Broad Band technology, Next generation network (NGN),DSLAM


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  • Broad Band technology, Next generation network (NGN),DSLAM

    1. 1. BroadBand Telecom.Networks Workshop 1
    2. 2. Objectives of Workshop• After this session, you will learn: – How to reuse the existing Access Networks for Broadband Services ? – One practical Broad Band Access System DSL – About Upcoming Broadband Systems e.g NGN. – Connectivity of IP Network for DSL and other Broadband Services (Access & Core) – Configuration of IP Network for DSL • and other Broadband Services 2
    3. 3. About this Session• Background Of Telecommunication Networks ?• Requirements of new Access Technology ?• Broadband Technologies• Digital Subscriber Lines-DSL• DSL-What ?• DSL-When ?• DSL-Why ?• DSL-Flavors• DSL Architecture 3
    4. 4. Background Of Telecommunication Network s? 4
    5. 5. Building Blocks of Telecommunication Network Model• Three Basic layers of Telecommunication Network Model are: 1. Access Layer 2. Switching and Services Layer (Core Layer) 3. Transport Layer 5
    6. 6. Building Blocks of Telecommunication Network Model Contd… …1. Access Layer Represents the network that links the customers to the Switch and Services Layer.2. Switching and Services Layer (Core) Consists of all the Switching Nodes (Local Exchange ,Transit Exchange etc.)1. Transport Layer Represents the links among the nodes and provides the medium and systems to carry the information from one node to the other. 6
    7. 7. Building Blocks of Telecommunication Network Model Contd… 7
    8. 8. What is an Access Network (AN) ?The access network refers to the part of thenetwork, connecting the subscriber to thetelecommunication service providing point /exchange.It is the last link /last Mile in a network betweenthe customer premises and the first point ofconnection to the Network infrastructure 8
    9. 9. Typical Network Construction 9
    10. 10. Requirements of new Access Technology• Changes in Trends – Technological Evolution• Demand for High Speed Access – Broad Band Services – Increase in Internet Usage – Increase in demand of bandwidth 10
    11. 11. What is broadband ?• Broader, wider – more bandwidth• More bandwidth than narrow band dial up (56 kbps)• Greater than 128 kbps• Definitions vary from country to country• Higher bandwidths of 256, 512, 1024 kbps and above• Always on• Uses various mediums: – Copper – Coaxial – Wireless (Microwave ,Satellite etc.) – Optical Fiber
    12. 12. Broadband Technologies 12
    13. 13. Why Broadband ?• In a Telecommunication Network , last mile or first mile is most important. It creats bottleneck• Development of bandwidth hungry applications• Convergence of Voice, data and video at one delivery mechanism• Need for Speed
    14. 14. Why Broadband ?
    15. 15. Narrow band Services & Broad band Services• Narrow band Services – Voice – Limited Data• Broadband Services – Band width Hungry – Multimedia Services ……..Voice + Video + Data 15
    16. 16. Narrow band Services & Broad band Services SPEED !
