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Aryabhatta was the scientist who invented the digit zero.
Chess was invented in India.
India is the Largest democracy in the world and one of the most ancient and living civilizations.
India has the most post offices in the world !
The largest employer in the world is the Indian railway system, employing over a million people!
The World's first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC
Sushruta is regarded as the father of surgery.
Dance is a form of art, where the body is used as a medium of communication.
The dance heritage of India is at least 5000 years old.
The wall paintings of Ajanta and Ellora, the sculptures of Khajuraho stand ample evidence for popularity of Indian dances from ancient times.
Nataraja , the dancing Lord Shiva, is the supreme manifestation of Indian dance.
Dance Forms of India
Classical Dance Forms
B haratnatyam - Tamil Nadu
K athak - Uttar Pradesh
K athakali – Kerala
K uchipudi- Andhra Pradesh
M anipuri – Manipur
M ohiniattam – Kerala
O dissi - Orissa
Widely appreciated dance form of Tamil Nadu.
The contemporary form of Bharatnatyam evolved during the late 18th or early 19th century.
Bharatanatyam dancers are predominantly women.
Kathak was initially very similar to Bharatanatyam.
Originated in the North.
The word kathak derived from "Katha", literally means story teller.
Music and dance were used by story tellers to illuminate the story.
Kathak focuses more on footwork as compared to the hand movements in Bharatanatyam.
Originated in Kerala.
Kathakali is embedded in stories from the epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata.
Elaborate masks are used by the performers. They wear huge skirts and head-dress.
Performed in the temples.
The dancers encompass dance with dialogue.
There are 3 groups - actor-dancers, vocalists and percussionists, in a Kathakali performance.
Originated from a hamlet in Andhra Pradesh called Kuchelapuri or Kuchelapuram in the 3rd century B.C.
Presented at temples.
In a Kuchipudi performance, each principal character introduces himself or herself on the stage with a daru.
A daru is a small composition of dance and song specially designed for each character to help him or her reveal his or her identity.
Originated from Orissa.
One of the oldest surviving dance forms.
Odissi is similar to Bharatnatyam with respect to the mudras and expressions.
It is a soft, lyrical classical dance which depicts the ambience of Orissa.
Odissi is based on the popular devotion to Lord Krishna.
Odissi dancers use their head, bust and torso in soft flowing movements to express specific moods and emotions.
Mohiniattam means Mohini's dance.
Mohiniattam is the feminine dance form of Kerala.
It signifies transformation of Lord Vishnu into a female form.
The theme of Mohiniattam is love and devotion to god. Vishnu or Krishna is more often the hero.
The basic dance steps are the Adavus which are of four kinds : Taganam, Jaganam, Dhaganam and Sammisram.
Mohiniattam maintains realistic make-up and simple dressing.
The dancer are attired in a beautiful white and gold bordered Kasavu saree of Kerala.
Manipuri is the classical dance from the Manipur region in the North East.
The earliest records of this dance form date back to about 100 AD.
Slow and gracious movements differentiate Manipuri from other dance styles.
Manipuri dance is very much religious and associated to Vaishnav cult of Hinduism.
The art form primarily depicts episodes from the life of Vishnu.
Indian culture includes a treasure of a variety of folk dances.
The diversity in culture and tradition is reflected in the variety of Indian folk dances.
One of the most colourful and enchanting dances of Southern Kerala.
Associated with the festival of certain temples.
These temples are formed in the districts of Alleppey, Quilon, Pathanamthitta and Kottayam districts.
The main kolams (huge masks) presented in Padayani are Kali, Kalan , Yakshi (fairy), Pakshi (bird), etc.
The literal meaning of Padayani is military formations or rows of army.
The performers consist of dancers, singers and instrumentalists.
Thiruvathirakali also known as Kaikottikali is a dance performed by women, in order to attain everlasting marital bliss, on Thiruvathira day in the Malayalam month of Dhanu (December- January).
The sinuous movements executed by a group of dancers around a nilavilakku, embody 'lasya' or the amorous charm and grace of the feminine.
