stellar population age influences galaxies that are represented with aE. Schlafly, MPIA, Heidelberg, GERMANY; G. Green, D.P. bursting star formation history (SFH), where an increase in β correlates with anFinkbeiner, Harvard, Cambridge, MA increase in the stellar population age at a significance level of 5σ. The same age-β09:00 AM-06:30 PM relation is not seen in galaxies represented with a constant SFH. As a whole, we find that our galaxies have a tight correlation between the FUV to near-IR luminosity and βWe present preliminary maps of the three-dimensional distribution of the dust in the (6σ significance), suggesting that the scatter from the ``second parameter is betterGalaxy using photometry from Pan-STARRS1. We photometrically infer the distance defined in terms of β as opposed to the distance from the starburst IRX relation.and reddening to over half a billion stars well-observed at this stage of thePan-STARRS1 survey (see related poster by G. Green). We then find, along each 6 145.1 – Vertical Mining of SDSS Spectra - Constraining Dust Extinctionarcminute line of sight, the reddening as a function of distance most consistent with theobservations, taking into consideration the full shape of the posterior of the reddening D. Poznanski, D. Baron, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, ISRAEL; J.X.and distance to each star. We are able to reproduce the known distances to nearby dust Prochaska, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA; J.S. Bloom, UCclouds, and expect to be able to measure the distances to most clouds within about 4 Berkeley, Berkeley, CAkpc. Our maps of the reddening at 4 kpc agree closely with the maps of Schlegel, 09:00 AM-06:30 PMFinkbeiner, and Davis (1998) outside of the plane of the Galaxy, and are able to revealsome known limitations of those maps. Dust extinction is most likely the leading systematic uncertainty in current cosmological and astrophysical measurements. By both absorbing and reddening radiation, it impedes145.07 – Extinction Law Variability as a Function of Age in H II Regions distance and color measurements, as well as biasing any method that relies on statistics of samples. In a recent publication, we took about a million spectra from the SloanC. Vargas Alvarez, H.A. Kobulnicky, University of Wyoming, Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and used them in a novel way. Every object in SDSS isLaramie, WY observed through the gas and dust in the Milky Way. While a single spectrum does not09:00 AM-06:30 PM offer the signal to noise to recover this imprint, stacking many of them recovers the signature in absorption. We stacked thousands of spectra with a similar expectedHistorically it has been assumed that there is an universal reddening law in which the extinction (as derived from the maps of Schlegel et al. 1998). Our approach allowed ustotal-to-selective extinction ratio is constant, RV = 3.1. Recently, this nominal value has to beat down the ample noise and original signal from every source, recovering just thebeen called into question, and some authors concluded that there is no universal imprint of the Galaxy’s ISM with very high signal-to-noise. We showed that there isreddening law, and that reddening is strongly dependent on the observed sight line. Small indeed a strong correlation between the sodium lines and extinction, and that highangular scale and time variability of RV has not yet been tested. We measure RV and resolution spectra have the potential to leverage this correlation well. We will furthercolor excess E(B - V) by individually fitting reddened theoretical spectral energy show additional results using the methods.distributions (SED) to optical and infrared photometry of stars in two Galactic starforming regions. Each region hosts multiple infrared bubbles having different inferred 145.11 – Observations of the 2175Å Bump from the First Flight of the Interstellarages. The theoretical SEDs are taken from the Padova stellar evolution models for OB Medium Absorption Gradient Experiment Rocketstars of known spectral type. It is expected that reddening parameters will correlatewith the age of the H II region as UV photons progressively destroy dust particles. M.E. Danowski, Boston Univ., Boston, MA; T. Cook, S.
  • 54. Chakrabarti, University of Massachusetts- Lowell, Lowell, MA; understanding of the nature of dust and our ability to accurately account for the effectsK.D. Gordon, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD of dust on observations at all redshifts.09:00 AM-06:30 PM 145.12 – Parameter Optimization for the DirtyGridThe Interstellar Medium Absorption Gradient Experiment Rocket (IMAGER) probes the K. Law, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; K.D. Gordon,correlation between dust extinction, and the metallicity and radiation environment inM101 at ultraviolet wavelengths. We present results from the first flight of IMAGER. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MDEvidence from studies of starburst galaxies indicates that active formation of high mass 09:00 AM-06:30 PMstars modifies the UV dust extinction curve as seen by a lack of the characteristic DIRTY is a sophisticated and well-tested 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer model that2175Å bump. The face-on spiral galaxy M101 is an ideal laboratory for the study of dust allows for arbitrary distributions of stars and dust. We are currently building up thenear regions of massive star formation, with many well-studied HII regions and a steep DirtyGrid, a large grid of DIRTY models, to fit the ultraviolet (UV) to infrared (IR)metallicity gradient. IMAGER simultaneously images M101 in three 400Å-wide spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of regions of galaxies and entire galaxies. Given thebandpasses, measuring the apparent strength of the 2175Å bump and the UV huge multi-dimensional parameter space, an exhaustive search would be very inefficient.continuum. IMAGER observations, infrared data from Spitzer, the DIRTY radiative The long run time for each model (on the order of 10 hours) also precludes the use oftransfer model, and stellar