    17. 17. Broad band Access 17
    18. 18. Broad band Access 18
    19. 19. Broadband access technologies• Optical Access Network – FTTH: Fiber To The Home – FTTC: Fiber To The Curb – Passive Optical Networks – HFC (Hybrid Fiber Coaxial)• xDSL – HDSL (High rate digital subscriber line) – SDSL (Symmetric digital subscriber line) – ADSL (Asymmetric digital subscriber line) – VDSL (Very high bit rate DSL) – IDSL (ISDN DSL) – UDSL (Ultrahigh bit rate DSL) 19
    20. 20. Broadband access technologies• Wireless broadband access – Wireless LAN – WLL (Wireless Local Loop – Microwave Radio Access (WiMax) – GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) – EDGE ( Enhanced Data GSM or Global Evolution ) – CDMA – EVDO• And many many more........ 20
    21. 21. Requirement of new Access Technology 21
    22. 22. Requirement of new Access Technology• Limitations of Conventional Telecomm. Network (PSTN,ISDN) in terms of Broadband services – Bandwidth Limitation • Analog Modem Connections are limited to 56K. • Basic Rate ISDN limited to 144 Kbps – Switch Congestion • Voice calls are usually short (say 5 min) • Data calls are usually long (may be 120 mins.) • Flat Charge /Low Charging by ISPs intends users for long internet usage. 22
    23. 23. Requirement of new Access Technology• Applicable to Existing Network – xDSL – Digital Cross Connect (DXX) – ISDN• Requiring new Installations – Optical Fiber – Wireless Local Loop – CATV 23
    25. 25. x Digital Subscriber Lines (x DSL)• Digital Subscriber Line is an Access technology that enables broadband data over twisted copper pairs, opening the most crucial bottleneck in the today’s data stream. 25
    26. 26. x Digital Subscriber Lines (x DSL)The three Ws– What ?– Why ?– When ? 26
    27. 27. x Digital Subscriber Lines (x DSL) What ?• DSL uses existing telephone lines – Millions of telephone lines around the world. – DSL can provide data and voice over the same phone line – Users don’t need a second line. – DSL provides service providers with the capability to leverage the existing infrastructure• DSL makes economic sense – Reuse of existing telephone Outside Plants and reduces the deployment costs and risks – Deployed incrementally without large capital investment. 27
    28. 28. x Digital Subscriber Lines (x DSL) What ?• DSL has many flavors – xDSL is a generic abbreviation for the many flavours of DSL or DSL Technology.• DSL enables more bandwidth – DSL refers to the technology used between a customer’s premises and the telephone company, enabling more bandwidth over the already installed copper cabling than user have traditionally had. – One may be able to receive data at rates up to 6.1 Mbps (millions of bits) per second (of a theoretical 8.448 megabits per second), 28
    29. 29. x Digital Subscriber Lines (x DSL) What ?• Provides a variety of services – Internet Access – Telecommuting (The practice of using telecommunication technologies to work a site away from office ) – Distant learning – On-line gaming – Remote LAN Access – Videoconferencing etc – Continuous transmission of motion video, audio 29
    30. 30. x Digital Subscriber Lines (x DSL) What ?• DSL enables new applications – Services requiring real-time, interactive multimedia and broadcast-quality video. – Such applications include • Video conferencing • Video-on-demand • IP TV • Many Many More……… 30
    31. 31. x Digital Subscriber Lines (x DSL) What ?• Transmission speeds are not affected by other users going on-line – DSL is one customers dedicated line, – Generally transmission speeds are not affected• DSL is "always on" – DSL is always connected - just like a standard telephone. There is no time wasted in dialing up the service. 31
    32. 32. 32
    33. 33. x Digital Subscriber Lines (x DSL) What ? Public Telephone Network DSL Access Multiplexer Central Office Telephone Line 6Mbps InternetCustomerPremises DSL 33
    34. 34. x Digital Subscriber Lines (x DSL) What ? 34
