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  1. 1. Why was the Welfare State created? Notes for timed essay Emma Fullarton
  2. 2. Introduction  Welfare state was created; there are five factors that should be considered when investigating why it was created;  Beveridge report  WW2  Continuation of work started by others  Failure of previous governments  Labour party belief. Emma Fullarton
  3. 3. Topic sentence  Titmus argues that Britain pre-2945 saw social reformers that “Were in no way a Welfare State.” so why after years of the Laissez-faire policy did Labour create a Welfare State in 1945? Emma Fullarton
  4. 4. Historian debate!  Addision credits the influence of the was whereas Fraser argues that the Beveridge Report was the most influential factor. “Labour’s achievement was one more of modernizing than creating an entirely new edifice.” PEARCE Emma Fullarton
  5. 5. Primary Quote!MICHAEL FOOT; LABOUIR CANDIDATE “We shall not have won the election until...every citizen in England has a roof over his head, the chance to marry and bring up his children safe from the fears of unemployment, sickness and worry.” Emma Fullarton
  6. 6. Labour Party belief  FOR  Labour’s slogan ‘LET US FACE THE FUTUTRE TOGETHER’ ; manifesto of 1945  Clause iv outlined socialist aims of the labour party  The labour party was going to make the NHS the best; there shall be health centres where people can get the best treatment that modern science can develop.  Conservatives did not want to implement the Welfare state  ‘Labour will put the Acts not merely into legal force but practical effect  Nationalised key industries (can be link to next paragraph; WW2)  Wished to withdraw from the collation gov and fight independently  First party to represent Workers  They elected representatives from trade unions . Emma Fullarton
  7. 7. Labour Party belief  Quotes  Sir Hartly Shawcross, “ We are the masters at the moment, not only for a moment but for a very long time.”   Sir D Fife, “ We are convinced that the great majority of labour voters elected the government to get things done.”   Michael Foot, “WE shall not have won the election…until every man in England has got a good roof over his head, the chance to marry and bring up his children safe from the fears of unemployment, sickness and worry.” Emma Fullarton
  8. 8. Labour Party belief  Against  Labour focused on home affairs in 1945 as Churchill was working on war affairs.  Labour and conservatives had similar manifestos, promising health, education  Impact of WW2; nationalisation; everyone was happy; why did they not continue?  Labour only got into power through the coalition Government. As the seats were based on previous reforms (proportional representation) this is when Labour had 30% of votes this then gave then 30% of the seats in the collation government. Emma Fullarton
  9. 9. Labour Party belief  Historiography  Morrison, “Labour Governments record on house building does not compare well with the pre-war levels or with the achievements of the conservatives in late 1950s.”   Ball, “The labour victory was a product of the movement of the British opinion and expectations from the war.” Emma Fullarton
  10. 10. WW2  For  Collation government  1.5million ; mostly children &woman were evacuated  Children were verminous; shocked middle classed; saw poverty first hand  20%children evacuated from Liverpool had lice  Rationing  Bombing  People came together; all equal  Free meals for children ; 1.65million received by 1945  Hospital care free of charge given to war wounded.  Nationalisation every one happy :) government were not out to make a profit but to have full employment to keep the country running through the war  Unemployment board set up  EQUALITY OF SACRAFICE!  After the retreat of the British army from Dunkirk, an new national mood developed and the people were determined to beat Hitler and create a better Britain Emma Fullarton
  11. 11. WW2  Primary quotation  Miss Edward, “I think the food authorities did a wonderful job. There is really no shortage anywhere of essentials.” Emma Fullarton
  12. 12. WW2  Historiography  R M Titmuss “Damage to home and injuries to persons were not less likely amounting the rich than the poor…. The assistance provided by the government….was offered to all groups in the community.”  Callaghan James 1995, “ ...The persuading sentiment was no return to 1919...it was the memory of the ex-servicemen with no legs displaying their medals on the street corners, with unemployment in the 30s, that made us all say we are not going back there.”  J. Beaven, “Everybody felt they should do what they could for someone else if they were bombed out the nearest families would take them in.”  R.M Titmuss “The pooling of national resources and the sharing of risks...were the guiding principles.” Emma Fullarton
  13. 13. WW2  Historiography  Macnicol, “Evacuation in war time worked in the opposite direction of unity.” Emma Fullarton
  14. 14.   Continuation of previous reforms For   National insurance Act 1946; continued from previous reform and improved by the advice from the Beveridge report. Ra Butler’s Education Act 1944, continued and improved White paper Act 1944, to an extent had medical service but Labour created a compulsory NHS 1947 1911 Insurance Act provided specialist eye/dental care Education (provision of meals) Act was influenced by the Labour MP, before they had complete control The means testing means abolished but was only a continuation as the determination of needs Act was already in place to replace means testing. Emma Fullarton
