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  • 1. 1 CHAPTER 1 1.0 Introduction Schools are expected in achieving high standards of education level, while Educational leaders anticipated to be at the frontline of most school (Leithwood & Jantzi, 2000). While behaviour are major feature on an organization that create healthy environment. Therefore, it is adviceable in ensuring a positive interpersonal behavior together the best practices of leadership in order to enhance schools environment and built on students’ attainment. Transformational leadership style has played a major practice everywhere that contributed to associate with subordinates presentation, character, health and good behaviour. To inspire followers to do a great job, despite demonstrate and continue contribution towards other self-interest, will stimuli awareness of important and correct personal interest in school also called part of Transformational leadership. It is contribute others with an objective that gain beyond little efforts for initiative offered (Cashim, J. et al., 2000). It is known, Transformational leadership as a successful ways to conduct the inconsistence situation experience by recent institution (Turner, Barling & Zacharatos, 2002). There are four main Transformational leadership behaviours has four main characteristics: 1) idealized influence/charisma — the top manager acts as an example and takes the lead in portray good attitude, 2) inspirational motivation — the top manager create a clear vision, 3) intellectual stimulation — the top manager give support to the subordinates by guiding them in making decision through effort from their inner strength 4) individualized consideration — the top manager identify in person performance and correcting attitude based on needs by individual to the individual's need and potentials (Bass, 1985). Although researches done in other countries (Lucas and Valentine, 2003) confirmed that transformational leadership is the way that can bring environment changes to school, a
  • 2. 2 research needs to carry out in order to investigate whether teachers behaviour and the use of transformational leaderships style influencing students achievement in Primary School, in Subang Jaya. According to Alger 2008, a big task in school leadership environment is to boost knowledgeable teacher to create and maintain a school culture that focuses in on going transformational programs in education. Responsible school leaders will assist to bring up school development that everyone shares good values and norms and being caring to each other members (Leithwood & Riehl, 2003). 1.1 Background of the Study This paper focuses on the level of transformational leadership behaviours that teachers’ perform at schools during their job practises every day. Good behaviours influence almost all action which contributes indirectly in leadership styles. The concept of transformational leadership continues to evolve and remains a vital and important part of the current leadership literature. Transformational leadership style is related to leaders’ individual behaviour. According to Sosik, Avolio, and Jung (2002), transformational leadership is to be connected with management. However, little is known the exercise and demonstration of transformational leadership behaviours particularly for school leaders in Malaysia. Researchers found, Transformational leaders can instantly effect institution environments by motivating educators to act as a team and adapt better practices for school advancement (Leithwood & Jantzi, 2000). Thus, this paper will provide more an overview to assess and determine teachers’ behaviour and transformational leaderships skill used at Primary School in Subang Jaya, Selangor. 1.2 Statement of the research problem Transformational Leadership has captivate significant awareness. Many unethical behaviours teachers who behaved in an unprofessional manners caused with many
  • 3. 3 problems. Problem of teachers’ behaviours including poor in teaching and communication with students; no concern on students, emotional interruption and lacking in classroom management. Very little is familiar about the teachers’ response to the ethical and unethical of transformational leadership. There are various studies investigate on the impact of transformational leadership towards schools achievement. Current study scrutinize how transformational leadership response with ethical leadership characteristic. Structure on assigned fact, the leadership characteristic would be recognised for most transformational leaders. The transformational leaders expect subordinates to follow them. Avolio (1993) identified leaders' inner focus in managing to be related to intellectual stimulation and depends on person observation. While Bommer, Rubin, and Baldwin (2004) found that front runner who were skeptical toward organizational change were not really engage in transformational leadership behaviour, though this end result was absorb by someone who occupied in transformational leadership characteristic. In order to influence subordinates characteristic, a leader may have physiology experienced toward excellent skills to get their subordinate perform but if the purpose is misuse, this style of leadership can be unhealthy. Cult leaders are an example of transformational. Unfortunately, a powerful leader is meaningless if he has bad content and consider not worth being a leader. It is a need to dominance emotional feature in leadership (George, 2000). Since there are various result on the role of transformational leadership and teachers behaviour, more studies should be carried out in order to identify how teachers’ influence students in conducting overall transformational leadership style with good behaviour in primary schools.