    35. 35. x Digital Subscriber Lines (x DSL) Why ?• DSL makes use of Huge Investment which has already been done on Copper• Eliminates the need for upgrades – Unlike competing technologies, DSL eliminates the need for extensive and expensive infrastructure upgrades• DSL bridges gap between latest technologies and copper – DSL is the best Choice to bridge the gap between the latest bandwidth hungry applications and the already cheaply available copper cable , 35
    36. 36. x Digital Subscriber Lines (x DSL) When ?• Saving of time is essential .• High Data rates are required.• Revenue Saving is desired .• Unmet broadband demand is to be met.• Growing Traffic needs are to be satisfied.• Alternate to insufficient optical fiber deployment is required. 36
    37. 37. How does DSL technology achieveinformation rates in the millions ofbits per second over those samecopper loops? 37
    38. 38. The answer is simpleAs most speech energy lay in the frequencyrange below 3500 Hz. Thus, for faithfulreproduction of speech, only a narrow range offrequencies (0-3500 Hz), needs to betransmitted. The telephone networks aredesigned to pass frequencies in the range 300 –3400 Hz.DSL uses a much broader range offrequencies than the voice channel . Thus,eliminating the 3,400-Hz boundary and using allbandwidth of underutilized copper . 38
    39. 39. x Digital Subscriber Lines (x DSL)• xDSL modems take advantage of the spectrum above the telephone audio channel. – DSL increases data rates by greatly increasing the frequency range of the communication signal (from about 10KHz to over 1.0MHz). – To do this they require the installation of special equipment at the central office and customer premise 39
    40. 40. Frequency Range of Copper Line Frequency Range300 Hz to 3.3 kHz - Analog Voice 4 kHz to 1.1 MHz - ADSL Data 40
    41. 41. xDSL-Flavors 41
    42. 42. xDSL-FlavorsSymmetric DSL Asymmetric DSL 42
    43. 43. Asymmetric DSL• Why it is called Asymmetric DSL ? – faster downstream rate vs. upstream rate.• Applications – Web-browsing, IP TV , Video on demand (VoD) Asymmetric DSL and Derived Types 1 ADSL 2 Universal ADSL (UDSL), G.Lite or DSL Lite 3 Rate-Adaptive DSL (RADSL) 43 4 Very High Bit-rate DSL (VDSL)
    44. 44. Symmetric DSL• Why it is called Symmetric DSL? – Downstream & upstream rates are equal• Applications – Office type applications like Video conferencing• Types – High bit-rate DSL (HDSL) – Single-pair HDSL (SHDSL) – ISDN DSL (ISDL) 44
    45. 45. Differences in different flavors /variants of DSLFew key differences 1 Speed How much data can be sent or received in a certain amount of time ?(bit rate) 2 Line Coding How the information is encoded and sent on the line ? 3 Number of Lines What are the requirements in terms of twisted pairs ? 4 Reach How many feet/meters the signal can reliably travel ? 45
    46. 46. Asymmetric DSL and Derived Types 46
    47. 47. Asymmetric DSL and Derived Types• ADSL• Universal ADSL (UDSL), G.Lite or DSL Lite• Rate-Adaptive DSL (RADSL)• Very High Bit-rate DSL (VDSL) 47
    48. 48. ADSL• Why it is called ADSL ? – ADSL is called "asymmetric" because most of its two-way bandwidth is devoted to the downstream direction i.e sending data to the user.• Data Rate and Reach – Only a small portion of bandwidth is available for upstream or user-interaction messages. Using ADSL, up to 6.1 Mbps of data can be sent downstream and up to 640 Kbps upstream – The data rate of ADSL is highly dependent upon the distance from Central Office (CO) to the Consumer Premises – ADSL is designed to co exist with a regular phone line (phone operates at frequencies up to 4 KHz). ADSL will extend out to 18,000 ft, but its ideal rates only operate out to 9,000 ft. – Speeds and distances based on good pair 48
    49. 49. ADSL• Advantages – Well suited to residential application. – Peacefully co-exists with current phone service. • It has large downstream data capacity – ADSL (like most flavors of xDSL) is always connected• Disadvantages – For Large business upstream data rates are often just as important as downstream ,which would make ADSL a poor choice – Data rates also suffer dramatically as line length increases. 49