evolution models allow us to examine the morphology in the Monte Carlo Markov Chain techniques. We present how we choose the modelUV extinction curve and the IR emission features as a function of metallicity and parameters for the DirtyGrid to minimize the total run time while achieving the accuracyradiation field hardness. The results of this experiment will directly impact our we need.146 – Elliptical and Spiral GalaxiesPoster Session – Exhibit Hall A (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 09:00 AM to 06:30 PM Poughkeepsie, NY; B. Elmegreen, IBM T.J. Watson Research146.01 – The Local Universe at 30 ma/sq arcsec: Extended Stellar Halos AroundNearby Galaxies Center, Yorktown Hts., NY; M. Popinchalk, Wesleyan University,D. Schaul, R.M. Rich, C. Black, D. Reitzel, F. Longstaff, UCLA, Middletown, CTLos Angeles, CA; D. Reitzel, Griffith Observatory, Los Angeles, CA; 09:00 AM-06:30 PMA. Koch, ZAH Heidelberg, Heidelberg, GERMANY; M. Collins, Properties of nearly 3000 star-forming complexes in a sample of 45 local spiral galaxiesMPIA Heidelberg, Heidelberg, GERMANY; C. Black, Dartmouth across a range of Hubble types and arm classes have been studied using infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.College, Hanover, NH; A. Benson, Carnegie Observatories, The luminosities of the brightest complexes scale with galaxy luminosity. LuminosityPasadena, CA; R.M. Rich, F. Longstaff, Polaris Observatory functions yield power law slopes, although complexes in “beads on a string” structuresAssociation, Frazier Park, CA are skewed towards higher mass. Many infrared beads are in dust lanes rather than09:00 AM-06:30 PM optical spiral arms. The physical separations of the beaded complexes scale with their masses; the separations scaled to the galaxy size increase as the complexUsing a novel telescope designed for wide-field imaging to low surface brightness, we luminosity/galaxy luminosity ratio increases. These results are consistent with formationhave detected extended stellar halos around nearby galaxies. These halos exhibit a wide by a large-scale gravitational instability. The most massive complexes range from 10^5range of structures, from streams and arcs to smooth, regular, structures. Our galaxies to 10^7 Mo. In contrast, high redshift galaxies in the Ultra Deep Field have complexrange from -18 masses 100 times greater for a given galaxy luminosity.146.02 – Do Gravity-Sensitive Absorption Features in Elliptical Galaxy Spectra Trace 146.05 – Star Formation in the Extreme Outer Disks of Giant Spiral GalaxiesAbundance Patterns or the IMF? A. Ashburn, Benedictine College, Atchison, KS; D.A. Hunter,J.D. Simon, J.J. Adams, Carnegie Observatories, Los Angeles, CA Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ; V.C. Rubin, Carnegie Institution09:00 AM-06:30 PM of Washington, Washington, DCRecent work by van Dokkum & Conroy and others has presented significant evidence 09:00 AM-06:30 PMfrom gravity-sensitive near-infrared absorption features and dynamical mass-to-lightratios that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in giant elliptical galaxies is extremely We present a photometric study of two galaxies, NGC 801 and UGC 2885, two of thebottom-heavy and varies systematically with galaxy mass. We present a new stellar most luminous spiral galaxies in the nearby universe, taking specific interest in the startemplate library based on spectra of stars in the old open cluster M67 at red and near-IR formation in the outer disks of these galaxies. Our objectives were to find the starwavelengths that can be used to place further constraints on such IMF variations across formation rate in the outer disks (r>r25) of these two galaxies and to compare ourdifferent galactic environments. Unlike existing template sets, M67 stars have a known findings to the gas and established models. We used data in the UBV and JHK bands toand homogeneous age and metallicity that is as closely matched to the typical stellar trace older stars, very deep images in Hα to trace recent star formation, and HI maps topopulations in elliptical galaxies as possible. We build population synthesis models from reveal the atomic gas. We converted the Hα fluxes to star formation rates as a functionthe M67 templates, comparing several absorption features from different atomic and of radius, taking into account expected changes in metallicity and reddening with radius.molecular species for consistency against the possibility of chemical enrichment patterns We find that star formation in the outer disks is occurring at a significant rate, eventhat are not represented in local template samples, and finally measure the IMF variation where the gas density is too low to support star formation from gravitational instabilities.in a range of spheroids, from dwarf spheroidals and dwarf ellipticals to bulges and giant We also compare to the empirical star formation law of Bigiel et al. (2010) for lowerellipticals. In particular, we compare the extensively discussed Na I 8183,8195 Å doublet luminosity spirals.to two rather under-exploited tracers, the redder component of the K I doublet at 7699Å and the broad swath of CaH features from 6815-6920 Å. The IMF variation inferred 146.06 – NGC 2207/IC 2163: A Grazing Encounter with Large Scale Shocksfrom the Na I equivalent widths is greater than those derived from the K I and CaH B. Elmegreen, IBM Research Division, Yorktown Heights, NY; M.measurements. We therefore suggest that the sodium abundance in massive ellipticals Kaufman, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH; D. Grupe,may be higher than expected, and we place limits on the IMF non-uniformity from the K Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; D.M.I and CaH tracers. Elmegreen, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY; C. Struck, Iowa146.03 – Ages and Metallicities of Globular Clusters in Virgo Cluster Galaxies State University, Ames, IA; E. Brinks, University of Hertfordshire,J. Chen, E. Peng, Peking University, Beijing, CHINA Hatfield, Hertfordshire, UNITED KINGDOM09:00 AM-06:30 PM 09:00 AM-06:30 PMWe present H band photometry of two hundreds