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Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies
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Sociolinguistics - Ethnographies

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Created by Awalia Sabiyla Nayu, Ika Alya Iqlima Ghaissani, and Dwiansari Ramadhani for Sociolinguistics in Practice class.

Created by Awalia Sabiyla Nayu, Ika Alya Iqlima Ghaissani, and Dwiansari Ramadhani for Sociolinguistics in Practice class.

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  • 1. AWALIA SABIYLA NAYU 11211144021 IKA ALYA IQLIMA G 11211144024 DWIANSARI RAMADHANI 11211144027
  • 2.   Speech is used different ways among different group of people Language is used to sustain reality
  • 3.     !Kung: talk to resolve the kinds of tension and keep in touch Western Apache: silence as communicate Roti: talk as one of the great pleasures of life What we need is some kind of general scheme to make systematic observations about the different ways people use to talk.
  • 4.  Communicative Competence: the ability to know how to use language in order to do certain things that people do with that language.  Communicative competence is the key component of social competence.
  • 5. Ethnography of speaking: a description of all the factors that are relevant in understanding how that particular communicative event achieve its objective.  Dell Hymes (1974) made a formula to identify the factors.  S-P-E-A-K-I-N-G 
  • 6. S Setting and Scene : Setting refers to time and place (physical circumstances) e.g.: living room : Scene refers to psychological setting (situation) or cultural definition of the occasion. e.g.: seriousness, happiness P Participants : Speaker and audience e.g.: speaker-hearer, addressoraddressee, sender-receiver.
  • 7. E Ends : Purpose or goals of the utterances or communication event. A Act Sequence : Form and order of the event. Different forms will have a different kinds of language and different things to talk about.
  • 8. K Key : tone, manner in which a particular message is conveyed. Example: serious, sarcastic, mocking → know by the gesture, posture, etc I Instrumentalities : the choice of channel. Channel: oral, written, telegraphic, and actual forms of speech employed → language, dialect, code, register, that is chosen.
  • 9. N Norms of interaction and interpretation : Social rules governing the event and the participants' actions and reactions. Example: loudness, silence G Genre : type or kind of utterances e.g.: poems, proverbs, riddles, prayers, lectures
  • 10.   SPEAKING formula is a very necessary reminder that talk is a complex activity. To make the talk to be successful, the speaker must reveal the sensitivity and awareness of each of the 8 factors.
  • 11. A branch of sociology -> concerned with talk viewed. Interested in -> process and techniques people use > interpret he world & interact with that world. Focus -> phenomena of everyday existence. Aim -> study the process of sense making (Leiter).
  • 12.  People interact  Routine activities  Solve problems  Show knowledge  Maintain social contact  Communicate that knowledge
  • 13. Sharing certain background assumptions, communication is possible.
  • 14. Sacks: “The baby cried. The mommy picked it up.”
  • 15. Membership categorization devices. -> assign certain meanings to word like baby and mommy.
  • 16.  To interpret particular sentences/sets of sentences, we must have knowledge of the categories that speakers find relevant (Sacks).  Categories knowledge -> the mommy must be the mother of the baby.
  • 17. Ethnomethodology adopt phenomenological view of the world. >
  • 18. Commonsense knowledge -> variety of things.  These types are to categorize what is ‘out there’ and interpret what happens out there.  These are acquired through experience.  Different experience, different knowledge.
  • 19.  Commonsense knowledge also tells us that the world exists. Situations and events re-occur, yesterday and today still valid today and will be valid tomorrow.
  • 20. Practical reasoning -> the way people make use of their commonsense language in everyday lives.  How they assume.  How they select matters to deal with.  What they never question.
  • 21. Scribner (1977) Little or no formal education people -> solve problem based on experience, no ‘logical thinking’.
  • 22.  Each party had to know a lot about the other: topic, kind of exchange the conversation was, tolerate considerable inexplicitness in what was actually said.
  • 23. Husband No, to the shoe repair shop No, I stopped at the record store on the way to get him and stopped at the shoe repair shop on the way home when he was with me. Wife What for? I know of one reason why you might have stopped at the shoe repair shop. Why did you in fact? Husband I got some new shoe laces for my shoes. As you will remember, I broke a shoe lace on one of my brown oxfords the other day, so I stopped to get some new laces.
  • 24.  Understanding develops as the conversation develops.  That understanding depends on the willingness of each party to work with the other to develop a common scheme of interpretation for what is being talked about.
  • 25. On Friday night my husband and I were watching television. My husband remarked that he was tired. I asked, ‘How are you tired? Physically, mentally, or just bored?’ S: I don’t know, I guess physically, mainly. E: You mean that your muscles ache, or your bones? S: I guess so. Don’t be so technical. (After more watching.) S: All these old movies have the same kind of old iron bedstead in them. E: What do you mean? Do you mean all old movies, or some of them, or just the ones you have seen? S: What’s the matter with you? You know what I mean. E: I wish you would be more specific. S: You know what I mean! Drop dead!
  • 26.   People are in difficulties to act or pretend as they are not in to be. In other word, we accept the world for what it is, we accept certain norms.
  • 27.  People use language not only to communicate in a variety of ways but also to create a sense of order in everyday life.
  • 28.  Why do you greet each other? When do you greet? Who speak first?
  • 29.  (choose one) asking for a date or giving bad news
  • 30.     Bad service in a restaurant A bad day at the office Strange behavior on the street “what’s up with Fred today?”

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