    50. 50. ADSL 50
    51. 51. ADSL (Operation)• To create multiple channels ,ADSL Modem divide the available bandwidth of a telephone line by using Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM).• By FDM , ADSL splits off a 4 kHz region for basic telephone service at the lower end of the band. One band is used for upstream and one band for downstream is assigned. 51
    52. 52. ADSL Spectrum - FDM 52
    53. 53. Type of Asymmetric DSL- G.Lite• DSL Lite, Splitter less ADSL or UADSL (Universal ADSL)• A derivative of ADSL technology • ITU-T Standard • UADSL is Output of Universal ADSL Working Group (UAWG)• Slower version • provides a data rate of 1.544 Mbps downstream and from 128 Kbps to 384 Kbps upstream.• Simpler Hardware design • Because of the lower bit rate, hardware design for G.Lite is easier 53
    54. 54. Types of Asymmetric DSL- G.Lite• No Splitter Required • Where wiring in the home is old or done poorly,the voice and data signals can interfere with each other .In those cases ,small Micro Filters are placed on each phone line in the house. • Higher noise levels can be tolerated, eliminating the need for a POTS splitter.• Cost effective solution as no splitter required 54
    55. 55. Types of Asymmetric DSL- G.Lite• The 0 to 4 kilohertz (KHz) range is used for POTS• The 20 KHz to 130 KHz range is used to transmit data upstream• The 140 KHz to 550 KHz range is used to transmit data downstream The (3) Divided Segments of G.Lite 55
    56. 56. G.Lite DMT Spectrum 56
    57. 57. 57
    58. 58. Types of Asymmetric DSL- RADSL• RADSL (Rate Adaptive DSL )• By dynamically decreasing or increasing the bit- rate ,rate adaptive technology uses the optimal speed for the Line.• Modem periodically assesses line quality and adjust transmission rate• Generally used to extend reach of systems to areas that are far from the central office. 58
    59. 59. Types of Asymmetric DSL- RADSL• Operates over single twisted-pair copper loop• Downstream: 1 to 12 Mbps• Upstream: 0.128 to 1 Mbps.• In summary RADSL gives flexibility to adapt to the changing conditions and adjust the speeds in each direction to potentially maximize the throughput on each line. 59
    60. 60. Types of Asymmetric DSL- VDSL• VDSL (Very high bit rate DSL)• Data rates: Up to 52 Mbps (13, 26, or up to 52 ) in one direction and 2 Mbps in the other• Meets businesses and residences with broadband access requirements over a Fiber-To-The-Curb (FTTC) network.• Ultra High Speed data access such as Streaming video possible. 60
    61. 61. Type of Asymmetric DSL- VDSL 61 VDSL Network
    62. 62. Symmetric DSL and Derived Types 62
    63. 63. Symmetric DSL• Why it is called Symmetric DSL? – Downstream & upstream rates are equal• Applications – office type applications like Video conferencing• Types – High bit-rate DSL (HDSL) – Single-pair HDSL (SHDSL) – ISDN DSL (ISDL) 63
    64. 64. Type of Symmetric xDSL-HDSL• HDSL (High bit rate Digital Subscriber Line) – 1.544/2.048 Mbits bi-directional service• Matured and cheaper type of DSL .• Developed in late 1980’s as an alternative to T1/E1 standards .• Initially T1/E1 lines were developed and deployed for high speed data transmission. – They are dedicated lines where there is always a connection between the end user and the service provider. – A leased T1 /E1 line has customarily been quite expensive. 64
    65. 65. Types of Symmetric xDSL-HDSL 65
    66. 66. Types of Symmetric xDSL-HDSL• HDSL was designed to automatically compensate for line conditions.• HDSL uses Duplex transmission sending data bi-directionally against T1/E1 which uses Simplex Transmission• HDSL transceivers can transmit a 2.048 Mbps data signal over two, 0.5mm, twisted wire pair loops at a distance of up to 4.2 km without the need for repeaters 66
    67. 67. Types of Symmetric xDSL-HDSL 67