of globular clusters in the early-type Radio continuum, Spitzer infrared, optical, XMM X-ray, and ultraviolet observations aregalaxies in the Virgo Cluster. Combining with g and z band magnitudes from the ACS used to study large-scale shock fronts, young star complexes, and the galactic nuclei inVirgo Cluster Survey, we make color-color diagrams and derive the globular clusters the interacting galaxies NGC 2207/IC 2163. A large shock along the rim of the ocularages and metallicities by comparing to simple stellar population (SSP) models. oval in IC 2163 has produced vigorous star formation in a dusty environment, bright in the Spitzer 8 and 24 micron images. In the outer part of the companion side of NGC 2207, a large front attributed to halo scraping is bright in 6 cm and 20 cm radio146.04 – Large Scale Complexes in Spiral Galaxies in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar continuum (RC) but not in tracers of star formation or X-rays. Values of the flux densityStructure in Galaxies (S4G) ratio S(8 mu)/S(6 cm) of kpc-size star-forming clumps are compared with those of giantD.M. Elmegreen, Y. Teich, M. Popinchalk, Vassar College, radio HII regions in M81. For the bright clumps in NGC 2207, the mean value of this
  • 55. ratio is the same as for the M81 HII regions, whereas for the bright clumps on the rim Way and Andromeda.of the IC 2163 ocular oval, the mean value is nearly a factor of two greater. Globalvalues of the ratios of IR to RC are significantly below the averages for large samples 146.1 – A Comparison of Supermassive Black Hole Mass Measurements Usingof galaxies. A mini-starburst on the outer arm of NGC 2207 is the most luminous FIR, Different MethodsRC, and Halpha source in the galaxy pair. We find evidence that a radio supernovaoccurred there in 2001. X-ray emission is detected from the nucleus of NGC 2207 and I. Akhlite Al-Baidhany, M. Seigar, P.M. Treuthardt, University offrom nine discrete sources that are possible candidates for ULXs. One of these Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR; D. Kennefick, J.D.corresponds with the Type Ib SN 1999ec, which is also bright in the UV, and another Kennefick, C.H. Lacy, University of Arkansas at Fayetteville,may be a radio supernova or a background quasar. The X-ray luminosity of the NGC Fayetteville, AR2207 nucleus is log L(0.3-10.0 keV) = 40.6 ergs/s, which, together with its X-ray 09:00 AM-06:30 PMspectrum, suggests that this is a highly absorbed, low-luminosity AGN. In this study we measure and compare the masses of supermassive black holes146.07 – Warping of Disk Galaxies by Passing Galaxies (SMBHs) for a sample of Spitzer/IRAS 3.6 µm images of 53 spiral galaxies estimated by applying the correlations between supermassive black hole mass (MBH) and host-N. Palestini, N.F. Comins, University of Maine, Orono, ME galaxy bulge velocity dispersion (σ) ( MBH-σ relation), luminosity (Lbulge) (09:00 AM-06:30 PM MBH-Lbulge relation), maximum rotation velocity, and pitch angle.We selected a sampleWe investigate the effects an interacting galaxy, the intruder, has on the shape of a disk of nearly face-on spiral galaxies and used IRAF ellipse to determine the ellipticity andgalaxy with the aim of determining the cause of integral shaped warps in the disk. Using major-axis position angle in order to deproject the images to face-on.We used severalN-body simulations, we investigate the ways in which an intruder causes a spiral galaxy methods to provide a determination of SMBH masses in these galaxies. We first tookto warp as a function of the angle of passage, relative speed, relative masses, and velocity dispersions (σ) and maximum rotation velocities (Vmax) from the literature anddistance between the two galaxies. The intruder is simulated by a point particle so that it used the MBH-σ relation to find a supermassive black hole mass for each galaxy.effectively represents massive galaxies of any class. We present results of a systematic Second, we determined the spiral arm pitch angles using a 2D Fast Fourier Transformstudy of interaction parameters for the warping of galaxies without halos, and decomposition technique and applied the relation between MBH and pitch angle. Finally,preliminary results of interactions on spiral galaxies with dark matter halos. In both we determined the bulge luminosity (Lbulge) using a 2D surface brightness profilecases, using plausible interaction parameters, we find that our simulations produce modeling routine and determined MBH from Lbulge.We have determined and comparedsignificant warps with amplitudes comparable to observations. We propose that warps in SMBH masses for each of these galaxies using each method, and find agreementdisk galaxies created by this dynamic are caused by pseudoforces generated in the between each one. We also investigate whether a new relation exists between the spiralinteraction between the two galaxies. arm pitch angles and the bulge luminosities of disk galaxies.146.08 – The Structure of Nearby Nuclear Star Clusters in Late-Type Spiral Galaxies 146.11 – A Multiwavelength Exploration of the Grand Design Spiral M83: The X-ray Point Source PopulationD. Carson, A.J. Barth, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA; K.S. Long, B.C. Whitmore, STScI, Baltimore, MD; W.P. Blair, K.D.L.C. Ho, Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA; N. Neumayer, Kuntz, JHU, Baltimore, MD; L. Godfrey, R. Soria, CurtinEuropean Southern Observatory Germany, Garching, GERMANY; University, Bentley, Western Australia, AUSTRALIA; P.P. Plucinsky,J.E. Greene, Princeton University , Princeton , NJ; M. Cappellari, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA; C.University of Oxford, Oxford, UNITED KINGDOM; A. Seth, Stockdale, Marquette University, Milwaukee, OK; P.F. Winkler,University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT09:00 AM-06:30 PM 09:00 AM-06:30 PMHubble Space Telescope imaging surveys have shown that most late-type, bulgelessspiral galaxies contain compact nuclear star clusters. To examine the structure and We have obtained a series of deep X-ray images of the nearby galaxy M83, with a totalstellar