Grammar book

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Grammar book

  1. 1. Grammar Book Sabrina Futch 7th Period
  2. 2. Table of Contents1. Nationalities 8. Superlatives2. Stem Changing Verbs 9. Reflexives 10. Affirmative Tú Commands /3. Para Irregulars / Pronoun Placement4. Indirect Object Pronouns 11. Negative Tú Commands /5. Pronoun Placement Irregulars / Pronoun Placement6. Gustar 12. Sequencing Events7. Affirmative and Negative Words
  3. 3. Nationalities
  4. 4. Stem Changers Yo pido Nosotros Yo juego Nosotros pedimos jugamos Tú pides Vosotros pedís Tú juegas Vosotros jugáisÉl/Ella/Usted Éllos/Ellas/Uste Él/Ella/Usted Éllos/Ellas/Uste pide des piden juega des juegan Yo duermo Nosotros Yo pienso Nosotros dormimos pensamosTú duermes Vosotros dormís Tú piensa Vosotros pensáisÉl/Ella/Usted Éllos/Ellas/Ustede Él/Ella/Usted Éllos/Ellas/Ustede duerme s duermen piensa s piensas
  5. 5. Para• Para = for, in order to Uses The ImpliedRecipient of Purpose Purpose Items Vamos al Tengo dinero para…el regalo para restaurante para [comprar] algo. tú mamá comer.
  6. 6. Indirect Object Pronouns• IOPs are nouns that tell to Yo - Me Nosotros - whom/what or for whom/what. Nos• IOPs replace or accompany Tú - Te Vosotros - Os indirect objects.• The pronouns le and les can Él/Ella/Usted Éllos/Ellas/Us refer to different indirect - Le tedes - Les objects. To clarify what they mean, the are often accompanied by: a + name, • Rosa le compra una olla. • Rosa buys a pot for her. noun, or pronoun. • Rosa le compra una olla a su madre. • Rosa buys a pot for her mother.• To add emphasis use: a + •A mí me compro unos aretes. pronoun. •I’m buying myself some earrings.
  7. 7. Pronoun Placement1. Attach the pronoun to • When the pronoun accompanies a the infinitive conjugated verb, the pronoun comes before the verb.2. Attach the pronoun to • Rosa le compra una olla a su madre. a progressive tense • Rosa buy her mother a pot.3. Attach the pronoun to • When the pronoun accompanies a sentence with an infinitive, it can an affirmative either go before the conjugated command verb or be attached to the end of the infinitive.4. Place the pronoun • Rosa quiere comprarle una olla a su before a conjugated madre. verb • Rosa wants to buy her mother a pot.
  8. 8. Gustar• Gustar = to like Yo – Me gusto Nosotros – Nos gustamos• Use an IOP to show who is doing the liking. Tú - Te gustas Vosotros – Os• Conjugate gustar to show what gustáis is being liked.• When using negatives, no Él/Ella/Usted - Le Éllos/Ellas/Ustedes always goes before the IOP. gusta – Les gustan• The IOP and the gustar verb CANNOT be separated. • The two most common gustar forms are• Sentences using gustar are easy gusta and gustan. to check by reading them backwards.
  9. 9. Affirmative and Negative Words• When you talk about an indefinite or negative Affirmative Words Negative Words situation, you use an affirmative or negative word.• Notice that alugno(a) and ninguno(a) must match Algo (something) Nada (nothing) the gender of the noun they replace or modify. Algunoand ninguno have different forms when Alguien (someone) Nadie (no one) used before masculine singular nouns. Algún/alguno(a) Ningún/ninguno(a) • Algún alguno (some) (none) • Ningún ninguno Siempre (always) Nunca (never) • Las chicas quieren algún postre, pero Carlos no quiere ningún postre. También(also) Tampoco (neither, • The girls want somedessert, but Carlos either) doesn’twant anydessert. • However, if a negative word, such as nunca• If a verb is preceded by no, words that follow must or nadie, comes before the verb, a second be negative. A double negative is required in negative is not needed. Spanish when no precedes the verb. • Nadiequiere postre. • No quiero nada. • No onewants desert. • I don’twant anything. • Las chicasnuncacomen en casas. • Carlos noquiere ninguno(de los postres). • The girls nevereat at home. • Carlos does notwant any(of the desserts).
