THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TRANSFORMATIONAL
LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS OF PRINCIPALS, AS PERCEIVED BY
TEACHERS, AND STUD...
UMI Number: 3378413
INFORMATION TO USERS
The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy
submit...
© A. Estapa 2009
PR
EVIEW
Abstract
This correlational study examined the relationship between principals’ transformational
leadership behaviors, as ...
iii
Dedication
There are no words to adequately express my appreciation to those who have
made this possible through their...
Acknowledgements
This journey would not have been possible without the guidance of some gifted
mentors. I would like to ex...
Table of Contents
Acknowledgments iv
List of Tables viii
List of Figures ix
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1
Introduction to the ...
vi
The Nature of Leadership Survey 35
Georgia High Stakes Standardized Tests 36
Conclusion 43
CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY 45
In...
vii
Summary of the Study 98
Summary of the Findings and Conclusions 100
Recommendations 103
Implications 106
REFERENCES 10...
viii
List of Tables
Table 1: Leadership Survey Cronbach's Alpha Reliability Results.................................. 58
T...
ix
List of Figures
Figure 1. Chronbach's alpha reliability coefficient 42
Figure 2. Standard error of measurement 42
Figur...
1
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
Introduction to the Problem
School principals have long been charged with managing the school en...
2
clear framework for educational leaders to follow when implementing Burns’s
transformational leadership theory.
The Nati...
3
the English/Language Arts (ELA GHSGT) were collected as the measure of student
achievement.
Background of the Study
This...
4
sections of the GHSGT to qualify for a high school diploma (Newton & Walker, 1998).
The English/Language Arts, mathemati...
5
Statement of the Problem
It was not known to what extent principals’ individual transformational
leadership behaviors co...
6
Leadership survey, correlate with or can be predictors of student achievement on the
ELA GCRCT and the ELA GHSGT. The st...
7
Increased accountability under the NCLB Act of 2001 helped to keep leadership
behaviors in the forefront of educational ...
8
the correlation between each of a principal’s transformational leadership behaviors, as
perceived by teachers and studen...
9
achievement on the English / Language Arts Criterion-Referenced
Competency Test?
The following hypotheses were used in t...
10
H03: There will not be a statistically significant relationship between each of the
eight transformational leadership c...
11
administrations of the GCRCT and the GHSGT was collected. The study sought to
identify if and to what extent a correlat...
12
Annual measurable Objective (AMO. The academic performance component of
AYP. Schools and districts with qualifying grou...
13
Georgia Performance Standards (GPS). The curriculum model in the State of
Georgia which is replacing the Quality Core C...
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The relationship between the transformational

  1. 1. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS OF PRINCIPALS, AS PERCEIVED BY TEACHERS, AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT ON STANDARDIZED TESTS by Ashley L. Estapa RANDALL SAMPSON, Ph.D., Faculty Mentor and Chair STEPHEN O’BRIEN, Ed.D. Committee Member CHRIS FAUCETT, Ed.D., Committee Member Barbara Butts Williams, PhD. Dean, School of Education A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy Capella University September 2009 PR EVIEW
  2. 2. UMI Number: 3378413 INFORMATION TO USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. Broken or indistinct print, colored or poor quality illustrations and photographs, print bleed-through, substandard margins, and improper alignment can adversely affect reproduction. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if unauthorized copyright material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. ______________________________________________________________ UMI Microform 3378413 Copyright 2009 by ProQuest LLC All rights reserved. This microform edition is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code. _______________________________________________________________ ProQuest LLC 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346 PR EVIEW
  3. 3. © A. Estapa 2009 PR EVIEW
