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Schools are expected in achieving high standards of education level, while Educational
leaders anticipated to be at the frontline of most school (Leithwood & Jantzi, 2000).
While behaviour are major feature on an organization that create healthy environment.
Therefore, it is adviceable in ensuring a positive interpersonal behavior together the best
practices of leadership in order to enhance schools environment and built on students’
attainment. Transformational leadership style has played a major practice everywhere
that contributed to associate with subordinates presentation, character, health and good
behaviour. To inspire followers to do a great job, despite demonstrate and continue
contribution towards other self-interest, will stimuli awareness of important and correct
personal interest in school also called part of Transformational leadership. It is contribute
others with an objective that gain beyond little efforts for initiative offered (Cashim, J. et
It is known, Transformational leadership as a successful ways to conduct the
inconsistence situation experience by recent institution (Turner, Barling & Zacharatos,
2002). There are four main Transformational leadership behaviours has four main
characteristics: 1) idealized inﬂuence/charisma — the top manager acts as an example
and takes the lead in portray good attitude, 2) inspirational motivation — the top manager
create a clear vision, 3) intellectual stimulation — the top manager give support to the
subordinates by guiding them in making decision through effort from their inner strength
4) individualized consideration — the top manager identify in person performance and
correcting attitude based on needs by individual to the individual's need and potentials
Although researches done in other countries (Lucas and Valentine, 2003) confirmed that
transformational leadership is the way that can bring environment changes to school, a
research needs to carry out in order to investigate whether teachers behaviour and the use
of transformational leaderships style influencing students achievement in Primary School,
in Subang Jaya.
According to Alger 2008, a big task in school leadership environment is to boost
knowledgeable teacher to create and maintain a school culture that focuses in on going
transformational programs in education. Responsible school leaders will assist to bring up
school development that everyone shares good values and norms and being caring to each
other members (Leithwood & Riehl, 2003).
1.1 Background of the Study
This paper focuses on the level of transformational leadership behaviours that teachers’
perform at schools during their job practises every day. Good behaviours influence
almost all action which contributes indirectly in leadership styles. The concept of
transformational leadership continues to evolve and remains a vital and important part of
the current leadership literature. Transformational leadership style is related to leaders’
individual behaviour. According to Sosik, Avolio, and Jung (2002), transformational
leadership is to be connected with management. However, little is known the exercise
and demonstration of transformational leadership behaviours particularly for school
leaders in Malaysia. Researchers found, Transformational leaders can instantly effect
institution environments by motivating educators to act as a team and adapt better
practices for school advancement (Leithwood & Jantzi, 2000). Thus, this paper will
provide more an overview to assess and determine teachers’ behaviour and
transformational leaderships skill used at Primary School in Subang Jaya, Selangor.
1.2 Statement of the research problem
Transformational Leadership has captivate significant awareness. Many unethical
behaviours teachers who behaved in an unprofessional manners caused with many
problems. Problem of teachers’ behaviours including poor in teaching and
communication with students; no concern on students, emotional interruption and lacking
in classroom management. Very little is familiar about the teachers’ response to the
ethical and unethical of transformational leadership. There are various studies investigate
on the impact of transformational leadership towards schools achievement. Current study
scrutinize how transformational leadership response with ethical leadership characteristic.
Structure on assigned fact, the leadership characteristic would be recognised for most
The transformational leaders expect subordinates to follow them. Avolio (1993)
identified leaders' inner focus in managing to be related to intellectual stimulation and
depends on person observation. While Bommer, Rubin, and Baldwin (2004) found that
front runner who were skeptical toward organizational change were not really engage in
transformational leadership behaviour, though this end result was absorb by someone
who occupied in transformational leadership characteristic. In order to influence
subordinates characteristic, a leader may have physiology experienced toward excellent
skills to get their subordinate perform but if the purpose is misuse, this style of leadership
can be unhealthy. Cult leaders are an example of transformational. Unfortunately, a
powerful leader is meaningless if he has bad content and consider not worth being a
It is a need to dominance emotional feature in leadership (George, 2000). Since there are
various result on the role of transformational leadership and teachers behaviour, more
studies should be carried out in order to identify how teachers’ influence students in
conducting overall transformational leadership style with good behaviour in primary
1.3 Research Objectives
The research objective of this study are:
1.3.1 To gauge teachers’ perceptions on transformational leaderships in Primary
School in Subang Jaya.