The dance follows a circular, pirouetting pattern accompanied by clapping of the hands and singing.
Karakattam (Tamil Nadu)
One of the most essential parts of a ritual, dedicated to Mariamma , the goddess of health and rain.
It is performed by men, wherein they balance pots filled with uncooked rice, surrounded by a tall conical bamboo frame covered with flowers.
Drums and long pipes form the musical instruments accompanying the dance.
Karakattam is popular in villages during temple festivals.
Karakattam ( Karagam )
Kummi (Tamil Nadu)
Kummi means to dance while clapping hands to a rhythm , accompanied by songs in popular tunes.
Women form a circle and dance during the Maariamman and Kaanum Pongal festivals for ten consecutive days.
Yakshgana is a folk theatre form of Karnataka and it is an ancient art.
The original form of Yakshgana involves the use of recitative modes of poetry, melodies of music, rhythm and dance techniques, colourful costumes and graceful make up.
Chhau (West Bengal )
The Chhau dance of West Bengal has originated from the Purulia distrct .
Chhau dance is mostly performed in the open space or ground field during the night.
The Chhau dance is a mask dance performed only by the male dancers.
The masks are made up from the clay and paper.
The Chhau dance is mythological, as it is mainly based on various episodes of the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata.
As the singer complete the invocation song, a host of drummers and musicians start beating the Dhol and the Dhamsa.
The 'Dalkhai' is a dance performed by women of the tribes from the Sambalpur district of Orissa.
It is quite a virile dance rendered during the time of festivals.
The men generally play the musical instruments and the drummers often join the dance.
Namagen (Himachal Pradesh)
The autumnal hue is celebrated in September by a dance performance called Namagen.
The most striking dance amongst these is the Gaddis.
The costumes are largely woollen and richly studded ornaments of silver are worn by women.
One of the most popular dances of India.
Performed during Baisakhi usually by the men in Punjab.
It includes tricks and acrobatic feats.
The songs include recitation of meaningless 'bolis', words, such as hoay, hoay.
The drummer usually in the centre of the circle, is surrounded by men dressed in lungis and turbans.
The dance performed by the women folk of Punjab is called the ' Gidha '.
In the Gidha, at a time a woman or a pair of women dance while the others clap in rhythm. The dance is performed in the festival of Teeyan to welcome the rains.
Ghoomer Dance (Rajasthan)
The Ghoomer dance is a very famous and a community dance of women in Rajasthan.
It is performed on various auspicious occasions like fairs & festivals.
It is called as `Ghoomer`, from the `ghoomna` of Ghaghra i.e. the flowing of Ghaghra, a long skirt of the Rajasthani women.
Women from any age group, may it be the young or old can participate in Ghoomer dance.
While dancing, the dancers move in a circular direction with clockwise and anti-clockwise steps.
Bihu Dance, Assam
The Bihu dance is performed in the Bihu festival, celebrated for the arrival of spring in the Assamese New Year.
The dance is performed in an open space during daytime.
Burra Katha Dance, Andhra Pradesh
Burra' is a special instrument used by two performers who dance encourage the main story teller by exclamation and questions.
The Burra katha demands oratory as well as dancing skills on the part of the performers.
Burra katha needs three people to enact the story telling.
While the main artiste is dressed in a colourful attire with a garland round his neck and a tambura slung across his shoulder, the other two artistes dressed similarly question the narration to alert a sleepy audience.
The two accompanying artistes have a drum and hand taal .
The theme of the story could be anything that has happened or is happening.
Garba Dance (Gujarat)
This dance form has connection with Shakti-Puja.
It is played in a circular form performed by ladies on the nine nights of Navaratri festival, Sharad Purnima, Vasant Panchami, Holi etc.
The word Garba is derived from the word `Garbha Deep` (a lamp inside a perforated earthen pot).
In this folk dance, the women place the pot known as Garba with the lamp on their heads and move in circular direction, singing and clap at the same time.
Dandia -Ras is also known as the `stick` dance.