  4. 4. Abstract This correlational study examined the relationship between principals’ transformational leadership behaviors, as perceived by teachers, and student achievement on standardized tests. Participants in this study included teachers in two suburban high schools and six suburban elementary schools in Georgia. Research demonstrates a correlation between teachers’ perceptions of their principal’s transformational leadership behaviors and teacher self-efficacy, teacher job satisfaction, and overall organizational commitment. The purpose of this research was to examine whether a principal’s transformational leadership behaviors also have a correlation to student achievement, and whether those behaviors could be used as predictors of student achievement as measured by standardized assessments. The Nature of School Leadership study was used to determine teacher perceptions of their principal’s transformational leadership behaviors. Student achievement data were gathered from the English/Language Arts Georgia High School Graduation Test and the English/Language Arts Criterion Referenced Competency Test. Correlational statistics was used to measure the relationship between the independent variable (principal's transformational leadership style) and dependent variable (student achievement on standardized tests). PR EVIEW
  5. 5. iii Dedication There are no words to adequately express my appreciation to those who have made this possible through their support, patience, and guidance. To my husband, Chris, we made it! This was a family journey from beginning to end and this would not have been possible without your love, patience, understanding, and encouragement. These past three years have been marked by sacrifice for a future that is here now. Here’s to the next 89 years. Let’s enjoy! To my boys, Eli and Jack, you are my heart. Throughout your short lives, you have known me to be forever focused on some sort of degree or certification, locked up for countless hours in the office. One day, I hope this accomplishment will stand as an inspiration for you. In the meantime, the office is now closed. It is time for us. To my father, Dr. Harlon Crimm, the years of your merciless editing of my term papers has paid off in a pretty great way. Know that your stories are not lost and will be told to my children. Thank you for shaping me into the writer, scholar, and teacher. From a farm boy in Mississippi, to a college president and one of Georgia’s most influential people, you have taught me through hard work and perseverance all is possible. To my mother, Dr. JoAnn Crimm, it is the greatest compliment when one says that I am my mother’s daughter. For me it means that I inherited great strength of character, a quick wit, and fierce determination. From you I have learned that I can accomplish anything I set my mind to, and that I can choose to step out of the race when it suits me. Thank you for shaping me into the woman and mother that I have become. And, finally this work is dedicated to my grandfather, Madison “Matt” Cox. You taught me to love passionately, give generously, and to accept only the best God has for me. I miss you every day. PR EVIEW
  6. 6. Acknowledgements This journey would not have been possible without the guidance of some gifted mentors. I would like to express my appreciation to Dr. Randall Sampson for serving in the significant role of my committee chair. I know it has not always been easy. Thank you to Dr. Stephen O’Brien for challenging me to think beyond my assumptions. I must express my great appreciation to Dr. Chris Faucett for your wisdom and insight throughout this process. Thank you for the statistics tutoring, the brainstorming sessions, and the countless hours working and reworking this dissertation into its current form. Thank you to Cathy Magouyrk for the numerous readings, the late night phone calls, and for making me laugh in the midst of my storm. I know that this study would not have been possible without your kindness, professionalism, and for understanding the “way things work around here”. Thank you to my students, both those new to my class and those who have seen me through this entire three year endeavor. I appreciate your patience with a frazzled teacher and your enthusiasm as you cheered me on through this process. Thank you to my community group who never quit praying for me and encouraging me through this journey. Our family is blessed to have you in our lives. Finally, I offer my sincerest of thanks to Dr. Carolyn Rogers. You gave me time when you had none and encouraged me to keep moving forward when I could only see walls. You never let me lose heart, and I deeply appreciate all the phone calls, emails, and behind the scenes work you did for me. PR EVIEW
  7. 7. Table of Contents Acknowledgments iv List of Tables viii List of Figures ix CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1 Introduction to the Problem 1 Background of the Study 3 Statement of the Problem 5 Purpose of the Study 5 Rationale 6 Research Questions and Hypotheses 8 Significance of the Study 10 Definition of Terms 11 Assumptions 13 Limitations 14 Nature of the Study 14 Organization of the Remainder of the Study 15 CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 16 Introduction 16 Transformational Leadership Defined 17 Transformational Leadership in Education 20 Criticism of Transformational Leadership 25 The Transformational Leader in Today’s School Environment 26 The Importance of Teacher Perceptions and Student Achievement 31 No Child Left Behind and the State of Georgia 33 PR EVIEW