content of these objects in detail, we have obtained HST WFC3 images of a exposure 729 ksec with Chandra. There are approximately 360 point sources detectedsample of 10 spiral galaxies containing bright nuclear star clusters, most at distances of with high confidence, with large concentrations in the nuclear region and along the sprialless than 5 Mpc. Each galaxy was observed in seven filters spanning the near-UV to arms. The detected sources include about 60 sources whose positions are coincidentnear-IR. GALFIT was used to fit parametric models to the surface brightness with supernovae or supernova remnants candidates in M83, including one extremelydistribution of each cluster. In most cases, a single Sersic model provides an adequate hard source associated with SN1957d. Of the X-ray sources, 22 of these were detecteddescription of the cluster structure, although some clusters required 2 Sersic in a new radio survey of M83 obtained with ATCA. Half of these are coincident withcomponents, and one object (NGC 4395) requires an additional pointlike component to X-ray-detected SNRs. Here we describe our on-going effort to classify the point sourcerepresent the active nucleus. This poster will present the measured cluster properties population through a combination of spectral and temporal analysis, to eliminateincluding magnitudes, Sersic indices, effective radii, and surface brightness profiles. The background AGN and foreground stars from the sample, and to associate M83 sourcesstructural parameters measured from these HST images will be used as input to future with other morphological features, such as young stellar clusters, in the galaxy. Thedynamical models in order to determine cluster masses and to constrain the possible derived luminosity function for M83 X-ray sources will be presented.presence of intermediate-mass black holes within the clusters. 146.12 – Near-Infrared Polarization Observations of NGC891146.09 – The PHAT and SPLASH Surveys: Rigorous Structural Decomposition of the J. Montgomery, L.R. Cashman, D.P. Clemens, Boston University,Andromeda Galaxy Boston, MA; M.D. Pavel, McDonald Observatory, Fort Davis, TXC. Dorman, P. Guhathakurta, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA; L. 09:00 AM-06:30 PMWidrow, Queens University , Kingston, Ontario, CANADA; D. NGC891 is an 8.4 Mpc distant, edge-on disk galaxy similar to the Milky Way. WeForeman-Mackey, New York University , New York , NY; J. present H-band (1.6 μm) polarimetry and preliminary K-band (2.2 μm) polarimetry ofDalcanton, K. Gilbert, B.F. Williams, University of Washington, NGC891 spanning nearly the entire disk extent (8 arcmin, end-to-end). The data wereSeattle, WA; A. Seth, University of Utah, Salt Lake City , UT; D. obtained using the 1.8m Perkins telescope and the Mimir instrument. The H-band polarimetry reaches S/N=5 at three arcsec resolution and extends to the disk ends (10Lang, Carnegie Mellon University , Pittsburgh, PA kpc from the center). The same S/N is achieved at one arcsec resolution (40 pc) across09:00 AM-06:30 PM the bulge and core. These data complement and extend the H-band polarization study ofTraditional surface brightness profile (SBP) based structural decompositions of late-type NGC891 by Jones (1997), who examined the central 60 arcsec region. The new K-bandgalaxies into Sersic bulge, exponential disk, and power-law halo are often degenerate in polarimetry probes deeper into the disk and will permit testing the nature of the complexthe best-fit profiles. The Andromeda galaxy (M31) is the only large spiral close enough structure found by Jones. These extended observations provide a complete map of thethat the relative contributions of the subcomponents can be further constrained via their magnetic field across nearly the entire galaxy, and will reveal the relative importance ofdistinct signatures in resolved stellar population surveys. We make use of two such toroidal and poloidal fields, as well as scattering effects. The edge-on presentation ofsurveys. The SPLASH program has used the Keck/DEIMOS multiobject spectrograph NGC891 also permits studying changes in the field structure with height above theto measure radial velocities of over 10,000 individual red giant branch stars in the inner mid-plane of the disk, which will inform our understanding of similar latitude changes in20kpc of M31. The PHAT survey, an ongoing Hubble Space Telescope Multicycle the magnetic field structure of the Milky Way.Treasury program, has so far obtained six-filter photometry of over 90 million stars inthe same region. We use an MCMC algorithm to simultaneously fit a simple 146.13 – Measuring the Obscured Ionized Gas in the Center of the Nearby Face-onbulge/disk/halo structural model to the SBP, the disk fraction as measured from Spiral IC 342 with the GBT and EVLAkinematics, and the PHAT luminosity function. We find that the additional constraints A.A. Kepley, D.J. Pisano, National Radio Astronomy Observatory,favor a larger bulge than expected from a pure SBP fit. Comparison to galaxy formation Green Bank, WV; D.S. Balser, K.E. Johnson, National Radiomodels will constrain the formation histories of large spiral galaxies such as the Milky
  • 56. Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA; L. Chomiuk, Michigan dwarf satellite population. We present the surface brightness profile and metallicityState University, East Lansing, MI; M. Goss, D.S. Meier, National distribution of Andromedas stellar halo, based on spectroscopically selected samples of Andromeda stars. We trace Andromedas power-law profile halo out to 2/3 ofRadio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM; K.E. Johnson, Andromedas virial radius, identify a gradient in the metallicity distribution of halo stars,University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA; D.S. Meier, New Mexico and investigate the effect of substructure on the measured properties of AndromedasTech, Socorro, NM; D.J. Pisano, West Virginia University, halo.Morgantown, WV09:00 AM-06:30 PM 146.17 – A Multiwavelength Exploration of the Grand Design Spiral M83: A VLA L and C Band Survey of Historical SupernovaeGalactic