How to write_scientific_paper


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  • Dear Colleagues.
    Since January 29, I publish a video blog with graphic tutorials to
    scientific publishing, called KEEP CALM and PUBLISH PAPERS. I hope,
    you may find this interesting when writing your thesis, paper or
    making a presentation.

    Best regards
    Pawel Jerzy Wojcik, Ph.D.
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How to write_scientific_paper

  1. 1. HOW TO WRITE SCIENTIFIC PAPER IN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Workshop Penulisan Artikel Ilmiah di Jurnal Internasional IAIN Walisongo, Semarang, 12-13 Juni 2013 Disampaikan oleh: I. Istadi Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University
  2. 2. 09/06/2013 1 Tentang Presenter (Istadi) • Nama : Dr. Istadi, ST., MT. • Jabatan : - Staf Ahli Pembantu Rektor IV Undip; - Kabid Pengembangan Website UPT Puskom Undip • Alamat : Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro • Email : • Website : • Pengalaman Editorial: – Editor-in-Chief Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis (SCOPUS, h-index=2) ( – International Journal Reviewer di: Elsevier (27), Wiley (3), Springer (7), Taylor & Francis (2), American Chemical Society (2) • SCOPUS ID : 6506850769 • SCOPUS h-index : 8 • Total Publication in Scopus : 17 articles • Total Citations in scopus : 173 citations • Total Citation in Google Scholar : 240 citations Outline of Presentation • Scientific Publications of Indonesia in Internationa Journal • Why do we have to Publish ? • Practical Tips Before Scientific writting? • What Makes a Good Manuscript? • How to Write Manuscript (IMRAD)
  3. 3. 09/06/2013 2 PERBANDINGAN JUMLAH PUBLIKASI TERINDEKS DI SCOPUS Sumber: SCIMAGO Journal Ranking ( Profil 142 Universitas di Indonesia di SCOPUS
  4. 4. 09/06/2013 3 Parameter QS WORLD, QS ASIAN, & QS STARS University Ranking Jumlah Paper di SCOPUS Efek Publikasi Internasional (Iklan) SCOPUS Indexed Indonesian journals per Juni 2013 • Indonesia : 13+2 –ITB : 4; UGM: 3 ; Undip: 1 ; UI: 1 ; UAD : 1 (Compendex) ; Assosiasi : 5
  5. 5. 09/06/2013 4 WHY PUBLISH IN AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ? • Scientists publish to share with the Scientific Community something that advances, not repeats, knowledge and understanding in a certain fields • To present new, original results or methods • To rationalize published results • To present a review of the field or to summarize a particular topic WHAT NOT TO PUBLISH • Reports of no scientific interest • Out of date work • Duplications of previously published work • Incorrect/unacceptable conclusions •  You need a GOOD manuscript to present your contributions to the scientific community
  6. 6. 09/06/2013 5 WHAT MAKES A GOOD MANUSCRIPT? • Contains a clear, useful, and exciting scientific message • Flows in a logical manner that the reader can follow • Is formatted to best showcase the material ? • Is written in a style that transmits the message clearly ? WHAT TYPES OF MANUSCRIPT? • Original Research Articles: the most important papers. Often substantial and significant completed pieces of research. • Letters / Rapid Communications / Short Communications: quick and early communication of significant and original advances. Much shorter than full articles (check limitations). • Review Papers / Perspectives: summarize recent developments on a specific topic. Highlight important previously reported points. Not the place to introduce new information. Often invited.  Self‐evaluate your work. Is it sufficient for a full article? Or are your results so thrilling that they should be shown as soon as possible?  Ask your supervisor and your colleagues for advice on manuscript type. Sometimes outsiders can see things more clearly than you.
  7. 7. 09/06/2013 6 Questions to Answer Before You Write Think about WHY you want to publish your work. • Is it new and interesting? • Is it a current hot topic? • Have you provided solutions to some difficult problems? • Are you ready to publish at this point? If all answers are “yes”, then start preparations for your manuscript PUBLICATION PROCESS AT A GLANCE
  8. 8. 09/06/2013 7 General Structure of a Full Article • Title • Authors and Affiliation • Abstract • Keywords • Main text (IMRAD) – Introduction: what question was asked in the research? – Methods (and Materials): how was it studied? – Results: what was discovered? – Discussion : what do the findings mean? – Conclusions • Acknowledgements • References • Supplementary material Sequence of Writting Manuscript Write the manuscript in the following group order: • Figures and tables • Methods, Results and Discussion • Conclusions and Introduction • Abstract and Title • Each section has a definite purpose.
  9. 9. 09/06/2013 8 Write a TITLE • This is your opportunity to attract the reader’s attention. – Remember: readers are the potential authors who will cite your article • Identify the main issue of the paper • Begin with the subject of the paper • Should be accurate, unambiguous, specific, and complete • Do not contain infrequently-used abbreviations • Discuss with your co‐authors Write ABSTRACT • Should stand alone • Consider it the advertisement of your article : Should tell the prospective reader what you did and highlight the key findings. • Avoid using technical jargon and uncommon abbreviations. • You must be accurate, brief, clear and specific: Use words which reflect the precise meaning • Should be precise and honest • Cites no references • Follow word limitations (50‐300 words)
  10. 10. 09/06/2013 9 Write KEYWORDS • These are the labels of your manuscript and critical to correct indexing and searching. – Shouldn’t be too broad or too narrow (think Google …) • Use only those abbreviations that are firmly established in the field. e.g. DNA • Check the Guide for Authors – Number, label, definition, thesaurus, range, and other special requests • Check the guideline of keywords separator, i.e. Semicolon (;) or comma (,): usually semicolon  related with search engine Write INTRODUCTION • Introduce the main scientific publications on which your work is based • Provide sufficient background information to help readers evaluate your work  General background (review articles Cited) • Editors hate references irrelevant to the work, or in appropriate judgments on your own achievements • Convince readers that your work is necessary.: Use words or phrases like “however”, “remain unclear”, etc., to address your opinions and work • Your chance to convince readers of the importance of your work. • Describe the problem: – Are there any existing solutions? – Which is the best? – What are their main limitations? – And what do you hope to achieve? • Provide a perspective consistent with the nature of the journal.
  11. 11. 09/06/2013 10 Write METHODS (& MATERIALS) Section • Details, details, details ‐ a knowledgeable reader should be able to reproduce the experiment. • However, use references and Supplementary Materials for previously published procedures. – Do not repeat the details of established methods. – A general summary with reference is sufficient. • Reviewers will criticize incomplete or incorrect descriptions. – and may even recommend rejection Methods: How did you study the problem? The basic principle: to provide sufficient information so that a knowledgeable reader can reproduce the experiment, or the derivation. • Empirical papers: – material studied, area descriptions – methods, techniques, theories applied • Case study papers: – application of existing methods, theory or tools – special settings in this piece of work • Methodology papers: – materials and detailed procedure of a novel experimentation – scheme, flow, and performance analysis of a new algorithm • Theory papers: – principles, concepts, and models – major framework and derivation
  12. 12. 09/06/2013 11 Methods: The Words and More • Should be written in past tense • In some journals, may include subheads (which can help readers) • May include tables and figures—for example: – Flowcharts – Diagrams of apparatus – Tables of experimental conditions The Results Section • The core of the paper • Often includes tables, figures, or both • Should summarize findings rather than providing data in great detail • Should present results but not comment on them • (Note: Some journals combine the Results and the Discussion.)
  13. 13. 09/06/2013 12 The following should be included in RESULTS • Main findings listed in association with the methods • Highlighted differences between your results and the previous publications (especially in case study papers) • Results of statistical analysis • Results of performance analysis (especially in the methodology, or algorithm papers) • A set of principal equations or theorems supporting the assumptions after a long chain of inferences (especially in the theory papers) Write RESULTS • Only representative results, essential for the Discussion, should be presented. • Show data of secondary importance in Supplementary Materials. • Do not “hide” data in the hope of saving it for a later paper: You may lose evidence to support your conclusion. • Use sub‐headings to keep results of the same type together: Easier to review and read. • Tell a clear and easy‐to‐understand story
  14. 14. 09/06/2013 13 Appearance Counts in Results • Un‐crowded plots: 3 or 4 data sets per figure; well‐selected scales; appropriate axis label size; symbols clear to read and data sets easy to discriminate. • Each photograph must have a scale marker of professional quality on one corner. • Use color ONLY when necessary. If different line styles can clarify the meaning, never use colors or other thrilling effects. • Color needs to be visible and distinguishable when printed out in black & white. • Do NOT ‘selectively adjust’ any image to enhance visualization of results. • The captions of figures and tables should contain sufficient information to make the figures self explanatory. • Do not include long boring tables Verb Tense for the Results Section: Past Tense Examples: – A total of 417 of the customers replied. – _____ increased, but _____ decreased. – The average temperature was _____. – Three of the dogs died. – This difference was not statistically significant.
  15. 15. 09/06/2013 14 Mentioning Tables and Figures: Some Writing Advice • In citing tables and figures, emphasize the finding, not the table or figure. – Not so good: Table 3 shows that researchers who attended the workshop published twice as many papers per year. – Better: Researchers who attended the workshop published twice as many papers per year (Table 3). SHOULD BE
  16. 16. 09/06/2013 15 Figures: A Few Suggestions • Use figures (graphs, diagrams, maps, photographs, etc) only if they will help convey your information. • Avoid including too much information in one figure. • Make sure any lettering will be large enough once published. • Follow the journal’s instructions.
  17. 17. 09/06/2013 16 DISCUSSION – What the results mean • It is the most important section of your article. Here you get the chance to SELL your data • Make the Discussion corresponding to the Results.: But do not reiterate the results  What? • Often should begin with a brief summary of the main findings • Check for the following: – How do your results relate to the original question or objectives outlined in the Introduction section? – Do you provide interpretation scientifically for each of your results presented? Why? – Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported? Or are there any differences? What else? – Can you reach your conclusion smoothly after your discussion? – Are there any limitations? Any suggestion to next works? • You need to compare the published results with yours: Do NOT ignore work in disagreement with yours –confront it and convince the reader that you are correct or better
  18. 18. 09/06/2013 17 In Summary: Results and Discussion • In Results and Discussion section should include: – What ?  describe the result findings – Why ?  please justify why the findings trend scientifically (connected with theory and philosophy) – What else?  compare your findings with other researchers (about the trend and scientific reasons) and Possible reasons for similarities and differences – Any limitations?  limitation of your findings, next research Discussion: Scientific Language ‐Tenses • Present tense for known facts and hypotheses: – “The average life of a honey bee is 6 weeks” • Past tense for experiments you have conducted: – “All the honey bees were maintained in an environment with a consistent temperature of 23 degrees centigrade…” • Past tense when you describe the results of an experiment: – “The average life span of bees in our contained environment was 8 weeks…”
  19. 19. 09/06/2013 18 Write CONCLUSIONS • Should answer the objectives of research • Tells how your work advances the field from the present state of knowledge • Without clear Conclusions, reviewers and readers will find it difficult to judge the work, and whether or not it merits publication in the journal. • Do NOT repeat the Abstract, or just list experimental results: Trivial statements of your results are unacceptable in this section. • Provide a clear scientific justification for your work, and indicate possible applications and extensions: You should also suggest future experiments and/or point out those that are underway. Example of Good Conclusions
  20. 20. 09/06/2013 19 Acknowledgements • Recognize those who helped in the research (you want them to help again, don’t you?) • Include individuals who have assisted you in your study: – Advisors – Financial supporters – Proofreaders – Typists – Suppliers who may have given materials References • Cite the main scientific publications on which your work is based. Cite only items that you have read • Do not inflate the manuscript with too many references – it doesn’t make it a better manuscript • Avoid excessive self‐citations • Avoid excessive citations of publications from the same region • Check each reference against the original source (authors name, volume, issue, year, DOI Number) • Carefully follow the journal’s instructions to authors. • Use other articles in the same journal as models
  21. 21. 09/06/2013 20 Placement of Citations • Ambiguous: – This disease has been reported in humans, dogs, rabbits, and squirrels (Tuda and Gastel, 1997; Xie and Lozano, 2008; Flores, 2002). – This disease has been reported in humans, dogs, rabbits, and squirrels.1,4,7 • Clear: – This disease has been reported in humans (Tuda and Gastel, 1997), dogs (Xie and Lozano, 2008), and rabbits and squirrels (Flores, 2002). – This disease has been reported in humans,1 dogs,4 rabbits,7 and squirrels.7 Typing Citation & References • Use tools available in Microsoft Word (References  Insert Citation  Choose Style of References: APA, MLA, Harvard, etc.  Insert Bibliography) • Use Mendeley Plugin (References  Insert Mendeley Citation  Choose Style of References  Insert Bibliography)
  22. 22. 09/06/2013 21 Any Questions ? •