    68. 68. Types of Symmetric xDSL-HDSL• HDSL is designed to run at the same bit rate as a T1/E1 line (1.544/2.048 Mbps) and it uses the same number of lines, but it can achieve this same bit rate on less expensive lines over a greater distance.• To do this, it sends a half rate signal (784/1040 kbps) on each line. 68
    69. 69. Types of Symmetric xDSL-HDSL• Advantages – Matured and proven technology. – Very easy and economical to install. – Having decent transfer rate in both directions at 1.544/2.048 Mbps (784/1040 kbps x 2).• Dis-advantages – Requires two twisted pairs of wires to operate – High deployment cost for service providers. – Slightly slower in speed than other forms of DSL, 69
    70. 70. 70
    71. 71. Types of Symmetric DSL- SHDSL• SHDSL (Single-pair HDSL)• Single twisted pair of wires is used.• This helps to drive the cost of a system down.• Having transfer rate in both directions at 1.544/2.048 Mbps .• SHDSL supports repeaters ,which further increases the reach capability 71
    72. 72. Types of Symmetric DSL- SHDSL• It can be used to provide variety of rates between 192 Kbps and 2.312Mbps and can extend 5.5 km @ 256 Kbps.• Ideally suited to SOHO market 72
    73. 73. Types of Symmetric DSL- IDSL• IDSL (ISDN Digital Subscriber Line).• IDSL provides DSL technology over existing ISDN lines.•• Even though the transfer rates for IDSL are about the same as ISDN (144kbps v. 128kbps), and IDSL circuits can only carry data (not voice), the major benefits of switching to IDSL from ISDN are – Always-on connections, as opposed to dial-up, thus eliminating call setup delays; – Transmission of data over the data network, rather than the PSTN. 73
    74. 74. DSL Reaches and Rates 74
    75. 75. 75
    76. 76. Comparing Access Technologies 76
    77. 77. DSL Architecture 77
    78. 78. DSL Central Office Components• DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer) – Aggregates traffic from multiple DSL Modems and combine it into higher speeds before sending it to the Internet or data network. – It is a mechanism at a phone Company’s central location that links many DSL customers (Connections) to a single high speed Data Line – DSLAMs are generally flexible and able to support multiple types of DSL in a central office 78
    79. 79. DSL Central Office Components– DSL customer Terminates individual subscriber line and integrates it into the telephone and data networks.– Multiple DSLAMs are further connected to B-RAS (Broad band Remote Access server) and hence to Internet Cloud.– Splitters and filters are also located at the telephone company equipment.– Modern DSLAMs support • Multiple DSL transmission types • ADSL, SDSL, etc • Different protocol 79 • Different modulation techniques
    80. 80. DSL Central Office Components 80 DSLAM
    81. 81. DSL Customer Premises Equipment (CPE)• Splitter / Filters – Separates the low frequency voice signals from the high frequency data signals. – If we will not install the DSL splitter on our telephone line, the phone line signals can interfere with DSL modem. And we can face noise, low speed data or service break down. 81
    82. 82. DSL Customer Premises Equipment (CPE)– DSL Modem – Couples DSL to PC or Ethernet Equipment 82
    83. 83. PSTN Internet IP /ATM DSLAMSubscriber Premises Local Loop Splitter Less than 18,000 ft. --LowFrequencies Central Office High Frequencies PC with DSL Modem 83 Network Topology DSL Connection With Splitter
    84. 84. Network Diagram of DSL 84
    85. 85. DSL Coding Techniques 85
    86. 86. Coding Techniques for xDSL• Many approaches have developed as a means of encoding data on to xDSL Circuits• The Commonly used modulations are – Discrete MultiTone Modulation (DMT) – Carrierless Amplitude Phase Modulation (CAP) – Quadrature with Phase Modulation (QAM) 86
    87. 87. Line Coding Techniques for ADSL• Discrete MultiTone Modulation (DMT) – Used in Industries – DMT uses multiple narrowband Carriers , – DMT systems divide the frequency band into 256 sub carriers with the standard 4.3125 kHz bandwidth. – 32 of these channels are reserved for upstream data. – All Carriers transmitting simultaneously in a parallel transmission mode – Each of these carriers carries a portion of the information being transmitted 87