centers represent a unique environment for star formation. Their high gassurface densities and short crossing times may lead to more efficient star formation than C. Stockdale, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI; T.A. Pritchard,found in the disks of galaxies. Measuring the properties of the young massive clusters in Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; K.S. Long,galactic centers is critical to understanding star formation in this environment. One way B.C. Whitmore, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD;to do this is to measure the properties of the gas ionized by the young massive clusters. J.J. Cowan, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK; W.P. Blair,Unfortunately, this gas is still obscured by the natal clouds of dust and gas surrounding K.D. Kuntz, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; L.A.the young massive clusters. Therefore, measuring the properties of this gas requires theuse of an extinction-free ionized gas tracer like radio recombination lines. This poster Maddox, Northrop Grumman Corp., Oklahoma City, OK; L.presents radio recombination line observations of the center of the nearby face-on spiral Godfrey, J. Miller-Jones, R. Soria, Curtin University, Bentley,galaxy IC 342. These observations constrain the density, filling factor, and kinematics of Western Australia, AUSTRALIA; P.F. Winkler, Middlebury College,the obscured ionized gas in the center of this galaxy. The properties of the ionized gas Middlebury, VT; P.P. Plucinsky, Smithsonian Astrophysicalare then used to constrain the properties of the young massive clusters and starformation efficiency in the center of IC 342. Observatory, Cambridge, MA 09:00 AM-06:30 PM146.14 – New Insights on the Formation and Assembly of M83 We present new low frequency observations of the grand design spiral galaxy, M83,D.A. Dale, S. Staudaher, Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY; K.L. using the C and L bands of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). Utilizing the newly expanded bandwidth of the VLA, we are exploring the radio spectral propertiesBarnes, L. van Zee, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN; J. of the more than 150 radio point sources in M83. We present the initial results of ourBullock, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA; D. Calzetti, VLA analyses, focusing on the radio evolution of the six historical supernovae (SNeUniversity of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA; R. Chandar, University 1983N, 1968L, 1957D, 1950B, 1945B, and 1923A) discovered in the last century. Theseof Toledo, Toledo, OH; J. Dalcanton, University of Washington, observations represent the fourth epoch of deep VLA observations of M83, and, withSeattle, WA recent optical (HST) and X-ray (Chandra) observations, they allow us to probe the transition of supernovae into supernova remnants. The National Radio Astronomy09:00 AM-06:30 PM Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperativeWe explore the outer disk and halo of the nearby spiral galaxy M83 with deep, multi- agreement by Associated Universities.wavelength and wide field-of-view imaging. New Spitzer near-infrared (NIR) imagingtraces the low-mass stellar population in the stream to the NW, which extends 146.18 – A Multiwavelength Exploration of the Grand Design Spiral M83: Theapproximately 90 degrees around the galaxy. GALEX far-ultraviolet (FUV) imaging HST/WFC3 Continuum and Emission-line Imaging Surveyshows no trace of emission along the location of the stream, indicating that the stream W.P. Blair, K.D. Kuntz, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD; W.P.has not undergone recent star formation. Markedly different NIR-to-FUV flux ratios ofstellar arms throughout the outer disk suggest different star formation histories for the Blair, K.S. Long, B.C. Whitmore, Space Telescope Science Institute,extended features in this galaxy. We use the NIR flux measurements to estimate the Baltimore, MD; P.F. Winkler, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT;total mass of the stellar stream and discuss formation scenarios for the stellar, gaseous, R. Chandar, B. Rangelov, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH; P.and XUV star-forming disk. Ghavamian, Towson University, Towson, MD; M.A. Dopita, Australia National University, Canberra, Australian Capital146.15 – The Stability of Galaxy Disks Territory, AUSTRALIA; R. Soria, Curtin University, Bentley,K.B. Westfall, M.A. Verheijen, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Western Australia, AUSTRALIAGroningen, Groningen, NETHERLANDS; D.R. Andersen, NRC 09:00 AM-06:30 PMHerzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Victoria, British Columbia, As part of HST Cy19 program 12513, we have obtained WFC3 UVIS and IR cameraCANADA; M.A. Bershady, University of Wisconsin-Madison, data of five new fields in the face-on spiral M83 which, combined with two existingMadison, WI; T. Martinsson, Leiden Observatory, Leiden, fields obtained in 2009 and 2010, nearly cover the entire bright disk and spiral arms.Zuid-Holland, NETHERLANDS; R.A. Swaters, National Optical Broadband U, B, V, I, and H will permit us to characterize the ages of 100’s of starAstronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ clusters as well as the general stellar disk populations as a function of spatial position.09:00 AM-06:30 PM The broadband data can also be scaled and subtracted from our narrowband Ha, [S II], [O III] and [Fe II] 1.64 micron images to allow us to find and measure 100’s ofUsing measurements of velocity dispersion and mass surface density for both the gas supernova remnants, planetary nebulae, and other emission nebulae. Comparison ofand stellar components, we calculate the multi-component stability (Q) for 30 galaxy these data with each other and with deep (729 ks) Chandra data and new radio surveysdisks observed by the DiskMass Survey. Despite their sub-maximality (Bershady et al. with JVLA and ATCA will allow us to search for and characterize optical counterparts2011, ApJL, 739, 47), we find all disks to be stable