  • 4. 4 1.3 Research Objectives The research objective of this study are: 1.3.1 To gauge teachers’ perceptions on transformational leaderships in Primary School in Subang Jaya. 1.3.2 To identify teachers behaviours factors influence students’ performance in school. 1.3.3 To find important aspects of transformational leadership styles that contribute to school achievement? 1.4 Research question The research question of this study are: 1.4.1 What are teachers’ perceptions on transformational leadership behaviours at Primary School in Subang Jaya? 1.4.2 What are teachers’ behaviours factors influence students performance in school? 1.4.3 What are the important aspects of transformational leadership styles that contribute to school achievement? 1.5 Operational defination The definition used in this study are as follows: 1.5.1 Transformational Leaders (Burns, 1978) Organization objective can be achieved depends on the followers style in adapting their efforts with the help of values that postulated by inspiration of transformational leadership. Leithwood and Jantzi's (2000) define leaders who are skilful to develop in subordinates the ability to evolve an individual responsibility to meet standard objective of an institution (p. 113). Furthermore transformational leaders are define
  • 5. 5 as a successful strategy to control the reform surrounding meet by present Corporation (Bass, 1990, Blasé, 1999; Turner, Barling, & Zacharatos, 2002). For the purpose of this study, transformational leaders refers to senior teachers, who are capable in bringing changes in teachers ‘credibility for school improvement. 1.5.2 Behaviour Behaviour is an interaction of person with environment. To relate with this study, behaviour is an attitude portrays teachers towards students. It can be good or bad value. Any interaction physically, verbally and even sign languages can be categorized as behaviour. 1.6 Limitations of the study The major limitation in this study is the size of sample. The sample size is too small. This study may not allow an accurate and complete findings. Moreover, the data analysis may not give a significant result if comparison to be done with other large population of sample. Apart from that, type of organization is also limited. Every leader has different abilities. Teachers’ abilities may different with other leaders who conduct transformational leadership in different environment. Skills, knowledge and enforcement are limited. Hence highly motivated knowledgeable leader in different organization, can be vary with teaching line. Because this study is only conducted in one of the primary school in Subang Jaya, thus the sample cannot be reliable to other big population of schools in different states and other organization. Conclusion on contribution of transformational leadership can only made for this specific school.
  • 6. 6 Many teachers still lack of knowledge and approaches, thus students not achieving targeted high quality academic learning standard. Besides, head of school being helpless to guide teachers to do their own required analytical studies. Issue in making decisions are limited. Respondents in this study have limited power in making decision. This is because, the respondents are still subordinates for their head of school. An inspirational speaker not necessary can be a participate leader. Participative leadership are more effective in today's environment. Skill of knowledge can be adapted easily with high information available in the world. In fact leaders with high vision definitely help teachers’ work. Therefore, the result can be used for other research, if there is any further related study regarding teachers’ perception in transformational leadership in a primary school. Current situation on teachers’ workload in schools, has created many stress and disorganize environment. Thus, aspect of emotion need to manage intrinsically. The ability to focus on positive emotional aspect is neglected (Flam, 1993). The capacity to recognize and control emotions, atmosphere and other good values in the self are contributing to effective leaderships (George, 2000). 1.7 Significance of the study The study on the teachers behaviour and transformational leadership in primary school is to identify whether transformational leadership able to inspire people surroundings. The major significant effect will be the group of students of Primary School in Subang Jaya. An affective Teachers able to influenced their work at a great level of achievement. This achievement could be in their interpersonal skills or in their academic performance. Great leaders always have many ways to offer ideas and being positively motivating everyone in their team. Thus, competence leaders could give an impact to other teachers surrounding as well. Educational organisations are complicated system made up of parts
