Approaches to Management by Sabita Mishra
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Approaches to Management by Sabita Mishra



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Approaches to Management by Sabita Mishra Approaches to Management by Sabita Mishra Presentation Transcript

  • Approaches to Management Sabita Mishra
  • Approaches to Management - 1 Approaches to Characteristics/ Limitations Management Contributions• Empirical or • Studies • Situations are case approach experience all different. No through cases attempt to and identifies identify success and principles. failures Limited value for developing management theory 2
  • Empirical or Case Approach Case SituationFailure Success Why? 3
  • Approaches to Management - 2 Approaches to Characteristics/ Limitations Management Contributions• Managerial roles • Original study • Original samples were approach consisted of five very small. Some activities are not chief executives. managerial. Activities On the basis of are evidence of this study, ten planning, organizing, managerial roles staffing, leading and were identified controlling. But some and grouped into important managerial activities were left out interpersonal, (e.g., appraising informational and managers). decisional roles 4
  • Managerial Roles Approach Three interpersonal roles Three decision roles Three informational roles Roles of a Manager 5
  • Approaches to Management - 3 Approaches to Characteristics/ Limitations Management Contributions• Contingency or • Managerial • Managers have situational practice depends long realized that approach on circumstances there is no one (i.e., a contingency best way to do or a situation). things. Difficulty in Contingency theory determining all recognizes the reluctant influence of given contingency factors solutions on and showing their organizational relationships can patterns be very complex 6
  • Contingency or Situational ApproachCause Effect Depends on Situation Contingency 7
  • Approaches to Management - 4 Approaches to Characteristics/ Limitations Management Contributions• Mathematical or • Managing is seen • Preoccupation with management as a mathematical mathematical science approach process, concepts, models. Many symbols and aspects in models. Looks at managing cannot management as a be modeled. purely logical Mathematics is a process, expressed useful tool, but in mathematical hardly a school or symbols and an approach to relationships management 8
  • Mathematical or Management Science ApproachE = F {Xp Vj} YES NO 9
  • Approaches to Management - 5 Approaches to Characteristics/ Limitations Management Contributions• Decision theory • Focus on making of • There is more to approach decisions, persons or managing than groups making making decisions. The decisions and decision focus is at the same making process. Some time too narrow and theorists use decision too wide. making as a springboard to study all enterprise activities. The boundary of studies are no longer clearly defined. 10
  • Decision Theory Approach Process of decision Individual decision making making process Values of decision Entire area of makersbusiness activity Decision TheoryNature of organization Information for Group decision structure decision making 11
  • Approaches to Management - 6 Approaches to Characteristics/ Limitations Management Contributions• Reengineering • Fundamental • Neglect of external approach rethinking process environment, analysis. Radical possibly ignoring redesign and customers needs. dramatic results Neglect of human needs ignores total management system as in the management process, or operational approach 12
  • Reengineering Approach OperationsInput Transformation Output 13
  • Approaches to Management - 7 Approaches to Characteristics/ Limitations Management Contributions• Systems approach • Systems concepts have • Can hardly be considered broad applicability. a new approach to Systems have boundaries, management, as claimed but they also interact by some proponents of with the external this approach environment i.e., organizations are open systems. Recognizes importance of studying interrelatedness of planning, organizing and controlling in an organization as well as the many subsystems 14
  • Systems Approach Open to external environment 15
  • Approaches to Management - 8 Approaches to Characteristics/ Limitations Management Contributions• Sociotechnical • Technical system has • Emphasis only on Systems approach great effect on social blue collar and lower system (personal level office work and attitude, group ignores much of behavior) Focus on other managerial production, office knowledge operations and other areas with close relationships between the technical system and people 16
  • Sociotechnical Systems Approach Technical System Machines Office Operation Social SystemPersonal Attitudes Group Behavior 17
  • Approaches to Management - 9 Approaches to Characteristics/ Limitations Management Contributions• Cooperative social • Concerned with • Too broad a field systems approach both interpersonal for the study of and group management. At behavioral aspects the same time, it leading to a system overlooks many of cooperation. managerial Expanded concept concepts, includes any principles and cooperative group techniques with a clear purpose 18
  • Cooperative Social Systems Approach Organization Structure Common Goal 19
  • Approaches to Management - 10 Approaches to Characteristics/ Limitations Management Contributions• Group behavior • Emphasis on • Often not integrated approach behavior of people with management in groups. Based on concepts, principles, theory and sociology and techniques. Need for social psychology. closer integration with Primarily study of organization, structure group behavior design, staffing, patterns. The study planning and of large groups is controlling often called organization behavior 20
  • Group Behavior ApproachStudy of a group Study of groups interacting with each other 21
  • Approaches to Management - 11 Approaches to Characteristics/ Limitations Management Contributions• Interpersonal • Focus on • Ignores behavior interpersonal planning, approach behavior, human organizing and relations, controlling. leadership and Psychological motivation. training is not Based on enough to individual become an psychology effective manager 22
  • Interpersonal Behavior Approach Focus of Study 23
  • Approaches to Management - 12 Approaches to Characteristics/ Limitations Management Contributions• McKinsey’s framework • The seven S’s are : • Although this • Strategy, experienced • Structure, consulting firm now uses a framework • Systems, similar to the one • Style, found useful by koontz • Staff, et al. since 1955 and • Shared values confirms its • Skills practicality, the terms used are not precise and topics are not discussed in depth 24
  • McKinsey’s Framework Systems Style StructureStrategy Staff Skills Shared values 25
  • Approaches to Management - 13 Approaches to Characteristics/ Limitations Management Contributions• Total Quality • Dependable satisfying • No complete Management products and services agreement on what (Deming) Product or total quality services that is fit for management is. use (Juran). Conformance to quality requirements (Crosby) General concepts: Continuous improvement, attention to details, teamwork quality education 26
  • Total Quality Management Approach Focus: - Customer needs, Quality Products - Quality Services - Concern for quality and cost Team 27
  • Approaches to Management - 14 Approaches to Characteristics/ Limitations Management Contributions • Draws together concepts,• Management principles, techniques and • Does not as some process or knowledge from other field s authors do, identify operational and managerial approaches. representing or The attempt is to develop approach science and theory with coordination as a practical application. separate function. Distinguishes between managerial and non Coordination, for managerial knowledge. example is the Develops classification system built around the managerial essence of functions of planning, manager ship and organizing, staffing, leading is the purpose of and controlling managing 28
  • Management Process or Operational Approach Draws knowledge from approaches above Operational Approach Integrates the approaches with science and theory that is practical 29
  • Conclusion