  8. 8. vi The Nature of Leadership Survey 35 Georgia High Stakes Standardized Tests 36 Conclusion 43 CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY 45 Introduction 45 Statement of the Problem 45 Research Questions and Hypotheses 46 Research Methodology 48 Research Design 49 Population and Sampling Procedures 49 Instrumentation 50 Validity 51 Reliability 51 Data Collection Procedures 52 Data Analysis Procedures 53 Ethical Consideration 55 Summary 55 CHAPTER 4: DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS 57 Introduction 57 Data Analysis Procedures 57 Descriptive Results 61 Results 86 Summary 94 CHAPTER 5. RESULTS, CONCLUSTIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 97 Introduction 97 PR EVIEW
  9. 9. vii Summary of the Study 98 Summary of the Findings and Conclusions 100 Recommendations 103 Implications 106 REFERENCES 109 APPENDIX . THE NATURE OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP SURVEY 114 PR EVIEW
  10. 10. viii List of Tables Table 1: Leadership Survey Cronbach's Alpha Reliability Results.................................. 58 Table 2:High School Sample Leadership Style Descriptive Statistics ............................. 62 Table 3: Elementary School Sample Leadership Style Descriptive Statistics.................. 63 Table 4: Coefficient of Variation for Leadership Scores: Individual Ratings.................. 84 Table 5: Coefficient of Variation for Leadership Scores: School Ratings ....................... 85 Table 6: Student Proficiency Descriptive Statistics by School Type ............................... 86 Table 7: Kendall's tau Correlation Results: High School Teacher Ratings ...................... 87 Table 8: Student Proficiency: z-Test for Proportion Results............................................ 88 Table 9: Leadership Scores: Independent Samples t-Test Results ................................... 89 Table 10: Pearson Correlation Results: Elementary School Teacher Ratings.................. 90 Table 11:Pearson Correlation Results: Elementary School Mean School Ratings........... 91 Table 12: Simple Regression Results: School Leadership and Student Proficiency........ 92 Table 13. Multiple Regression Results: School Leadership and Student Proficiency...... 93 Table 14. Multiple Regression Coefficient Results.......................................................... 93 Table 15. Summarized Hypothesis Testing Results ......................................................... 94 PR EVIEW
  11. 11. ix List of Figures Figure 1. Chronbach's alpha reliability coefficient 42 Figure 2. Standard error of measurement 42 Figure 3. High school teacher ratings of shared vision 65 Figure 4. High school teacher ratings of builds consensus 66 Figure 5. High school teacher ratings of holds high performance expectations 67 Figure 6. High school teacher ratings of models behavior 68 Figure 7. High school teacher ratings of provides individualized support 69 Figure 8. High school teacher ratings of provides intellectual stimulation 70 Figure 9. High school teacher ratings of strengthens school culture 71 Figure 10. High school teacher ratings of builds collaborative structures 72 Figure 11.High school teacher overall leadership ratings 73 Figure 12. Elementary school teacher ratings of shared vision 74 Figure 13. Elementary school teacher ratings of builds consensus 75 Figure 14. Elementary school teacher ratings of holds high performance expectations 76 Figure 15. Elementary school teacher ratings of models behavior 77 Figure 16. Elementary school teacher ratings of provides individualized support 78 Figure 17. Elementary school teacher ratings of provides intellectual stimulation 79 Figure 18. Elementary school teacher ratings of strengthens school culture 80 Figure 19. Elementary school teacher ratings of builds collaborative structures 81 Figure 20. Elementary school teacher overall leadership ratings 82 PR EVIEW
  12. 12. 1 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION Introduction to the Problem School principals have long been charged with managing the school environment and improving student achievement (Halllinger & Heck, 1996; Johnson, 2006). The passage of No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 brought new pressures to the office of the principal as school leaders were called to higher levels of responsibility and accountability for student achievement (Bartlett, 2008). Given the principal’s increased accountability for student achievement, researchers have attempted to identify the leadership behaviors which have significant impact on student achievement (Witziers, Bosker & Kruger, 2003; Nettles, 2005; Houchard, 2005; Johnson, 2006; Starcher, 2006; Ahuja, 2007; Young, 2007; Bartlett, 2008). Burns’s (1978) theory of transformational leadership was applied to educational leadership in the 1980’s by Sergiovanni and Bass and Avolio (Owens, 2004). Research by Hipp (1996), Bogler (1999), and Ahuja (2007) demonstrated positive correlations between a principal’s transformational leadership behaviors and teacher satisfaction and efficacy. Leithwood and Jantzi (1995) developed eight primary behaviors of the transformational leader in education which include developing a widely shared vision for the school, building consensus about the schools goals and priorities, holding high performance expectations, modeling behavior, providing individualized support, providing intellectual stimulation, strengthening school culture, and building collaborative structures. These eight transformational leadership behaviors provided a PR EVIEW