with roughly 85% falling in the range to many of the X-ray sources, including especially supernova remnants and X-ray1 binaries, and estimate the ages of the underlying host stellar populations. We will provide an overview of this rich data set and show initial results from these comparisons. This146.16 – The SPLASH Survey: Surface Brightness Profile and Metallicity Gradient of work is supported by STScI grant HST-GO-12513.01-A to the Johns HopkinsAndromedas Stellar Halo University.K. Gilbert, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; R. Beaton, S.R. 146.19 – A Deep XMM-Newton Survey of M33Majewski, R.J. Patterson, University of Virginia, Charlottesville,VA; J. Bullock, E.N. Kirby, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, B. Wold, B.F. Williams, K. Garofali, University of Washington,CA; M. Chiba, M. Tanaka, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Seattle, WA; P.P. Plucinsky, T.J. Gaetz, SAO, Cambridge, MA; F.JAPAN; M.C. Geha, E.J. Tollerud, Yale University, New Haven, CT; Haberl, W. Pietsch, MPE, Garching, GERMANY; K.S. Long,P. Guhathakurta, UCO/Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA; J.S. STScI, Baltimore, MD; T. Pannuti, Morehead State, Morehead, KY;Kalirai, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD P.F. Winkler, Middlebury, Middlebury, VT; W.P. Blair, JHU,09:00 AM-06:30 PM Baltimore, MD 09:00 AM-06:30 PMDiffuse, extended stellar populations encode information about the earliest stages of agalaxy’s formation. The Andromeda galaxy is distant enough to facilitate global studies We present the deepest survey of M33 with XMM-Newton to date. The data areof its stellar halo, while being close enough to allow spectroscopic observations of comprised of 8 overlapping EPIC fields covering the full area interior to the D25individual stars. The SPLASH survey utilizes photometric and spectroscopic isophote with a total exposure time of 810 ks. The data contain roughly 900 sources, 79observations of red giant branch stars to study Andromedas extended stellar halo and of which are known supernova remnants. In the inner regions of the survey, which
  • 57. overlaps with previous deep Chandra observations, we will be able to apply both data 146.23 – A Comparison of Disk Galaxies in GOALS and SINGSsets to measure source variability as well as detailed X-ray spectral characteristics ofindividual sources and diffuse gas emission. In the outer regions, where there is only J. Howell, J. Melbourne, L. Armus, J.M. Mazzarella, Caltech,coverage with XMM-Newton, our sensitivity allows the first deep search for M33 Pasadena, CA; H. Inami, NOAO, Tucson, AZ; S. Stierwalt,sources. Here we present a description of our data reduction, source detection, and University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VAextraction routines, which allow for simultaneous source detections across all 09:00 AM-06:30 PMoverlapping fields. Furthermore, we show a deep, wide-field color X-ray image of M33and preliminary source characteristics. Examples of detailed analysis of some individual The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) consists of 202 luminoussources will also be included. Support for this work is provided by NASA through grant infrared galaxies (LIRGs) selected from the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Survey.numbers NNX12AD42G and NNX12AI52G. Approximately 20% of these nearby LIRGs are morphologically undisturbed disk galaxies. In contrast, surveys of LIRGs at intermediate redshift find approximately a146.2 – Plateau de Bure Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS): Multiscale Analysis of 50%-50% split between apparently non-interacting disk galaxies and interacting/mergingthe ISM in the Whirlpool Galaxy systems. In order to probe the nature of LIRGs that are not involved in major mergers, we compare Spitzer observations of the 38 undisturbed disk galaxies in the GOALSS. Pardy, Macalester College, St. Paul, MN; A.K. Leroy, National sample to the disk galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS)Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA; E. Schinnerer, which on average are more than an order of magnitude less luminous than LIRGs in theD. Colombo, Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, infrared. We report the results of an investigation of possible causes for the enhancedGERMANY; J. Pety, Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique, infrared luminosity in LIRG disks compared to the more quiescent disks in SINGS.Grenoble, FRANCE 146.24 – The Effects of Dark Matter Halo Concentration of the Morphology of09:00 AM-06:30 PM Simulated GalaxiesRecently, the Plateau de Bure Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS) obtained a J. Berlanga Medina, J.C. Berrier, M. Hartley, D. Kennefick, J.D.12CO(J=1→0) map of the center region of M51 at a 37-pc scale. This allows us, for thefirst time, to study the multiscale structure of the molecular interstellar medium across Kennefick, C.H. Lacy, Department of Physics - University ofan entire spiral galaxy. We analyze emission on scales from 40 pc to 4 kpc, measuring Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR; J.C. Berrier, D. Kennefick, B.L. Davis,the properties of structures in the molecular ISM defined by intensity isosurfaces. At M. Seigar, J.D. Kennefick, C.H. Lacy, Arkansas Center for Spaceeach scale, we measure the size, line width, and luminosity of the emergent structures. and Planetary Sciences - University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR;We derive scaling relations among these properties and compare them to the Larson M. Seigar, Department of Physics and Astronomy - University ofscaling relations obtained for individual GMCs. The most striking result is how stronglythe Larson scaling relations hold at a range of scales and intensity cuts, especially on Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, ARsmaller scales (see Colombo et al. poster in this session). Despite this, at luminosities 09:00 AM-06:30 PMabove L_CO ~ 1E7 K km/s pc2 we find structures to be unbound, when considering The concentration of a galaxy’s dark matter halo