  • 7. 7 with broader interdependencies. Besides that, this study also could promote transformational leaderships in an educational organisation are: 1) helping staff members develop and maintain a collaborative, professional educational organisational culture, 2) foster teacher development and 3) helping them solve problems together more effectively. Head teachers will indirectly benefit with teachers style of leadership. The impact could very remarkable, because good behaviour and transformational skills will resulted a bigger improvement on students well-being and academic. Impact on the school will be great. To support further impact, the ministry of Education will received a productive schools in future. Studies show that teachers’ enthusiasm for evolve is strengthen when they adopt a set of internalized goals for professional development growth (Balyer, 2012). This process become smooth when they become involved in establishing a school mission they feel strongly committed to. The head teachers can do their part by helping to ensure that such goals are clear, explicit and ambitious enough to be challenging. Feedback from colleagues about the discrepancies between the goals for growth and their current practises can be helpful. 1.8 Structure of the study This study is methodical into three chapters containing Introduction in Chapter1. A review of relevant literature on the topics covered in this study (Chapter 2), a detailed account of selected methodology for the research (Chapter 3). Study end references and appendix on questionnaires that need to carry forward to further task for this proposal.
  • 8. 8 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Introduction This study will identify on teachers’ behaviours and transformational leaderships influencing students’ achievement in primary schools, in Subang Jaya. The main objective of this chapter is to analyse and review past studies and gather data on Teachers perception on transformational leadership style. Leadership is an issue that has been discussed by researchers frequently since the past 5 decades. This is followed by discussion on ways of behaviour factors that influenced students’ performance in school. While, discussion on important aspects on transformational leaderships that contribute to achievement of school. 2.1 Teachers’ perceptions on transformational leaderships Good leaderships influence an institution and community as well. In the institutions, transformational leaders could be a moderate advantage to increase the efficiency and production of any organizations (Balyer, 2012). Currently, the education sectors had been affected with drastic changes and demands of the modern era influenced by the expectations and needs of various stakeholders of the education organisation such as the parents, the government and the public. Thus, good transformational leaders are important to understand the various challenges and difficulties that effect teachers to meet all the demands. Transformational leaderships have been discussed in education since 1980s. Some suggestion was made to the used of specific transformational leaderships style to govern an educational organisation. Previous papers have suggested that transformational leader brings major changes in the attitudes and assumptions of organisational members and
  • 9. 9 builds commitment for the organisation’s mission, objectives and strategies (Balyer, 2012). Effective styles of transformational leadership can help address multiple issues in struggling schools, such as low student achievement and high rates of teacher attrition. In education organisation, transformational leaders are important and referred to those ones who try to show the organizations a new route for improvement and progress by generating new ideas and perspectives. They also mobilize the organization by motivating teachers, lecturers and members of the organizations to radical changes, transforming organizational to achieve the vision and mission. In education organisation, transformational leaders are important and referred to those leaders that capable to increase teachers, lecturers and members of the organizations creativity, motivation and spirituality (Blasé & Blase, 1999). Transformational leaders emphasize on what the member of staff can do for the improvement in the educational sector that will benefit the school children, the education organisation and the country as a whole. In education organisation, transformational leaders are important and referred to those leaders that capable to develop and create new needs, tendencies and values to be met for the teachers, lecturers and members of the organizations (Leithwood, Tomlinson, & Genge, 1996). Therefore, the education organisation may grow, develop and change according to the leaders. Moreover, in education, transformational leaders have high values, ethics, standards and long-term aims and focus on their members of the organizations performance and development in order to increase their capabilities. 2.2 Teachers’ behaviour factors contribute to better performance in school. Teachers behaviour is one of the current issues face by world today. Unhealthy behaviour resulted in past curriculum time and creates not a conducive learning environment. Unfortunately, teachers are not a major contribute to this unhealthy behaviour, but