  13. 13. 2 clear framework for educational leaders to follow when implementing Burns’s transformational leadership theory. The National Policy Board for Educational Administration lent further credibility to the effectiveness of transformational leadership with the adoption of a revised version of the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium Standards (ISLLC) (Council of Chief State School Officers,1996). The ISLLC standards outlined six operating principles of educational leadership and have been utilized by 43 states as a guide for the creation of their own state leadership standards (Council of Chief State School Officers [CCSSO], 2008). The new ISLLC Standards, titled ISLLC 2008, the nationally recognized standards of leadership were crafted to reflect a more transformational approach to leadership (CCSSO, 2008). This study examined whether a principal’s individual transformational leadership behaviors correlated with student achievement on state mandated standardized tests. Further, research was conducted to examined whether a principal’s cumulative transformational behaviors, as perceived by teachers, was a predictor for student achievement within the principal’s school. The Nature of School Leadership Survey by Leithwood and Jantzi (1995) was used to measure teacher perceptions of the principal’s transformational leadership behaviors. The surveys were administered to teachers in three suburban high schools and seven suburban elementary schools. Scores of third and fifth grade students’ Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test from the spring 2009 administration of the English/Language Arts (ELA GCRCT, 2009) and 11th grade students’ Georgia High School Graduation Test from the spring 2009 administration of PR EVIEW
  14. 14. 3 the English/Language Arts (ELA GHSGT) were collected as the measure of student achievement. Background of the Study This study examined the correlation between student achievement on the ELA GCRCT and the ELA GHSGT and principals’ individual transformational leadership behaviors, as perceived by teachers on The Nature of School Leadership survey. The research examined principals’ cumulative transformational leadership behaviors as predictors of students’ achievement on ELA GCRCT and the ELA GHSGT standardized assessments. The study, which focused on two suburban high schools and six suburban elementary schools in Georgia, correlated each of the eight individual leadership dimensions of the principal's transformational leadership behaviors with the student test scores. The study also measured the principal's cumulative transformational leadership behaviors to determine the predictive ability of all eight dimensions together. Georgia law O.C.G.A. § 20-2-281 established the Criterion-Referenced Competency Test and the Georgia High School Graduation Test as the measures by which Georgia students demonstrated achievement of the Georgia Performance Standards (GaDOE, 2007; GaDOE, 2008). Students in grades one through eight took the GCRCT, with the tests administered in the third, fifth, and eighth grades that determined whether or not a student was promoted to the next grade (Livingston & Livingston, 2003). Students in grades one through eight were tested in reading, English/Language Arts, and math. Additionally, students in grades three through eight were tested in science and social studies (GaDOE, n.d.). All eleventh grade students had to pass five PR EVIEW
  15. 15. 4 sections of the GHSGT to qualify for a high school diploma (Newton & Walker, 1998). The English/Language Arts, mathematics and writing GHSGTs were first administered in 1995 (Newton & Walker, 1998). The social studies test was introduced in 1997 and the science test in 1998 (Newton & Walker, 1998). For the purpose of this study, students’ assessments from grades three, five and eleven were examined as a benchmark for student achievement. The Nature of School Leadership Survey was developed by Leithwood and Jantzi (1995) at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of The University of Toronto to describe various aspects of leadership. This Likert-type survey instrument consisted of 50 descriptors of transformational leadership practices and were distributed on a six point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The Likert-scale survey questions were grouped according to the eight characteristics of the transformational leader as defined by Leithwood and Jantzi (1995). The Nature of School Leadership survey (Leithwood & Jantzi, 1995) leadership behaviors were categorized as follows: 1. Develops a widely shared vision for the school 2. Builds consensus about the school goals and priorities 3. Holds high performance expectations 4. Models Behavior 5. Provides individualized support 6. Provides intellectual stimulation 7. Strengthens school culture 8. Builds collaborative structures. PR EVIEW