  10. 10. Superlatives• Using superlatives is like • For adjectives and adverbs adding extremely or very ending in –c, -g, or –z, change the before and adjective or spelling to qu, gu, and c adverb. respectively. • Rico riquísimo• Suffixes added to adjectives and adverbs: • Larga larguísima • -ísimo, -ísimos, -ísima, -ísimas • Grande grandísimo • Feliz felicísima • Adjectives that end in –n or –r form by adding –císimo/a. • Joven jovencísimo • Trabajador trabajadorcísimo
  11. 11. Reflexives• Used to describe people doing things for themselves. Lavarse• The subject is also the object. - To wash oneself• The speaker does AND receives the action of the verb. Melavo Nos lavamos• Many verbs can be sued with or without reflexive pronouns. When there is no reflexive pronoun, the person doing the action Te lavas Os laváis doesn’t receive the action. • With reflexive: Se lava Se lavan • Pepa se lava. • To form reflexive verbs: • Pepa washes herself. • Conjugate the verb as always • Without reflexive: • Add the reflexive pronoun • Pepa lava el carro. • Positions of the reflexive pronouns: • Pepa washes the car. 1. In front of a conjugated verb• Primero me pongo la ropa. 2. Attached to a gerund (accent must • First I put on my clothes. be added onto the 3rd to last syllable) • Notice how the speaker says la ropa not mi ropa, because 3. Attached to an infinitive reflexive pronouns include the concept of possession. 4. Attached to an affirmative command• Other Examples: • The subject, the pronoun, and the verb are • Yo me levanto a las ocho de la mañana. all in the same form. • Nostotros nos acostamos muy tarde. • When “se” is added to the end of a verb, it • Mis hermanas se maquillan en su cuarto. is in its un-conjugated, reflexive form.
  12. 12. Affirmative Tú Commands / Irregulars / Pronoun Placement  Irregulars: Affirmative Tú Commands: • Used to give instructions or Infinitive Affirmative Tú commands. Command • In order to form these decir di commands, but the verb in its tú hacer haz form and drop the “s”. • Hablar Hablas Habla ir ve • Notice it is a tú command, but poner pon ends like a 3rd house form. salir sal • Caminar ¡Camina! ¡Camina en el parque! ser sé • Comer ¡Come! ¡Come toda la tener ten ensalada! venir ven • Abrir ¡Abre! ¡Abre la puerta, quiero entrar!  Pronoun Placement: • Attach the pronoun to an affirmative command. • ¡Cómela! (Eat it!) • ¡Cállate! (Shut up!)
  13. 13. Negative Tú Commands / Irregulars / Pronoun Placement Negative Tú Commands:  Irregulars: • When you tell someone what not to do, use a • A few verbs have irregular negative tú negative command. • commands. Notice that non of the yo forms of these verbs end in –o. • Negative tú commands are formed by taking • TV DISHES yoform of the present tense, dropping the –o, changing the vowel, and adding “s”. Tener NO tengas • Vowels in –ar verbs change to –e. • ar e Venir NO vengas • Vowels in –erand –ir verbs change to to –a. Dar/Decir NO des/digas • -er, -ir a Ir NO vayas Infinitive Yo Form Negative Tú Command Ser NO seas hablar hablo ¡No hables! Hacer NO hagas volver vuelvo ¡No vuelvas! Estar NO estés Infinitive (Yo Form) Negative Tú Command Saber/Salir NO sepas/salgas dar (doy) No le des mi direcciòn a nadie.  Pronoun Placement: estar (estoy) No estés triste. • Object pronouns precede the verbs in negative ir (voy) Novayas a la tienda. commands, just as with other conjugated verbs. ser (soy) Noseas mala. • ¡No lo uses! Don’t use it!
  14. 14. Sequencing Events Order Days of the Weekprimero first los lunes on Mondaysentonces thenluego later los martes on Tuesdaysdespués afterpor fin finally los miércoles on Wednesdaysantes de before los jueves on Thursdaysdespués de after Times of Day (no specific time given) los viernes on Fridayspor la mañana in/during the morning los sábados on Saturdayspor la tarde in/during the afternoon los domingos on Sundayspor la noche in/during the night

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