  15. 15. Continuation of previous reforms   Historiography Pearce , “Labour’s achievement was more one of modernising than creating an entirely new edifice.” Cootes, “As this occurred though nationalisation of industry showing the war importance.” Pugh, “Substantially this starting the reforms were an important link between the post-war system.” David Dutton, “The major achievements of the Labour party after 1945 was to complete and consolidate the work of war time collation” Emma Fullarton
  16. 16. Continuation of previous reforms   Against National Assistance Act 1947 NEW!! The New towns Act 1946 NEW!! Town and country planning Act 1947 NEW!! The desultory attitude of the Beveridge report by Churchill, shows the conservatives attitude, that they were far less committed in creating a Welfare State. Emma Fullarton
  17. 17. Continuation of previous reforms   Historiography Morrison, “The state began to take control and responsibility for the welfare of the people from the 1879s and onwards.” D. Fraser, “The decisive event in the evolution of the Welfare state was seen as the second world war” Emma Fullarton
  18. 18. Failure of Previous Governments FOR   Pre-war medical help remain to exclude 1/2 the population Severe for the woman in particular No specialist care; eye/dental Doctor fees were high 1000 hospitals were voluntary, depending on fund raising & contributions from patients. (first developed by Poor Law Guardians) 1930 Britain; devaluation of the pound by 30% ; benefits were cut by 10% and 60% of food relied on imports, but 1 in 4 ships were being bombed in WW2 British wanted a Welfare state like Nazi Germany & USA; Roosevelt’s new deal. Government failed to buy themselves out of the recession; this resulted in Labour’s victory in 1945 People seen Labour as the future that would protect tariffs and them. Policy of State intervention Liberals failed to deliver their to build a ‘Land fit for heroes.” They cut benefits and delivered no jobs instead. Emma Fullarton
  19. 19. Failure of Previous Governments   Historiography Addision “The mobilisation of manpower should spell out the mass unemployment.” Lowe “In spite of plenty available advice the government failed to produce any positive strategy to cure long-term unemployment. Emma Fullarton
  20. 20. Failure of PreviousGovernments  Emma Fullarton
  21. 21. Beveridge For Beveridge outlined 1) The appointment of a minister to control all insurance schemes. 2) A standard weekly payment by people in work as a contribution to insurance fund. 3) The right to payments for an indefinite period for people out of work. 4) Old age pensions, maternity grants, funeral grants, pensions for widow and for people injured at work. 5) Payments at a standard rate, same for all whatever their private means, paid without a means test. 6) Family allowances to be introduced. 7) A national health service to be set up. (NHS) Emma Fullarton
  22. 22. Beveridge  In addition the five giants, Want, Disease, Squalor, Idleness and Ignorance.  635,000 copies sold; hold the record to this date for a government publication  Labour seen it as a success and put it into action  Appoint a minister to control the insurance systems  Standard weekly payment by people in work ; N.I and N.A  Industrial injuries Act, Family Allowance Act  NHS to be set up; labour did so in 1946  Labour Minister gave Beveridge the task of leading a committee to study insurance; resulting ideas all Beveridge’s.  Ministry of information found the report tot be a major topic  Beveridge outline 8 principles; non-means tested, flat-rate, integrated, compulsory, insurance, universal, comprehensive and able to provide subsistence . Emma Fullarton
  23. 23. Beveridge The Welfare State of Britain was the result of the William Beveridge Report in 1942, which identified five "Giant Evils" in society: squalor, ignorance, want, idleness and disease. A series of changes was put in place to deal with these "Giant Evils" after the Second World War. The changes meant that the government recognized the responsibility to care for the people of Britain "from the cradle to the grave". The Welfare State was a commitment to health (in 1948 the National Health Service was created), education, employment and social security. The classic Welfare State period lasted from approximately 1945 to the 1970s, although many features of it remain today. The British Welfare State is unique in that everyone has free access to a family doctor and most people get free medical prescriptions and treatment. Since the 1980s the government has begun to reduce some provisions: for example, free eye tests for all have now been stopped and prescription charges for drugs have constantly risen since they were first introduced in 1951. Providing a Welfare State is still a basic principle of government policy in Britain today Emma Fullarton
  24. 24. Beveridge  Quotations  James Griffiths ;Labour Mp  “We are convinced that the nation wants this plan and this nation ought to get it” Emma Fullarton
  25. 25.  Against Beveridge was criticised by the private insurance companies as they felt the report would take away their business, one of their reporters declared the Beveridge report to be: The Daily mail of the time suggested: Emma Fullarton
  26. 26. “Too much has been made of the Beveridge Report. It is no revolutionary document.“The author is an Mainly it is co-ordination economist of existing services with turned spend certain modest additions thrift, there to. It is a beginning , destroying not an end and it must not every vestige be confused with of self-reliance reconstruction in the and self help.” large sense.” Emma Fullarton
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