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Ecosystem relationships
 

Ecosystem relationships

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    Ecosystem relationships Ecosystem relationships Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • 1. Organization of an Ecosystem
      • The INDIVIDUAL ORGANISM is the smallest, whole part of the ecosystem .
      • Many organisms make up a POPULATION .
      • Several populations make a COMMUNITY .
      • The community ( all biotic factors – don’t forget plants), combined with all abiotic factors , make an ECOSYSTEM .
      • Ecosystems can be found in a variety of BIOMES.
      • The biomes make up the BIOSPHERE .
    • INDIVIDUAL
    • INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL POPULATION
    • COMMUNITY SEVERAL POPULATIONS COMBINED
    • ECOSYSTEM THE BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC PARTS An ecosystem can be as small as a puddle where tadpoles and bacteria live
    • BIOME DIFFERENT ECOSYSTEMS MAKE A BIOME
    • DIFFERENT BIOMES taiga, temperature forest, desert grassland tundra ocean tropical rain forest
    • DIFFERENT BIOMES MAKE UP THE BIOSPHERE
    • COMMUNITY BIOSPHERE BIOME ECOSYSTEM POPULATION INDIVIDUAL
    • 2. Habitat V. Niche
      • Habitat:
        • The place where an organism lives and that provides food, shelter, moisture, and temperature needed for survival .
        • Examples:
          • Swamp
          • Field
          • Lake
          • Tree
      • Where an organism lives.
      • Niche:
        • Role of an organism in the ecosystem, including unique ways an organism survives, such as: how it interacts with other organisms, how it obtains food and shelter, and avoids danger.
        • Examples:
          • Anteaters keep the ant population
          • Bacteria eats dead animals assisting in decomposition. And keeping them from piling up, while adding nitrogen to the soil
      • Role an organism plays
    • niche
      • What’s the role of a plant in the ecosystem?
      • How does a squirrel eating a trees seed help the tree?
      • Plants provide food to the entire ecosystem with the sun's energy
      If two living organisms within the same ecosystem have similar niches, one may become extinct as they fight for resources.
    • Ecosystems are extremely delicate and can become unbalanced. What would happen if there's a type of frog that thrives when there's lots of water and it rains a lot? the number of frogs in an ecosystem may increase. How could this present a problem? Other species in the ecosystem may not be able to compete with the frogs as resources are depleted because of the increased frog population. Sometimes ecosystems will correct themselves and become balanced again, while other ecosystems will continue to become more unstable over time.
    • 3. Interactions within Ecosystems
      • Producers
        • Organisms that make their own energy (food).
          • Use the process of photosynthesis .
          • Oxygen is a by-product (waste material).
    • 3. Interactions within Ecosystems
      • Consumers
        • Organisms that can’t make their own food .
        • Must eat producers or other consumers for energy.
        • a. Herbivores : plant-eaters
        • b. Carnivores : animal-eaters
        • Scavenger: eats the left-overs of a kill.
        • c. Omnivores : plant and animal eaters
        • d. Decomposers : breakdown dead organisms to release nutrients back into the soil
      Pandas are herbivores.
    • 4. Symbiosis: any close relationship between species. 1. Parasitism: one organism benefits (the mosquito) while the other (the host) is harmed. 2. Mutualism: both species benefit. 3. Commensalism: one species benefits (the egret) while the other remains unaffected.
    • 5. Predator-Prey Relationship
        • Predator:
        • consumer that captures and eats other consumers.
        • Prey:
        • the organism that is eaten by a predator.
    • 6. Food Chains V. Food Webs
      • Food Chains are a simplistic representation of energy transfer from producers to consumers.
      1. This food chain makes it appear as if the snake would die if the grasshopper is removed. 2. In reality the grasshopper is not the only food source for the snake.
    • 6. Food Chains V. Food Webs
      • Food Webs demonstrate how the organisms are interconnected in a more complex, realistic way.
      • Every consumer has at least 2 sources of food.
        • The squid also eats plankton/phytoplankton, it simply isn’t shown.
      • If the Crabeater seal were removed from the web, neither Leopard seals nor the Killer whales would die.
      Food Web
    • 7. Energy Transfer
      • Each level of the pyramid only provides about 10% of the energy it consumed.
        • The majority of the energy is used by the consumer to keep it alive .
        • By the time a tertiary (3 rd level) consumer is reached, only about 1/10 th of the original energy is left.
          • The owl must eat many times more than the rat in order to survive.
      100% energy 10% energy 1% energy 0.1% energy