  • 10. 10 currently, many cases of in moral behaviour among students being revealed. Therefore, teachers being the most important person to play a great behaviour to influence students in the school. It is challenging in managing students' behaviour while teaching the curriculum. Teachers also face many conflict in theories about how to manage namely: logical consequences, behaviour management and assertive discipline. Of course, there is no one "correct" way to encourage positive classroom behaviour. But if teachers begin with a good foundation, it is possible. Here are a few time-tested suggestions that can help to build the foundation. A main objective of professional development should be to foster changes in teachers’ behaviour, knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes, because these components of teacher cognition show a strong correlation to teachers’ classroom practices (Jennings, 1993; Lee, 2008). Good behaviour performed by School head teacher can enhance teachers’ development when this give teachers a role in solving non routine problems of school improvement within a school culture that values continuous professional growth. Teachers often have to work hard in order to bring meaningful school improvement. Transformational leadership is valued by some because it stimulates teachers to engage in school improvement not as working harder but working smarter. This behavioural action is so encouraging. Behaviour is an interaction with things surroundings. Teachers collaborate with other teachers and support both in the planning and teaching processes. Strategies on collaboration in the planning process include discussion focusing on effective teaching activities such as using Information Technology and management of school children affairs stable. Leaders may guide them to think positively and pay attention to their needs. This is very logic when facing differences of standard value of behaviour. To relate with this study, teachers have to discover and to motivate students in order to explore their needs. Moreover, the study on the role of transformational leadership is an improving style that could facilitate and experience good changes to school as it is inspiring.
  • 11. 11 2.3 Important aspect in Transformational Leaderships Transformational leaderships comprise idealized influences, inspirational motivation, individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation (Avolio, Yammarino, & Bass, 1991). Below (figure 1) is about four important aspect in Transformational Leadership: Figure 1 2.3.1 Idealized influences This behaviour shows a meaning a personal needs not a priority compared to meeting the needs of others, besides avoiding use own power, and perform high moral standards and setting goals for their subordinates. Idealized influence shows the capability of trust making and understanding the leadership by followers. Without such trust any effort to conduct the organization in order to achieve its aims will be fruitless. An idealized leader has a great passion towards
  • 12. 12 their followers and often appreciate them for their contribution to their organization (Zhu, Newman, Miao, & Hooke, 2012). After the Hijra, Prophet Muhammad peace and blessings on him moved to Medina and became a leader, not just a prophet and messenger, but as the perfect leader spiritually, socially in all aspect. An individual can be a leader, when there is a follower. However, a great leader is who can get honor of trust and simply followed by a group of followers. Idealized influence leaders are often respected and trusted. Followers recognize themselves and try to portray their leader. Such leaders "perform right works" and possess high human and moral behaviour (Kissi, Dainty, & Tuuli, 2012). They never misuse their leadership power and capacity to achieve personal aims. 2.3.1 Inspirational motivation Inspirational motivation is defined in the paper as to motivate and stimuli those around them by demonstrate enthusiasm and optimism, involving the followers in envisioning interesting future states, communicating high expectation and demonstrating cooperation to reach goals. Leaders with inspirational motivation challenge followers with high standards, communicate optimism about future objective, and deliver the task at hand. Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohammad the fourth Prime Minister as an example aimed to reach to a developed nation status for Malaysia in his vision by the year 2020, was one of the aspects of leadership that left a major impact on the country. Followers need to have a strong sense of aims if they are to be motivated to act. Purpose and meaning provides the motivation that drives a team forward. The visionary aspects of leadership are the ability to encourage and have sense of planning about the future and believe in his followers potentials. This is supported by communication skills that make the vision understandable, precise, powerful and engaging (Graves, Sarkis, & Zhu, 2013). Then the followers will be happy to
  • 13. 13 contribute more in their tasks, they are motivated and looking forward to the future and believe in their capabilities. 2.3.2 Individualized consideration Individualized consideration in the paper represent the leaders’ consistent to treat each individual as a special person and act as a coach and mentor who continually attempts to develop his or her follower potential. Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W), was understanding and good towards all people. He used to treat everyone in a good way and he always shows great examples of a leader. His humble manners are an example for us all. The Prophet, was known of being very kind and being excellent example towards children. On the other hand, leader should have compassion and support, keeps communication open and co-operate to each other even in challenges with followers (Cavazotte, Moreno, & Hickmann, 2011). Followers needed respect and appreciation for their contribution. This will encourage self-development and foster motivation for their tasks. 2.3.3 Intellectual stimulation. Intellectual stimulation is defined in the paper as effort to inspire followers to be innovative and creative as well as the leader’s effort to encourage followers to questions assumptions and to reframe problems and approach them in new ways. Transformational leaders influence followers’ by using intellectual stimulation, encouraging followers to think critically through using novel approaches, involving followers in decision-making processes (Epitropaki & Martin, 2012). Innovation gives a meaning of renew, change or create better effective ways of doing tasks. In contrast, creative thinking is to show an ability to make new things or ideas. Nowadays manufacturing industries were concerned with the environment. Thus, many innovation processes have been developed and