This dance is also a feature of most welcomed festival, Navratri.
The Ras is simple and is generally performed by a group of young people who move in typical style in measured steps around a circle, accompanied by a singing chorus and a host of musical instruments like the dhol, cymbals, zanz and shehnai.
Cheraw (Bamboo) Dance (Mizoram)
the most popular and colourful dance of the Mizos.
Long pair of horizontal bamboo staves are tapped open and close in rhythmic beats by people sitting face to face on the ground.
Because bamboos are used for the dance, people sometimes call it the BAMBOO DANCE.
Painting as an art form has flourished in India from very early periods.
Indian Paintings can be broadly classified as the Murals & Miniatures.
Murals are huge works executed on the walls of solid structures.
Classic examples are the paintings in Ajantha & Kailasantaha temple.
Miniature paintings are those executed on a very small scale on perishable material such as paper, cloth, etc.,
Prime examples are the Rajasthani & Mughal miniatures.
Ajanta - The Ajanta Caves are carved out of volcanic rock.
Buddhist Monks employed artists who turned the stone walls into picture books of Buddha's life & teachings.
The artists applied mud plaster in two coats - the first was rough to fill in the pores of the rocks & then a final coat of lime plaster over it.
The painting was done in stages. They drew the outline in red ochre, then applied the colours & renewed the contours in brown, deep red or black.
Ajanta Murals Illustration of a Prince - Cave 1
Bodhisattava Padmapani Cave 1 An Apsara - Cave 17
Mural paintings in Ellora are found in 5 caves, but only in the Kailasa temple, they are somewhat preserved.
The paintings were done in two series - the first, at the time of carving the caves & the subsequent series was done several centuries later.
Brihadeeswarar Koil - Thanjavur, Tamilnadu
Murals on the walls (Brihadeeswarar Koil)
Murals on the ceiling (Brihadeeswarar Koil)
The miniatures, as the name indicates were small works, which were made on perishable material.
In Bengal, Bihar & Orissa, Buddhist manuscripts were illustrated, mostly paintings of Buddha on palm leaves.
The Mughal emperors introduced their own style of miniature paintings with Persian inspiration.
PAINTINGS BY RAJA RAVI VARMA
Raja Ravi varma (1848 - 1906) is famous for his paintings based on Indian mythology & epics.
He was was born in Kilimanoor Palace.
Even at the young age his talent was spotted by his uncle Raja Raja Varma, and gave him initial training in painting.
Later he learnt water colour painting from the palace artist Rama Swamy Naidu.
He learnt oil painting from the British artist Theodor Jenson.
Mother & child Bhishma abdicating his right to the throne, in order to get the fisher girl married to his father Shantanu Draupadi, in disguise carrying honey and milk to the court of Keechaka Jatayu attempting to save Sita Devi from Ravana PAINTINGS BY RAJA RAVI VARMA
In India, there is a vast profusion of folk music which varies according to locality.
In Indian music, musical sound is called nada.
Indian classical music is based on the ragas.
Classical Indian music can be classified into two distinct styles:
North Indian or Hindustani
South Indian or Carnatic music.
Carnatic Style employs Shrutis or semitones to create a Raga and thus have many more Ragas than the Hindustani style.
Carnatic ragas differ from Hindustani ragas. The names of ragas are also different.
The tradition of Indian music practiced and developed is nearly three thousand years old.
Carnatic music originated in the fertile plains of the Cauvery delta.
The Trinities of Carnatic Music Saint Thyagaraja, Muthuswamy Dikshithar and Syama Shastri were all born in Thiruvarur near Thanjavur Sa Re Ga Ma Pha Dha Nee are the seven basic notations called the Sapthaswaras.
Indian Musical Instruments
The Indian musical instruments are classified into four major categories:
Avanaddha vadya &
The chimpta is actually a fire tong.
It has evolved into a musical instrument by the permanent addition of small brass jingles.
chimpta is popular in Punjabi folk music
It consists of a small right hand drum called dayan and a larger metal one called bayan .