1.3.2 To identify teachers behaviours factors influence students’ performance in
1.3.3 To find important aspects of transformational leadership styles that
contribute to school achievement?
1.4 Research question
The research question of this study are:
1.4.1 What are teachers’ perceptions on transformational leadership behaviours
at Primary School in Subang Jaya?
1.4.2 What are teachers’ behaviours factors influence students performance in
1.4.3 What are the important aspects of transformational leadership styles that
contribute to school achievement?
1.5 Operational defination
The definition used in this study are as follows:
1.5.1 Transformational Leaders
(Burns, 1978) Organization objective can be achieved depends on the
followers style in adapting their efforts with the help of values that
postulated by inspiration of transformational leadership. Leithwood and
Jantzi's (2000) define leaders who are skilful to develop in subordinates
the ability to evolve an individual responsibility to meet standard objective
of an institution (p. 113). Furthermore transformational leaders are define
as a successful strategy to control the reform surrounding meet by present
Corporation (Bass, 1990, Blasé, 1999; Turner, Barling, & Zacharatos,
2002). For the purpose of this study, transformational leaders refers to
senior teachers, who are capable in bringing changes in teachers
‘credibility for school improvement.
Behaviour is an interaction of person with environment. To relate with this
study, behaviour is an attitude portrays teachers towards students. It can be
good or bad value. Any interaction physically, verbally and even sign
languages can be categorized as behaviour.
1.6 Limitations of the study
The major limitation in this study is the size of sample. The sample size is too small. This
study may not allow an accurate and complete findings. Moreover, the data analysis may
not give a significant result if comparison to be done with other large population of
Apart from that, type of organization is also limited. Every leader has different abilities.
Teachers’ abilities may different with other leaders who conduct transformational
leadership in different environment. Skills, knowledge and enforcement are limited.
Hence highly motivated knowledgeable leader in different organization, can be vary with
teaching line. Because this study is only conducted in one of the primary school in
Subang Jaya, thus the sample cannot be reliable to other big population of schools in
different states and other organization. Conclusion on contribution of transformational
leadership can only made for this specific school.
Many teachers still lack of knowledge and approaches, thus students not achieving
targeted high quality academic learning standard. Besides, head of school being helpless
to guide teachers to do their own required analytical studies.
Issue in making decisions are limited. Respondents in this study have limited power in
making decision. This is because, the respondents are still subordinates for their head of
school. An inspirational speaker not necessary can be a participate leader. Participative
leadership are more effective in today's environment. Skill of knowledge can be adapted
easily with high information available in the world. In fact leaders with high vision
definitely help teachers’ work. Therefore, the result can be used for other research, if
there is any further related study regarding teachers’ perception in transformational
leadership in a primary school.
Current situation on teachers’ workload in schools, has created many stress and
disorganize environment. Thus, aspect of emotion need to manage intrinsically. The
ability to focus on positive emotional aspect is neglected (Flam, 1993). The capacity to
recognize and control emotions, atmosphere and other good values in the self are
contributing to effective leaderships (George, 2000).
1.7 Significance of the study
The study on the teachers behaviour and transformational leadership in primary school is
to identify whether transformational leadership able to inspire people surroundings. The
major significant effect will be the group of students of Primary School in Subang Jaya.
An affective Teachers able to influenced their work at a great level of achievement. This
achievement could be in their interpersonal skills or in their academic performance.