  • 14. 14 introduced to the markets with new environmental innovation, products and usage that reduce the overall effect on the territory (Zhang, Wang, & Pearce, 2013). Leaders with innovative and creative thinking skills inspire and motivate creativity in their followers (Cavazotte et al., 2011). They improve and develop people who think independently. For such a leader, learning is a value and unforeseen situations are seen as opportunities to learn. The followers ask questions, think creatively and find better ways to accomplish their tasks. 2.3.4 Contingent reward Contingent reward leadership uses recognition and rewards as motivating forces for its members. Contingent reward shows the degree to which you tell others what to do in order to be rewarded and recognize their accomplishments. Transformational leadership builds personal and social identification among its members with the mission and goals of the leader and organization (Zhu, Newman, Miao, & Hooke, 2012). To be effective, the reward must be of interest to the subordinates. If the awards do not attract the attention of the subordinates, it will be meaningless and these will not stimuli successful motivation among subordinates. Contingent reward is best given under a contingent reward leadership. Under this leadership style, leaders and managers normally focus on enhancing performance management. These leaders select good employees with a responsibility of a given task. They are then expected to meet the goal to be rewarded for their excellence.
  • 15. 15 2.4 Conceptual Framework Figure 2 Figure 2 shows two variables namely teachers’ behaviour and transformational leadership play important role in improving students’ academic learning towards school achievement. Thus, teachers’ behaviour and leadership style implementation will give impact to students as well as school overall. Therefore, this study intends to see teachers influence as a transformational leader at Primary Schools, in Subang Jaya. Teachers Behaviour Transformational Leadership Students Improvement School Achievement
  • 16. 16 CHAPTER 3 3.0 Introduction This chapter will discuss the following; research design, population and sample, instrumentation, data collection and data analysis plan. 3.1 Research Design This study is a quantitative approach and employed a causal comparative research. The design was meant to explore the teachers’ level of influence towards student improvement and school improvement, based on teachers’ behaviour and transformational leadership skills. According to John W. Creswell (1994), quantitative research is a type of research that explains the phenomena through the collection of numerical data which will be analysed by using statistic tools. The teachers in Subang Jaya Primary School area have been chosen as the samples for this study. A set of questionnaires was used as the instrument in the research to collect the data required. Bulmer (2004), the questionnaire is a significant tool within leadership styles research for obtaining data and information on participants’ teachers’ society, their behaviour, standards of transformational leadership used and the impact towards the students achievement. 3.2 Sample The sample for this study is the teachers from 30 primary schools in Subang Jaya, Selangor. According to Neuman (2003), subject selection is defined as the criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of subjects in research protocol. This study used non-probability sampling procedures to choose respondents. Non-probability sampling is, samples are selected based on purposive, i.e. own decision on the accessibility of respondents. Normally, researches target on a particular group of people. For this purpose of
  • 17. 17 study, the samples are teachers from Primary School in Subang Jaya. This sampling technique is used to identify teachers’ behaviour and the influence on students using transformational leadership skills at Primary Schools, in Subang Jaya. 3.3 Instrumentation The instrument used in this study is a set of questionnaire for data collection. This questionnaire was designed based on the important aspect for this study. The questionnaires were structured with open and close ended questions. Some of the questions are based from Likert scale and the teachers as respondents need to evaluate themselves to answer it. Likert scale referring to ten-item scale from least to most. The questionnaire consists of four sections, which is section A is focussing on demographic area which conclude of basic and general questions for teachers. Whereby, section B and D on the aspect of teachers’ behaviour in school. While Part C on the skills required by teachers to implement transformational leadership style to improve students. The related questionnaire attached in appendix section.