    88. 88. Line Coding Techniques for ADSL• These carriers can be independently modulated DMT Spectrum 88
    89. 89. Current Version of DSL VDSL: Broadband To The HomeReach over copper: 300m - 2KmData rates: Up to 52 Mbps VDSLSymmetric and Asymmetric Copper operation VDSL FTTB Street Cabinet VDSL Copper VDSL FTTC Central Office Copper . VDSL . . VDSL
    90. 90. PTCL Announcing Bandwidth (DSL) Data Rate Up to 50 Mbps• PTCL Announcing Bandwidth (DSL) Data Rate Up to 50 Mbps Using VDSL2 Bonding Technology• PTCL has become the 1st operator in the world to use VDSL2 Bonding technology to provide to its bandwidth hungry DSL customers with Bandwidth up to 50 Mbps on its existing Copper network.• VDSL2 Bonding takes two copper based lines per subscriber and aggregates them to almost double the bandwidth speed available to the existing customers and also expands high speed broadband access to areas that are underserved today. Using VDSL2 Bonding technology, service providers can extend the life of their existing copper infrastructure supporting the delivery of bandwidth intensive services90 such as Triple play service, data and IPTV.
    91. 91. THANKS 91
    92. 92. Picture Abhi baqi ha mery Dost……. 92
    93. 93. What is Next Generation Networks (NGN ) ?− NGN is based on standard protocols and packet switching network− In broad sense − NGN refers to integrated network that adopts new technologies extensively, focuses on IP, and provides voice, data, and multimedia service at the same time.− In narrow sense − NGN refers to the Open , Integrated and Distributed network that employs soft switch at the control layer
    94. 94. What is Next Generation Networks (NGN ) ? Voice+ Data +Video Video
    95. 95. Conventional Network
    96. 96. Limitations of Conventional Network− Switches are aged .Legacy Switch is designed for Speech . Data Traffic is increasing day by day. Networks are going to be complex and need to be consolidated And…− I want to protect existing SDH transmission investment− I want to keep current access layer architecture What shall I do? 96
    97. 97. NGN is Ready Now • NGN will fully replace the TDM network owing : – technical advances – cost savings – long term revenue generation • The market and technology is mature for the large scale deployment of NGN 97
    98. 98. NGN is Ready Now
    99. 99. NGN is Ready Now Competitive NGN Standardization of More and more commercial and more commercial equipment price NGN protocols NGN applications NGN applications worldwide worldwideMaturity and Openness Settlement of More successful of NGN services QoS/Security problems interoperability test 99
    100. 100. Comparison of Circuit switching in TDM Switch Model and Packet switching in NGN Model Intelligent Network (SCP) SoftSwitch Expanded Services CPU Switching Array Signaling IP Core Module Signaling Gateway Trunk Module User Access Module Trunk Media Access Media Gateways Gateway
    101. 101. Hybrid Networks Gateways allow PCs Public Switched Telephone Network to also reach phonesInitially, PC to PC voice calls over the Internet PSTN Gateway for Media & Signaling TMG Multimedia PC IP Network Gateway for Media & Signaling TMG Multimedia PC PSTN …or phones to reach phones
    102. 102. Next Generation Networks NGN (Architecture of NGN) • Four Layers Model of NGN 1. Edge Access Layer 2.Core Switching Layer 3.Network Control Layer 4.Service Management Layer
    103. 103. Four Layers Model of NGN 103
    104. 104. Other Network MRS MGCP APP Server SCP MML/SNMP/CORBA FTP Network management INAP BC (Billing cent PARLAY SIP H.323 Heart Beat Soft switch SoftSwitch SIGTRAN MGCP/SIP/H.323SG H.248 MGCP EPhone MGCP / H.248 TMG AMG IAD Soft Switch Interfaces and Protocols Service Layer Control layer104 Access Layer
    105. 105. Any comments or questions? Thank you ! 105