may potentially affect observableonly their molecular gas mass, and with larger line widths than predicted by the basic properties of galactic morphology (e.g., Sérsic index, spiral arm pitch angle, etc.), but itscaling relations. Across all scales, we find only weak variations in surface density. is difficult to quantify in an observational setting. N-body simulations of galaxies provide an excellent tool to investigate these effects while getting around the limitations of146.21 – A Multiwavelength Exploration of the Grand Design Spiral M83: Diffuse X-ray observation. We are conducting tests to quantify the effects of halo concentration on theEmission structure of spiral galaxies by varying c_vir, the virial concentration of dark matter haloK.D. Kuntz, W.P. Blair, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD; K.S. particles. Using GalactICS 2008 (based on Widrow, Pym and Dubinski’s 2008 model ofLong, W.P. Blair, STScI, Baltimore, MD; P.P. Plucinsky, Harvard- the Milky Way), we generate initial conditions for spiral galaxy models that vary in γ or a_h, two parameters that change the density of dark matter particles. We then evolveSmithsonion Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA; R. Soria, these initial conditions over a period of 3 Gyr using the simulation package GADGET-2CIRA, Curtin University, Bentley, New South Wales, AUSTRALIA; (Springel, 2008), a massively parallel TreeSPH code. Using various routines, we canP.F. Winkler, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT compute quantities of interest at different points of evolution in our models, and attempt09:00 AM-06:30 PM to establish or rule out relationships between them and halo concentration parameters.We have obtained a series of deep X-ray images of the nearby galaxy M83, with a total 146.25 – Ionized Gas Velocities from Multi-Slit Spectroscopy for Nearby, Edge-onexposure 729 ksec with the Chandra ACIS-S array. Since the bulk of the X-ray emitting Galaxiesdisk falls within the BI chip, these observations allow a detailed study of the soft diffuseemission in the disk. Most of the diffuse emission is related to star-formation regions and C.J. Wu, R.A. Walterbos, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces,must be powered by supernovae and stellar winds, though the amount of emission due to NM; R.J. Rand, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; G.identifiable SNR is only a few percent. The relation between the spectral shape and Heald, ASTRON, Dwingeloo, NETHERLANDSsurface brightness that was seen in M101 suggests that the properties of the X-ray 09:00 AM-06:30 PMemission in spiral disks are shaped by the local hot gas production rate (traced by thelocal star-formation rate) or the disk mid-plane pressure, but it is unclear which physical Several galaxies show decreasing rotational velocities of neutral and ionized hydrogenmechanism dominates. To illuminate this problem, we will compare M83 with the gas with increasing height above the disk. This is likely due to a combination of outflowprevious Chandra studies of M101 and M33. from galactic fountains and infall from the IGM or satellite accretion. The degree to which each component contributes affects the rotational velocity gradient of the gas and146.22 – Near-Infrared Detection of Super-Thin Disks of Massive Spiral Galaxies has implications for halo formation and evolution. We present an overview of our H-alpha observations and modeling of the ionized extra-planar gas for our sample of 12A. Schechtman-Rook, M.A. Bershady, University of Wisconsin- edge-on, spiral galaxies, several of which are HALOGAS (Hydrogen Accretion inMadison, Madison, WI LOcal GAlaxieS) targets. HALOGAS is a WSRT deep HI survey studying cold gas09:00 AM-06:30 PM accretion in the local universe. Our observations are from a multi-slit spectroscopic setup on the ARC 3.5m telescope, which allows us to measure velocities of H-alphaIn the Milky Way star formation preferentially occurs close to the galactic midplane, and emitting gas as a function of height above the disk in 11 radial distance bins in a singlecan be represented by a super-thin disk with an exponential-like radial and vertical exposure. The goal of this project is to characterize the kinematics of extra-planarprofile. Unfortunately, due to dust attenuation, it is not clear if other massive spiral ionized gas, measure a vertical velocity gradient for targets that show a lagginggalaxies also possess such disks. Indirect evidence for the presence of such a component, and compare the characteristics of neutral and ionized extra-planarcomponent comes from the spectral energy distribution of spirals, which contains more hydrogen gas. RW acknowledges support from NSF grant AST-0908126 and from afar-infrared flux (from dust re-emission) than can be accounted for by an extrapolation grant from Research Corporation for the Advancement of Science.of the observed light profile to the midplane. These spectral energy distributions containno spatial information, however, so the detailed structural parameters of a star-formingdisk are not recoverable. We have undertaken a program of high-resolution 146.26 – The “Direct” Radial Abundance Gradients of NGC 628 and NGC 2403near-infrared imaging of edge-on spiral galaxies, which, coupled with state-of-the-art D. Berg, E.D. Skillman, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis,radiation transfer models, allow us to strip away the effects of the dust and reveal the MN; A.R. Marble, National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ; K.V.intrinsic light distribution all the way down to the midplane. We find that, in addition to Croxall, Ohio State University, Columbus, OHthin and thick disks already known from deep optical observations of these galaxies,super-thin disks similar to the Milky Ways are necessary to accurately fit the 09:00 AM-06:30 PMattenuation-corrected near-infrared light distributions. We acknowledge support for this We present high quality spectroscopic observations of H II regions in two nearby spiralwork from the National Science Foundation (AST-1009491). galaxies in order to measure their chemical abundance gradients. Using long-slit and multi-object mask optical spectroscopy from the MMT and Gemini, we obtained
