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Atomic subparticles

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Atomic subparticles Atomic subparticles Presentation Transcript

  • Sub-Atomic Particles BLUE – HIGHLIGHT IT RED – WRITE IT
  • 1. The Atom
    • Smallest whole part of matter.
    • Contains 3 sub-particles:
      • Proton
      • Neutron
      • Electron
  • 2. The Proton
    • If the number of protons in an element ever changes, the element has changed!
    • Each element is determined by its number of protons.
    • # OF PROTONS= ATOMIC #
      • The periodic table is arranged by increasing atomic number.
  • 2. The PROTON
    • Discovered in 1909.
    • Located in the Nucleus.
    • Positive charge.
    • Held together by the Strong Nuclear Force.
      • Like repels like, so the force needed to hold protons tightly packed is incredible.
      • A nuclear explosion breaks that bond and releases a massive amount of energy.
  •  
  • The NEUTRON
    • The number of neutrons is determined by:
      • Atomic mass (rounded) – atomic number= Neutrons
    • Number of neutrons can change!
      • Isotope : atoms of an element that have different numbers of neutrons.
    • Atomic Mass Number is the average of the masses of the isotopes for an element.
  • 3. The NEUTRON
    • Discovered in 1931.
    • Located in the nucleus.
    • No charge.
    • Held together by the strong nuclear force.
  • 4. The ELECTRON
    • Negative charge.
    • Almost no mass.
    • In an element’s NATURAL state, the # of protons & electrons are equal , neutralizing the atom’s charge.
    THEREFORE, ATOMIC NUMBER IS ALSO EQUAL TO THE NUMBER OF ELECTRONS
  • 4. The ELECTRON
    • Discovered in 1897.
    • Located in Electron Cloud, OUTSIDE the nucleus.
    • Electron orbits:
      • 1 st orbit: 2 electrons
      • 2 nd , 3 rd , 4 th orbits: 8 electrons
  • 5. Valence Electrons
    • Electrons located in the outermost level of the cloud.
    • These electrons move from atom to atom during chemical reactions to form bonds.
      • Each atom is trying to fill its outermost level and will take in or lose electrons accordingly.
      • Atoms closer to the maximum number react more violently, since it’s very easy to gain or lose only 1 or 2 electrons.
      • Atoms at the maximum are stable & will not react (noble gases).
    • When the electrons move, IONS are formed.
      • Ions are elements with a charge.
      • Sodium loses an electron, becoming +1.
      • Chlorine gains an electron, becoming -1.