Great leaders always have many ways to offer ideas and being positively motivating
everyone in their team. Thus, competence leaders could give an impact to other teachers
surrounding as well. Educational organisations are complicated system made up of parts
with broader interdependencies. Besides that, this study also could promote
transformational leaderships in an educational organisation are: 1) helping staff members
develop and maintain a collaborative, professional educational organisational culture, 2)
foster teacher development and 3) helping them solve problems together more
Head teachers will indirectly benefit with teachers style of leadership. The impact could
very remarkable, because good behaviour and transformational skills will resulted a
bigger improvement on students well-being and academic. Impact on the school will be
great. To support further impact, the ministry of Education will received a productive
schools in future. Studies show that teachers’ enthusiasm for evolve is strengthen when
they adopt a set of internalized goals for professional development growth (Balyer,
2012). This process become smooth when they become involved in establishing a school
mission they feel strongly committed to. The head teachers can do their part by helping to
ensure that such goals are clear, explicit and ambitious enough to be challenging.
Feedback from colleagues about the discrepancies between the goals for growth and their
current practises can be helpful.
1.8 Structure of the study
This study is methodical into three chapters containing Introduction in Chapter1. A
review of relevant literature on the topics covered in this study (Chapter 2), a detailed
account of selected methodology for the research (Chapter 3). Study end references and
appendix on questionnaires that need to carry forward to further task for this proposal.
This study will identify on teachers’ behaviours and transformational leaderships
influencing students’ achievement in primary schools, in Subang Jaya. The main
objective of this chapter is to analyse and review past studies and gather data on Teachers
perception on transformational leadership style. Leadership is an issue that has been
discussed by researchers frequently since the past 5 decades. This is followed by
discussion on ways of behaviour factors that influenced students’ performance in school.
While, discussion on important aspects on transformational leaderships that contribute to
achievement of school.
2.1 Teachers’ perceptions on transformational leaderships
Good leaderships influence an institution and community as well. In the institutions,
transformational leaders could be a moderate advantage to increase the efficiency and
production of any organizations (Balyer, 2012). Currently, the education sectors had been
affected with drastic changes and demands of the modern era influenced by the
expectations and needs of various stakeholders of the education organisation such as the
parents, the government and the public. Thus, good transformational leaders are
important to understand the various challenges and difficulties that effect teachers to meet
all the demands.
Transformational leaderships have been discussed in education since 1980s. Some
suggestion was made to the used of specific transformational leaderships style to govern
an educational organisation. Previous papers have suggested that transformational leader
brings major changes in the attitudes and assumptions of organisational members and
builds commitment for the organisation’s mission, objectives and strategies (Balyer,
2012). Effective styles of transformational leadership can help address multiple issues in
struggling schools, such as low student achievement and high rates of teacher attrition.
In education organisation, transformational leaders are important and referred to those
ones who try to show the organizations a new route for improvement and progress by
generating new ideas and perspectives. They also mobilize the organization by
motivating teachers, lecturers and members of the organizations to radical changes,
transforming organizational to achieve the vision and mission.
In education organisation, transformational leaders are important and referred to those
leaders that capable to increase teachers, lecturers and members of the organizations
creativity, motivation and spirituality (Blasé & Blase, 1999). Transformational leaders
emphasize on what the member of staff can do for the improvement in the educational
sector that will benefit the school children, the education organisation and the country as
In education organisation, transformational leaders are important and referred to those
leaders that capable to develop and create new needs, tendencies and values to be met for
the teachers, lecturers and members of the organizations (Leithwood, Tomlinson, &
Genge, 1996). Therefore, the education organisation may grow, develop and change
according to the leaders. Moreover, in education, transformational leaders have high
values, ethics, standards and long-term aims and focus on their members of the
organizations performance and development in order to increase their capabilities.
2.2 Teachers’ behaviour factors contribute to better performance in school.
Teachers behaviour is one of the current issues face by world today. Unhealthy behaviour
resulted in past curriculum time and creates not a conducive learning environment.
Unfortunately, teachers are not a major contribute to this unhealthy behaviour, but
currently, many cases of in moral behaviour among students being revealed. Therefore,
teachers being the most important person to play a great behaviour to influence students
in the school. It is challenging in managing students' behaviour while teaching the
curriculum. Teachers also face many conflict in theories about how to manage namely:
logical consequences, behaviour management and assertive discipline.
Of course, there is no one "correct" way to encourage positive classroom behaviour. But
if teachers begin with a good foundation, it is possible. Here are a few time-tested
suggestions that can help to build the foundation. A main objective of professional
development should be to foster changes in teachers’ behaviour, knowledge, beliefs, and
attitudes, because these components of teacher cognition show a strong correlation to
teachers’ classroom practices (Jennings, 1993; Lee, 2008). Good behaviour performed
by School head teacher can enhance teachers’ development when this give teachers a role
in solving non routine problems of school improvement within a school culture that
values continuous professional growth. Teachers often have to work hard in order to
bring meaningful school improvement. Transformational leadership is valued by some
because it stimulates teachers to engage in school improvement not as working harder but
working smarter. This behavioural action is so encouraging.
Behaviour is an interaction with things surroundings. Teachers collaborate with other
teachers and support both in the planning and teaching processes. Strategies on
collaboration in the planning process include discussion focusing on effective teaching
activities such as using Information Technology and management of school children
affairs stable. Leaders may guide them to think positively and pay attention to their
needs. This is very logic when facing differences of standard value of behaviour. To
relate with this study, teachers have to discover and to motivate students in order to
explore their needs. Moreover, the study on the role of transformational leadership is an
improving style that could facilitate and experience good changes to school as it is
2.3 Important aspect in Transformational Leaderships
Transformational leaderships comprise idealized influences, inspirational motivation,
individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation (Avolio, Yammarino, & Bass,
1991). Below (figure 1) is about four important aspect in Transformational Leadership:
2.3.1 Idealized influences
This behaviour shows a meaning a personal needs not a priority compared to
meeting the needs of others, besides avoiding use own power, and perform high
moral standards and setting goals for their subordinates. Idealized influence
shows the capability of trust making and understanding the leadership by
followers. Without such trust any effort to conduct the organization in order to
achieve its aims will be fruitless. An idealized leader has a great passion towards
their followers and often appreciate them for their contribution to their
organization (Zhu, Newman, Miao, & Hooke, 2012).
After the Hijra, Prophet Muhammad peace and blessings on him moved to
Medina and became a leader, not just a prophet and messenger, but as the perfect
leader spiritually, socially in all aspect. An individual can be a leader, when there
is a follower. However, a great leader is who can get honor of trust and simply
followed by a group of followers. Idealized influence leaders are often respected
and trusted. Followers recognize themselves and try to portray their leader. Such
leaders "perform right works" and possess high human and moral behaviour
(Kissi, Dainty, & Tuuli, 2012). They never misuse their leadership power and
capacity to achieve personal aims.
2.3.1 Inspirational motivation
Inspirational motivation is defined in the paper as to motivate and stimuli those
around them by demonstrate enthusiasm and optimism, involving the followers in
envisioning interesting future states, communicating high expectation and
demonstrating cooperation to reach goals. Leaders with inspirational motivation
challenge followers with high standards, communicate optimism about future
objective, and deliver the task at hand. Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohammad the fourth
Prime Minister as an example aimed to reach to a developed nation status for
Malaysia in his vision by the year 2020, was one of the aspects of leadership that
left a major impact on the country.
Followers need to have a strong sense of aims if they are to be motivated to act.
Purpose and meaning provides the motivation that drives a team forward. The
visionary aspects of leadership are the ability to encourage and have sense of
planning about the future and believe in his followers potentials. This is supported
by communication skills that make the vision understandable, precise, powerful
and engaging (Graves, Sarkis, & Zhu, 2013). Then the followers will be happy to
contribute more in their tasks, they are motivated and looking forward to the
future and believe in their capabilities.
2.3.2 Individualized consideration
Individualized consideration in the paper represent the leaders’ consistent to treat
each individual as a special person and act as a coach and mentor who continually
attempts to develop his or her follower potential. Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W),
was understanding and good towards all people. He used to treat everyone in a
good way and he always shows great examples of a leader. His humble manners
are an example for us all. The Prophet, was known of being very kind and being
excellent example towards children.
On the other hand, leader should have compassion and support, keeps
communication open and co-operate to each other even in challenges with
followers (Cavazotte, Moreno, & Hickmann, 2011). Followers needed respect and
appreciation for their contribution. This will encourage self-development and
foster motivation for their tasks.
2.3.3 Intellectual stimulation.
Intellectual stimulation is defined in the paper as effort to inspire followers to be
innovative and creative as well as the leader’s effort to encourage followers to
questions assumptions and to reframe problems and approach them in new ways.
Transformational leaders influence followers’ by using intellectual stimulation,
encouraging followers to think critically through using novel approaches,
involving followers in decision-making processes (Epitropaki & Martin, 2012).
Innovation gives a meaning of renew, change or create better effective ways of
doing tasks. In contrast, creative thinking is to show an ability to make new
things or ideas. Nowadays manufacturing industries were concerned with the
environment. Thus, many innovation processes have been developed and
introduced to the markets with new environmental innovation, products and usage
that reduce the overall effect on the territory (Zhang, Wang, & Pearce, 2013).
Leaders with innovative and creative thinking skills inspire and motivate
creativity in their followers (Cavazotte et al., 2011). They improve and develop
people who think independently. For such a leader, learning is a value and
unforeseen situations are seen as opportunities to learn. The followers ask
questions, think creatively and find better ways to accomplish their tasks.
2.3.4 Contingent reward
Contingent reward leadership uses recognition and rewards as motivating forces
for its members. Contingent reward shows the degree to which you tell others
what to do in order to be rewarded and recognize their accomplishments.
Transformational leadership builds personal and social identification among its
members with the mission and goals of the leader and organization (Zhu,
Newman, Miao, & Hooke, 2012). To be effective, the reward must be of interest
to the subordinates. If the awards do not attract the attention of the subordinates, it
will be meaningless and these will not stimuli successful motivation among
Contingent reward is best given under a contingent reward leadership. Under this
leadership style, leaders and managers normally focus on enhancing performance
management. These leaders select good employees with a responsibility of a
given task. They are then expected to meet the goal to be rewarded for their
2.4 Conceptual Framework
Figure 2 shows two variables namely teachers’ behaviour and transformational
leadership play important role in improving students’ academic learning towards
school achievement. Thus, teachers’ behaviour and leadership style
implementation will give impact to students as well as school overall. Therefore,
this study intends to see teachers influence as a transformational leader at Primary
Schools, in Subang Jaya.
Improvement School Achievement
This chapter will discuss the following; research design, population and sample,
instrumentation, data collection and data analysis plan.
3.1 Research Design
This study is a quantitative approach and employed a causal comparative
research. The design was meant to explore the teachers’ level of influence
towards student improvement and school improvement, based on teachers’
behaviour and transformational leadership skills. According to John W. Creswell
(1994), quantitative research is a type of research that explains the phenomena
through the collection of numerical data which will be analysed by using statistic
The teachers in Subang Jaya Primary School area have been chosen as the
samples for this study. A set of questionnaires was used as the instrument in the
research to collect the data required. Bulmer (2004), the questionnaire is a
significant tool within leadership styles research for obtaining data and
information on participants’ teachers’ society, their behaviour, standards of
transformational leadership used and the impact towards the students
The sample for this study is the teachers from 30 primary schools in Subang Jaya,
Selangor. According to Neuman (2003), subject selection is defined as the criteria
and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of
subjects in research protocol. This study used non-probability sampling
procedures to choose respondents. Non-probability sampling is, samples are
selected based on purposive, i.e. own decision on the accessibility of respondents.
Normally, researches target on a particular group of people. For this purpose of
study, the samples are teachers from Primary School in Subang Jaya. This
sampling technique is used to identify teachers’ behaviour and the influence on
students using transformational leadership skills at Primary Schools, in Subang
The instrument used in this study is a set of questionnaire for data collection. This
questionnaire was designed based on the important aspect for this study. The
questionnaires were structured with open and close ended questions. Some of the
questions are based from Likert scale and the teachers as respondents need to
evaluate themselves to answer it. Likert scale referring to ten-item scale from
least to most.
The questionnaire consists of four sections, which is section A is focussing on
demographic area which conclude of basic and general questions for teachers.
Whereby, section B and D on the aspect of teachers’ behaviour in school. While
Part C on the skills required by teachers to implement transformational leadership
style to improve students. The related questionnaire attached in appendix section.
Table 3.1 : Descriptions of the Questionnaire
SECTIONS DESCRIPTION NUMBER OF ITEM
This section carries general questions such as
age, gender, race, teaching experience, highest
education qualification and positions hold in
Question 1 until 9
This section consists questions related to
teachers’ behaviour practice at school. How
teachers ready with positive influences skills
used and perform to students. It is a Likert scale
questions, from strongly not agree to strongly
Question 10 -11
Transformational leadership style
This section consists questions on
transformational leadership skills and technique
used to suggest or implemented in school. It is
an open ended questions
Question 12 - 16
This consists teachers’ behaviour questions.
The questionnaire is a 10 point scale questions
from 1 to 10 (1 scale for the least, while 10
point scale for the most question.
Question 17 - 23
3.4 Data Collection
The questionnaire will be distributed to 30 primary school teachers based from the
criteria stated on the schedule. It will be a short briefing on objective of the study
and the data collected will be useful for students in future. The questionnaire will
be distribute to teachers in Primary School in Subang Jaya during spesific time
such as, during weekdays on lunch break or even based on earlier appoinment
with teachers. To ensure respondents could understand all the questionnaire, the
researcher will monitor the process herself. The questionnaire will be collected
once respondents completed answering the questionnaire. Approximate time to
answer all the questionnaire is about 10 to 15 minutes. The data collection as
The questionnaire has four sections which are Section A : Demographic
information, Section B& C : Level of teachers behaviour and Section C :
Transformational Leaderships skill
The respondents of this questionnaire are 30 primary school teachers in
Subang Jaya, Selangor
The questionnaire is distributed on weekdays during office hours,
lunch break or by appointment with teachers.
The time needed to complete the all questions is around ten to fifteen
Figure 3.1: Summary of the Data Collection Procedures
3.5 Data Analysis
All the data were collected and analysed to obtain the research objectives.
Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to generate
descriptive. SPSS is an invention of analysis software for data management and
also compatible for a survey research. In this system software, the data will be
key-in and descriptive statistics is employed in order to analyse and interpret data
and information gathered.
Table 3.2 : Summary of Data Analysis
Research Questions Section Analysis
What are teachers’ perceptions
on transformational leadership
behaviour at Primary School in
(Question 10 – 11
questions were analyzed
to get mean, frequency
and standard of each
The questionnaire will be collected upon respondents completed
answering all questionnaire
What are teachers’ behaviour
factors influence students’
performance in school?
(Question 17 – 23)
questions were analyzed
to get mean, frequency
and standard of each
What are the important aspects
of transformational leadership
styles that contribute to school
(Question 12 – 16)
This open ended
questions were analyzed
to get the frequency and
percentage of the
Thus, all items can be analysed, by using SPSS software. Therefore, the next chapter will
discuss on the finding of study.
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