  • 58. measurements of the temperature sensitive [O III] λ4363 and/or [N II] λ5755 auroral 146.27 – The Supermassive Black Hole Mass Function in Spiral Galaxieslines in H II regions selected for thorough radial coverage. Spiral galaxies pose achallenge to abundance work, as a single abundance measurement is not sufficient to J.D. Kennefick, J.C. Berrier, D. Kennefick, B.L. Davis, D. Shields,characterize the entire galaxy. Therefore, high quality spectra of many H II regions that R.S. Barrows, C.H. Lacy, J.A. Hughes, Univ. Of Arkansas,enable “direct” abundances are required to securely measure the oxygen abundance Fayetteville, AR; M. Seigar, Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, ARgradient. We present the first ever “direct” oxygen abundances for H II regions in NGC 09:00 AM-06:30 PM628. From 13 regions with a radial coverage of 2.33 to 22.75 kpc we derive an oxygenabundance gradient of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.382 − 0.014 × Rg (dex/kpc), with a dispersion The AGES group is exploring a number of techniques to study the relationship betweenin log(O/H) of σ = 0.106. Similarly, for NGC 2403 we present an improved sample of central SMBH black hole mass and spiral arm morphology in disk galaxies. We have“direct” oxygen abundances. From 7 H II regions extending from a galactocentric radius developed a new technique which permits us to reliably and accurately measure pitchof 0.87 to 9.4 kpc we derive an oxygen abundance gradient of 12 + log(O/H) = angle based upon a 2DFFT algorithm. We have then compared pitch angles to directly8.446−0.022×Rg (dex/kpc). Since there is a general paucity of high quality abundance measured black hole masses in local galaxies and demonstrated a strong correlationdata from individual spiral galaxies, these accurate H II region data sets are necessary between them. Using the relation thus established we have developed a pitch angleto understand relative trends among galaxies. distribution function of a statistically complete volume limited sample of nearby galaxies and developed a central black hole mass function for nearby spiral galaxies.147 – Evolution of GalaxiesPoster Session – Exhibit Hall A (Long Beach Convention Center) – 07 Jan 2013 09:00 AM to 06:30 PM interstellar media. I analyzed the AGES NGC 3193 region, a 20 square degrees field147.01 – The Rotation of Binary and Isolated Galaxies: Testing Tidal Torque Theory obtained with the Wideband Arecibo Pulsar Processor (WAPP) correlators covering awith ALFALFA redshift range of z ~ 0 - 0.06. I produced a catalogue containing measured parametersD. Schmitz, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; R. Giovanelli, such as flux, HI mass, velocity width, position fitting, mass-to-light ratios and gasM.P. Haynes, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY deficiencies for the detected sources. Among the relevant results found was the evidence of possible HI stripping in an interacting galaxy group that included a galactic09:00 AM-06:30 PM merger.Tidal torque theory postulates that torque from the local tidal field during the protogalaxystage, rather than minor mergers with infalling satellite galaxies, is the dominant 147.05 – New Star Formation Rate Estimates for the Star Formation Reference Surveymechanism by which galaxies acquire their angular momentum. We test this theory with using Herschel/ PACS and SPIREa study of the spin parameter λ of a sample of optically- and HI-selected galaxies fromthe SDSS and ALFALFA surveys. We define subsamples consisting of isolated galaxies E. Golden-Marx, Brown University, Providence, RI; M.N. Ashby, L.and galaxies with nearby companions and compare the λ distributions of these Lanz, H.A. Smith, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics,subsamples, and study the spin parameter as a function of nearest neighbor separation Cambridge, MA; J. Zhang, Acton-Boxborough Regional Highnormalized by virial radius. In our sample, we tentatively find that paired galaxies exhibit School, Acton, MAhigher λ values than isolated galaxies, in agreement with the predictions of the tidal 09:00 AM-06:30 PMtorque theory. Further examination of the rotational properties of the galaxies in oursample will be instructive in understanding the nature of the interactions between close We evaluated the potential of new FIR photometry collected by the Herschel Spacegalaxy companions. This research was conducted through the Astronomy NSF/REU Observatory to improve star formation rate (SFR) estimates in 79 nearby galaxies thatprogram at Cornell University supported by NSF/AST-1156780; the ALFALFA program previously only had IRAS photometry. We obtained 70-500 micron photometry fromat Cornell is supported by NSF/AST-0607006 and NSF/AST-1107390. Herschel PACS and SPIRE, added it to our existing GALEX/SDSS/2MASS /IRAC/MIPS database, and modeled the resulting spectral energy distributions with147.02 – ALFALFA L-band Wide Followup Observations and IDL Routines MagPhys. The Herschel/PACS 100 micron photometry is systematically lower than the IRAS 100 micron photometry by about 20%, but the IRAS and PACS measurementsN. Nichols, P. Troischt, Hartwick College, Oneonta, NY are otherwise consistent. We calculated the global SFRs, dust masses, dust luminosities,09:00 AM-06:30 PM and stellar masses for each Herschel-observed galaxy in our sample. Based on theThe Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team Groups Project is a MagPhys modeling, we found that the total modeled SFRs are significantly lower thancollaborative undertaking of faculty and students at 11 institutions, aimed at investigating previously inferred from IRAS alone and that at least some of the difference isproperties of galaxy groups surveyed by the ALFALFA blind HI survey. As part of the attributable to a portion of the FIR emission being excited by a quiescent stellarproject, an IDL (Interactive Data Language) routine was developed to reduce LBW population. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU a