How to write_scientific_paperPresentation Transcript
HOW TO WRITE SCIENTIFIC PAPER IN
Workshop Penulisan Artikel Ilmiah di Jurnal Internasional
IAIN Walisongo, Semarang, 12-13 Juni 2013
Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University
Tentang Presenter (Istadi)
• Nama : Dr. Istadi, ST., MT.
• Jabatan : - Staf Ahli Pembantu Rektor IV Undip;
- Kabid Pengembangan Website UPT Puskom Undip
• Alamat : Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro
• Email : email@example.com
• Website : http://tekim.undip.ac.id/staf/istadi
• Pengalaman Editorial:
– Editor-in-Chief Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis
(SCOPUS, h-index=2) (http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec)
– International Journal Reviewer di: Elsevier (27), Wiley (3), Springer (7),
Taylor & Francis (2), American Chemical Society (2)
• SCOPUS ID : 6506850769
• SCOPUS h-index : 8
• Total Publication in Scopus : 17 articles
• Total Citations in scopus : 173 citations
• Total Citation in Google Scholar : 240 citations
Outline of Presentation
• Scientific Publications of Indonesia in
• Why do we have to Publish ?
• Practical Tips Before Scientific writting?
• What Makes a Good Manuscript?
• How to Write Manuscript (IMRAD)
PERBANDINGAN JUMLAH PUBLIKASI TERINDEKS DI SCOPUS
Sumber: SCIMAGO Journal Ranking (http://www.scimagojr.com)
Profil 142 Universitas di Indonesia di SCOPUS
Parameter QS WORLD, QS ASIAN, &
QS STARS University Ranking
Jumlah Paper di
SCOPUS Indexed Indonesian journals per Juni 2013
• Indonesia : 13+2
–ITB : 4; UGM: 3 ; Undip: 1 ; UI: 1 ; UAD : 1 (Compendex) ; Assosiasi : 5
WHY PUBLISH IN AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ?
• Scientists publish to share with the Scientific
Community something that advances, not repeats,
knowledge and understanding in a certain fields
• To present new, original results or methods
• To rationalize published results
• To present a review of the field or to summarize a
WHAT NOT TO PUBLISH
• Reports of no scientific interest
• Out of date work
• Duplications of previously published work
• Incorrect/unacceptable conclusions
• You need a GOOD manuscript to present
your contributions to the scientific community
WHAT MAKES A GOOD MANUSCRIPT?
• Contains a clear, useful, and exciting scientific
• Flows in a logical manner that the reader can
• Is formatted to best showcase the material ?
• Is written in a style that transmits the
message clearly ?
WHAT TYPES OF MANUSCRIPT?
• Original Research Articles: the most important papers. Often
substantial and significant completed pieces of research.
• Letters / Rapid Communications / Short Communications: quick
and early communication of significant and original advances.
Much shorter than full articles (check limitations).
• Review Papers / Perspectives: summarize recent developments
on a specific topic. Highlight important previously reported
points. Not the place to introduce new information. Often
Self‐evaluate your work. Is it sufficient for a full article? Or are
your results so thrilling that they should be shown as soon as
Ask your supervisor and your colleagues for advice on
manuscript type. Sometimes outsiders can see things more
clearly than you.
Questions to Answer Before You Write
Think about WHY you want to publish your work.
• Is it new and interesting?
• Is it a current hot topic?
• Have you provided solutions to some difficult
• Are you ready to publish at this point?
If all answers are “yes”, then start preparations
for your manuscript
PUBLICATION PROCESS AT A GLANCE
General Structure of a Full Article
• Authors and Affiliation
• Main text (IMRAD)
– Introduction: what question was asked in the research?
– Methods (and Materials): how was it studied?
– Results: what was discovered?
– Discussion : what do the findings mean?
• Supplementary material
Sequence of Writting Manuscript
Write the manuscript in the following group order:
• Figures and tables
• Methods, Results and Discussion
• Conclusions and Introduction
• Abstract and Title
• Each section has a definite purpose.
Write a TITLE
• This is your opportunity to attract the reader’s
– Remember: readers are the potential authors who will cite
• Identify the main issue of the paper
• Begin with the subject of the paper
• Should be accurate, unambiguous, specific, and
• Do not contain infrequently-used abbreviations
• Discuss with your co‐authors
• Should stand alone
• Consider it the advertisement of your article : Should
tell the prospective reader what you did and highlight the key
• Avoid using technical jargon and uncommon
• You must be accurate, brief, clear and specific: Use
words which reflect the precise meaning
• Should be precise and honest
• Cites no references
• Follow word limitations (50‐300 words)
• These are the labels of your manuscript and critical
to correct indexing and searching.
– Shouldn’t be too broad or too narrow (think Google …)
• Use only those abbreviations that are firmly
established in the field. e.g. DNA
• Check the Guide for Authors
– Number, label, definition, thesaurus, range, and other
• Check the guideline of keywords separator, i.e.
Semicolon (;) or comma (,): usually semicolon
related with search engine
• Introduce the main scientific
publications on which your work is
• Provide sufficient background
information to help readers evaluate
your work General background
(review articles Cited)
• Editors hate references irrelevant to
the work, or in appropriate
judgments on your own
• Convince readers that your work is
necessary.: Use words or phrases
like “however”, “remain unclear”,
etc., to address your opinions and
• Your chance to convince
readers of the importance of
• Describe the problem:
– Are there any existing
– Which is the best?
– What are their main
– And what do you hope to
• Provide a perspective
consistent with the nature of
Write METHODS (& MATERIALS) Section
• Details, details, details ‐ a knowledgeable reader
should be able to reproduce the experiment.
• However, use references and Supplementary
Materials for previously published procedures.
– Do not repeat the details of established methods.
– A general summary with reference is sufficient.
• Reviewers will criticize incomplete or incorrect
– and may even recommend rejection
Methods: How did you study the problem?
The basic principle: to provide sufficient information so that a
knowledgeable reader can reproduce the experiment, or the
• Empirical papers:
– material studied, area descriptions
– methods, techniques, theories applied
• Case study papers:
– application of existing methods, theory or tools
– special settings in this piece of work
• Methodology papers:
– materials and detailed procedure of a novel experimentation
– scheme, flow, and performance analysis of a new algorithm
• Theory papers:
– principles, concepts, and models
– major framework and derivation
Methods: The Words and More
• Should be written in past tense
• In some journals, may include subheads
(which can help readers)
• May include tables and figures—for example:
– Diagrams of apparatus
– Tables of experimental conditions
The Results Section
• The core of the paper
• Often includes tables, figures, or both
• Should summarize findings rather than
providing data in great detail
• Should present results but not comment on
• (Note: Some journals combine the Results and
The following should be included in RESULTS
• Main findings listed in association with the methods
• Highlighted differences between your results and
the previous publications (especially in case study
• Results of statistical analysis
• Results of performance analysis (especially in the
methodology, or algorithm papers)
• A set of principal equations or theorems supporting
the assumptions after a long chain of inferences
(especially in the theory papers)
• Only representative results, essential for the
Discussion, should be presented.
• Show data of secondary importance in
• Do not “hide” data in the hope of saving it for a later
paper: You may lose evidence to support your conclusion.
• Use sub‐headings to keep results of the same type
together: Easier to review and read.
• Tell a clear and easy‐to‐understand story
Appearance Counts in Results
• Un‐crowded plots: 3 or 4 data sets per figure; well‐selected
scales; appropriate axis label size; symbols clear to read and
data sets easy to discriminate.
• Each photograph must have a scale marker of professional
quality on one corner.
• Use color ONLY when necessary. If different line styles can
clarify the meaning, never use colors or other thrilling effects.
• Color needs to be visible and distinguishable when printed
out in black & white.
• Do NOT ‘selectively adjust’ any image to enhance
visualization of results.
• The captions of figures and tables should contain sufficient
information to make the figures self explanatory.
• Do not include long boring tables
Verb Tense for the Results Section:
– A total of 417 of the customers replied.
– _____ increased, but _____ decreased.
– The average temperature was _____.
– Three of the dogs died.
– This difference was not statistically significant.
Mentioning Tables and Figures:
Some Writing Advice
• In citing tables and figures, emphasize the
finding, not the table or figure.
– Not so good: Table 3 shows that researchers who
attended the workshop published twice as many
papers per year.
– Better: Researchers who attended the workshop
published twice as many papers per year (Table 3).
Figures: A Few Suggestions
• Use figures (graphs, diagrams, maps,
photographs, etc) only if they will help convey
• Avoid including too much information in one
• Make sure any lettering will be large enough
• Follow the journal’s instructions.
DISCUSSION – What the results mean
• It is the most important section of your article. Here you get the
chance to SELL your data
• Make the Discussion corresponding to the Results.: But do not
reiterate the results What?
• Often should begin with a brief summary of the main findings
• Check for the following:
– How do your results relate to the original question or objectives outlined
in the Introduction section?
– Do you provide interpretation scientifically for each of your results
– Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported?
Or are there any differences? What else?
– Can you reach your conclusion smoothly after your discussion?
– Are there any limitations? Any suggestion to next works?
• You need to compare the published results with yours: Do NOT
ignore work in disagreement with yours –confront it and
convince the reader that you are correct or better
In Summary: Results and Discussion
• In Results and Discussion section should
– What ? describe the result findings
– Why ? please justify why the findings trend
scientifically (connected with theory and philosophy)
– What else? compare your findings with other
researchers (about the trend and scientific reasons) and
Possible reasons for similarities and differences
– Any limitations? limitation of your findings, next
Discussion: Scientific Language ‐Tenses
• Present tense for known facts and hypotheses:
– “The average life of a honey bee is 6 weeks”
• Past tense for experiments you have conducted:
– “All the honey bees were maintained in an environment
with a consistent temperature of 23 degrees centigrade…”
• Past tense when you describe the results of an
– “The average life span of bees in our contained
environment was 8 weeks…”
• Should answer the objectives of research
• Tells how your work advances the field from the
present state of knowledge
• Without clear Conclusions, reviewers and readers
will find it difficult to judge the work, and whether or
not it merits publication in the journal.
• Do NOT repeat the Abstract, or just list
experimental results: Trivial statements of your results
are unacceptable in this section.
• Provide a clear scientific justification for your work,
and indicate possible applications and extensions:
You should also suggest future experiments and/or point out
those that are underway.
Example of Good Conclusions
• Recognize those who helped in the research
(you want them to help again, don’t you?)
• Include individuals who have assisted you in
– Financial supporters
– Suppliers who may have given materials
• Cite the main scientific publications on which your
work is based. Cite only items that you have read
• Do not inflate the manuscript with too many
references – it doesn’t make it a better manuscript
• Avoid excessive self‐citations
• Avoid excessive citations of publications from the
• Check each reference against the original source
(authors name, volume, issue, year, DOI Number)
• Carefully follow the journal’s instructions to authors.
• Use other articles in the same journal as models
Placement of Citations
– This disease has been reported in humans, dogs, rabbits,
and squirrels (Tuda and Gastel, 1997; Xie and Lozano,
2008; Flores, 2002).
– This disease has been reported in humans, dogs, rabbits,
– This disease has been reported in humans (Tuda and
Gastel, 1997), dogs (Xie and Lozano, 2008), and rabbits and
squirrels (Flores, 2002).
– This disease has been reported in humans,1 dogs,4 rabbits,7
Typing Citation & References
• Use tools available in Microsoft Word
(References Insert Citation Choose Style
of References: APA, MLA, Harvard, etc.
• Use Mendeley Plugin (References Insert
Mendeley Citation Choose Style of
References Insert Bibliography)
Any Questions ?