  16. 16. 5 Statement of the Problem It was not known to what extent principals’ individual transformational leadership behaviors correlated with student achievement on standardized tests. It was not known to what extent principals’ cumulative transformational leadership behaviors predicted student achievement on standardized tests. Specifically, this study sought to understand the extent to which a principal’s transformational leadership behaviors, as perceived by teachers on The Nature of School Leadership survey, correlated with or served as a predictor of student achievement as measured on the ELA GHSGT and the ELA GCRCT. Given the principal’s increased accountability for student achievement in light of NCLB (2001); researchers have attempted to identify the leadership behaviors that have significant impact on student achievement with mixed results (Witziers, Bosker & Kruger, 2003; Nettles, 2005; Houchard, 2005; Johnson, 2006; Starcher, 2006; Ahuja, 2007; Young, 2007; Bartlett, 2008). This study sought to expand upon the existing research by investigating the correlation between a principal’s transformational leadership behaviors and student achievement. Additionally, this study will seek to determine if a principal’s cumulative transformational leadership behaviors can be used as predictors of student achievement on the State of Georgia’s standardized ELA high school graduation and elementary criterion tests. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to analyze to what extent a principal’s transformational leadership behaviors, as perceived by teachers on The Nature of School PR EVIEW
  17. 17. 6 Leadership survey, correlate with or can be predictors of student achievement on the ELA GCRCT and the ELA GHSGT. The study measured each of the eight principal’s transformational leadership behaviors based on teachers’ responses to The Nature of School Leadership survey and analyzed the correlation between leadership behaviors and student achievement on standardized tests. Additionally, the data was analyzed to determine if a principal’s cumulative transformational leadership score is a predictor of student achievement on the ELA GCRCT and the ELA GHSGT. Research demonstrated a correlation between teachers’ perceptions of their principal’s transformational leadership behaviors and teacher self-efficacy, teacher job satisfaction, and overall organizational commitment (Ahuja, 2007; Bogler, 1999; Hipp, 1996). The purpose of this research was to examine whether a principal’s transformational leadership behaviors also had a correlation to student achievement, and whether those behaviors were used as predictors of student achievement as measured by standardized assessments. Rationale The effects of principal leadership behaviors on student achievement has been the focus of numerous studies yielding mixed results (Wiseman & Goesling, 2000; Witziers, Bosker & Kruger, 2003; Nettles, 2005; Houchard, 2005; Johnson, 2006; Starcher, 2006; Ahuja, 2007; Young, 2007; Bartlett, 2008). Although Witziers, Bosker and Kruger (2003) found that principal leadership had a significant effect on student achievement, Wiseman and Goseling (2000) found that principal leadership had no significant influence. PR EVIEW
  18. 18. 7 Increased accountability under the NCLB Act of 2001 helped to keep leadership behaviors in the forefront of educational research (Horn-Turpin, 2009). Instructional leadership behaviors and transformational leadership behaviors are each considered by researchers to be valuable in today’s school environment (Bartlett, 2008; Horn-Turpin, 2009). Instructional leadership came to popularity in the 1980’s when studies found that effective schools were often headed by a leader who made curriculum and instruction the basis for all school decisions, and the instructional leadership model quickly rose to popularity (Lashway, 2002; Bartlett, 2008). The instructional leader held the responsibility of setting high academic standards for both students and teachers; and when those standards were not met, the instructional leader analyzed the data and implemented appropriate strategies to address the deficiencies (Reading First leadership, 2005). The transformational leadership model gained popularity among researchers partially based on research by Leithwood (1992), Bass and Avolio (1992) and Sergiovanni (1999). Sergiovanni (1999) argued that the model works well in the school organizational culture. Transformational leadership gained popularity in education because it is meant to foster high commitment from teachers and produce “results beyond expectation” (Horn-Turpin, 2009, p. 3). Studies by Hipp (1996), Bogler (1999) and Ahuja (2007) found positive correlations between principals’ transformational leadership behaviors and teacher self-efficacy, teacher job satisfaction, and overall organizational commitment. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 increased principals’ accountability for student achievement, which measured in large degree by high stakes tests such as the GCRCT and the GHSGT (Bartlett, 2008, USDOE, 2008). This study’s investigation of PR EVIEW
  19. 19. 8 the correlation between each of a principal’s transformational leadership behaviors, as perceived by teachers and student achievement on standardized tests sought to provide educators insight into leadership behaviors that may help increase student achievement. Additionally, this research sought to determine if a principal’s cumulative transformational leadership behaviors may predict student achievement on standardized tests. Research Questions and Hypotheses This study sought to answer four questions: 1. Is there a statistically significant relationship between each of the eight transformational leadership characteristics of a principal, as perceived by teachers, and students’ achievement on the English / Language Arts Georgia High School Graduation Test? 2. Is there a predictive relationship between the cumulative transformational leadership behaviors of a principal, as perceived by teachers, and student achievement on the English / Language Arts Georgia High School Graduation Test? 3. Is there a statistically significant relationship between each of the eight transformational leadership characteristics of a principal, as perceived by teachers, and student achievement on the English / Language Arts Criterion- Referenced Competency Test? 4. Is there a predictive relationship between the cumulative transformational leadership characteristics of a principal, as perceived by teachers, and student PR EVIEW
  20. 20. 9 achievement on the English / Language Arts Criterion-Referenced Competency Test? The following hypotheses were used in this study: H1: There will be a statistically significant relationship between each of the eight transformational leadership characteristics of a principal, as perceived by teachers, and student achievement on the English / Language Arts Georgia High School Graduation Test. H01: There will not be a statistically significant relationship between each of the eight transformational leadership characteristics of a principal, as perceived by teachers, and student achievement on the English / Language Arts Georgia High School Graduation Test. H2: There will be a predictive relationship between the cumulative transformational leadership characteristics of a principal, as perceived by teachers, and student achievement on the English / Language Arts Georgia High School Graduation Test. H02: There will not be a predictive relationship between the cumulative transformational leadership characteristics of a principal, as perceived by teachers, and student achievement on the English / Language Arts Georgia High School Graduation Test. H3: There will be a statistically significant relationship between each of the eight transformational leadership characteristics of a principal, as perceived by teachers, and student achievement on the English / Language Arts Criterion- Referenced Competency Test. PR EVIEW
  21. 21. 10 H03: There will not be a statistically significant relationship between each of the eight transformational leadership characteristics of a principal, as perceived by teachers, and student achievement on the English / Language Arts Criterion-Referenced Competency Test. H4: There will be a predictive relationship between the cumulative transformational leadership characteristics of a principal, as perceived by teachers, and student achievement on the English / Language Arts Criterion- Referenced Competency Test. H04: There will not be a predictive relationship between the cumulative transformational leadership characteristics of a principal, as perceived by teachers, and student achievement on the English/Language Arts Criterion- Referenced Competency Test. Significance of the Study The significance of this study was to analyze principals’ transformational leadership characteristics, as perceived by teachers and student achievement on standardized tests in order to identify leadership behaviors that may contribute to increased academic achievement. Additionally, the research analyzed whether a principal’s transformational leadership behaviors can serve as predictors of student achievement on standardized tests. This study was a quantitative non-experimental correlation study. The study collected data from teachers using The Nature of School Leadership survey (Leithwood & Jantzi, 1995). Additionally, student test score data from the 2009 spring PR EVIEW