  • 18. 18 Table 3.1 : Descriptions of the Questionnaire SECTIONS DESCRIPTION NUMBER OF ITEM Section A Demographic Information This section carries general questions such as age, gender, race, teaching experience, highest education qualification and positions hold in school committee. 9 items Question 1 until 9 Section B Teachers behaviour This section consists questions related to teachers’ behaviour practice at school. How teachers ready with positive influences skills used and perform to students. It is a Likert scale questions, from strongly not agree to strongly agree. 2 items Question 10 -11 Section C Transformational leadership style This section consists questions on transformational leadership skills and technique used to suggest or implemented in school. It is an open ended questions 5 items Question 12 - 16 Section D Teachers behaviour This consists teachers’ behaviour questions. The questionnaire is a 10 point scale questions from 1 to 10 (1 scale for the least, while 10 point scale for the most question. 7 items Question 17 - 23
  • 19. 19 3.4 Data Collection The questionnaire will be distributed to 30 primary school teachers based from the criteria stated on the schedule. It will be a short briefing on objective of the study and the data collected will be useful for students in future. The questionnaire will be distribute to teachers in Primary School in Subang Jaya during spesific time such as, during weekdays on lunch break or even based on earlier appoinment with teachers. To ensure respondents could understand all the questionnaire, the researcher will monitor the process herself. The questionnaire will be collected once respondents completed answering the questionnaire. Approximate time to answer all the questionnaire is about 10 to 15 minutes. The data collection as follows: Design questionnaire: The questionnaire has four sections which are Section A : Demographic information, Section B& C : Level of teachers behaviour and Section C : Transformational Leaderships skill Sample Selection: The respondents of this questionnaire are 30 primary school teachers in Subang Jaya, Selangor Questionnaire Distribution: The questionnaire is distributed on weekdays during office hours, lunch break or by appointment with teachers. Time Taken: The time needed to complete the all questions is around ten to fifteen minutes.
  • 20. 20 . Figure 3.1: Summary of the Data Collection Procedures 3.5 Data Analysis All the data were collected and analysed to obtain the research objectives. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to generate descriptive. SPSS is an invention of analysis software for data management and also compatible for a survey research. In this system software, the data will be key-in and descriptive statistics is employed in order to analyse and interpret data and information gathered. Table 3.2 : Summary of Data Analysis Research Questions Section Analysis What are teachers’ perceptions on transformational leadership behaviour at Primary School in Subang Jaya? B (Question 10 – 11 This closes-ended questions were analyzed to get mean, frequency and standard of each item. Questionnaire Collection: The questionnaire will be collected upon respondents completed answering all questionnaire
  • 21. 21 What are teachers’ behaviour factors influence students’ performance in school? D (Question 17 – 23) This closes-ended questions were analyzed to get mean, frequency and standard of each item. What are the important aspects of transformational leadership styles that contribute to school achievement? C (Question 12 – 16) This open ended questions were analyzed to get the frequency and percentage of the responses. Thus, all items can be analysed, by using SPSS software. Therefore, the next chapter will discuss on the finding of study.
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