Why learning methods?It is important to realise that teachers need toknow different approaches so that he or she canchoose the one that makes teaching morecomfortable.
What are the methods?Larzen-Freeman (2008) presents several teaching methods: The grammar-translation method The direct method The audio-lingual method The silent way Total Physical Response Communicative language teaching
Which is the best one?There’s no bad or good in this matter. It is goodto get to know them all.
Let’s start?Now, we are going to talk about two of thesemethods: The grammar-translation method and The direct method
First of all...The author of the book uses experiments toexplain how the methods work. It is importantto try the methods in fact, not only study them.
Grammar-Translation MethodThis first method is based in an exchange of theknowledge of the student’s mother languageand the new language’s one.It is useful for literature situations, it means,basically, for written texts, comprehension.
It allows the teacher and the students to use themother language to translate and createreferences from one idiom to the other. I was in my mother’s house. Eu estava na casa da minha mãe.
Like this, he student becomes capable ofrecognizing similar constructions and build intheir heads the ones that are new.
If the student can translate a text, both fromtheir mother language to the target languageand the opposite situation, then he or she is asuccessful language learner.
How is the interaction in this method?There must be much interaction from teacher tostudents, a little student initiation and a littlestudent-student interaction. Student Teacher Student Student
What are the emphasized language skills? Reading Writing Pronunciation
What is the role of the mother language?The mother language is used to make clearmeanings.This is the idiom that appears the most timeduring the classes.
When mistakes happens...The teacher corrects student’s errors andsupplies them with the correct answers.
To finish:The most important thing about Grammar-Translation is that the students learn about thelanguage but they do not learn how to use it.They search for understanding a text which isalready written.
The Direct MethodThis second method we are about to explain,diferently from the one we have just saw, hasone basic rule: No translation is allowed.
The teacher uses the Knowledge Demonstration of the target targetlanguage language to learnthe same one.
How is the interaction in this method?There is a great student-student interaction anda significative student-teacher, but the ‘teacher-student’ arrow is the biggest one. Student Student
What are the emphasized language skills? Oral Communication Pronunciation Reading Writing
What is the role of the mother language?It should not be used in the classroom.The teacher has to do everything that is possibleto make the student learn from the newlanguage.
When mistakes happens...The teacher must try to get students to self-correct whenever it is possible.
What about a guideline? Grammar- Direct MethodTranslation Method Main goal: Understanting Main goal: Communicating Role of native language: Almost Role of native language: Crucial null How? Translating. How? Speaking Skills: Reading/ Writing Skill: Speaking Errors: Teacher’s correction Errors: Self-Correction
Reference• LARZEN-FREEMAN, D. Techniques and principles in language teaching. 2nded. Oxford. 2008.p.11-33.