  22. 22. 11 administrations of the GCRCT and the GHSGT was collected. The study sought to identify if and to what extent a correlation exists between teachers’ perceptions of principal transformational leadership behaviors and student achievement on state mandated standardized tests. In addition, this study sought to determine the cumulative predictive ability of the eight transformational leadership behaviors and student achievement on state mandated standardized tests. Hipp (1996) and Ahuja (2007) found significant correlation between a principal’s transformational leadership behaviors and teacher efficacy. Ross, Hogoboam-Gray and Gray (2003) found correlation between teacher efficacy and student achievement. This study sought to explore if there exists any correlation between transformational leadership qualities of a principal, as perceived by teachers on The Nature of School Leadership survey and student achievement on high stakes tests such as the ELA GCRCT and the ELA GHSGT. Additionally, the study sought to find whether a principal’s transformational leadership behaviors can serve as predictors of student achievement on the ELA GCRCT and the ELA GHSGT. Results of this study could demonstrate to educational leaders whether or not transformational leadership characteristics directly affect student achievement. Definition of Terms The following terms were used operationally in this study: Adequate Yearly Progress. An annual measure of student participation and achievement of statewide assessments and other academic indicators (PL 107-110) PR EVIEW
  23. 23. 12 Annual measurable Objective (AMO. The academic performance component of AYP. Schools and districts with qualifying groups and subgroups must meet this increasingly high standard in order to make AYP. The state of Georgia uses student scores on the GHSGT, the percentage of students tested, and graduation rate to measure AMO (GaDOE, n.d.) Collaboration. The sharing of common interests, plans, preparations and reflections of an organization’s members (Sergiovanni, 1999) Consensual Change. A group approach to change in which all stakeholders understand and encourage change in others for the betterment of the organization (Gorton, Altson & Snowden, 2007) Empowerment. Within a school setting, faculty and staff are permitted to make decisions and behave according to their own purposes as long as the actions are consistent with the values agreed upon by the community (Sergiovanni, 1999). Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (GCRCT). A Georgia mandated series of tests administered to students in grades one through eight designed to assess student mastery of the Georgia Performance Standards (GaDOE, n.d.) Georgia Department of Education (GaDOE). The government entity charged with oversight of public education in Georgia (GaDOE, n.d.). Georgia High School Graduation Tests (GHSGT). A set of four curriculum based assessments that students must pass in order to earn a regular Georgia high school diploma. The tests, which cover English/Language Arts, Math, Science and Social Studies are taken for the first time in spring of the 11th grade (GaDOE, n.d.) PR EVIEW
  24. 24. 13 Georgia Performance Standards (GPS). The curriculum model in the State of Georgia which is replacing the Quality Core Curriculum. After development in 2004, the curriculum rollout will run from 2005 until full implementation in 2012 (GaDOE, n.d.) Instructional leadership: A hierarchal leadership model in which the principal directs teaching and learning (Sergiovanni, 1999) Needs Improvement School. A school which has failed to make Adequate Yearly Progress as defined by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001for two consecutive years in the same subject area (GaDOE, n.d.). No Child Left Behind (NCLB). The reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. The new version stands on four pillars: increased accountability, more local freedoms for states and school districts, parental choice, and proven educational methods. (H.Res.1, 2001) Professional Learning Community. A school culture which focuses on teacher collaboration for the improvement of student achievement (DuFour, 2004) Quality Core Curriculum (QCC). The State curriculum for Georgia which after being deemed ineffective is being replaced by the Georgia Performance Standards. The QCC will be completely phased out by 2014. (GaDOE, n.d.) Transformational leader. The transformational leader works through and with followers to create a "relationship of mutual stimulation and elevation that converts followers into leaders" (Burns, 1978) Assumptions The following assumptions were present in this study: PR EVIEW

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