Early civilizations of the mesoamerica

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  • The Olmec
    Mesoamerica’s first known civilization builders were a people known as the Olmec. They began carving out a society around 1200 B.C. in the jungles of southern Mexico. The Olmec influenced neighboring groups, as well as the later civilizations of the region. They often are called Mesoamerica’s “mother culture.”
    The Rise of Olmec Civilization
    Around 1860, a worker clearing a field in the hot coastal plain of southeastern Mexico uncovered an extraordinary stone sculpture. It stood five feet tall and weighed an estimated eight tons. The sculpture was of an enormous head, wearing a headpiece. (See History Through Art, pages 244–245.) The head was carved in a strikingly realistic style, with thick lips, a flat nose, and large oval eyes. Archaeologists had never seen anything like it in the Americas. This head, along with others that were discovered later, was a remnant of the Olmec civilization. The Olmec emerged about 1200 B.C. and thrived from approximately 800–400 B.C. They lived along the Gulf Coast of Mexico, in the modern-day Mexican states of Veracruz and Tabasco.
    Gulf Coast Geography
    On the surface, the Gulf Coast seemed an unlikely site for a high culture to take root. The region was hot and humid and covered with swamps and jungle. In some places, giant trees formed a thick cover that prevented most sunlight from reaching the ground. Up to 100 inches of rain fell every year. The rainfall swelled rivers and caused severe flooding. However, the region also had certain advantages. There were abundant deposits of salt and tar, as well as fine clay used in making pottery. There was also wood and rubber from the rain forest. The hills to the north provided hard stone from which the Olmec could make tools and monuments. The rivers that laced the region provided a means of transport. Most important, the flood plains of these rivers provided fertile land for farming. The Olmec used their resources to build thriving communities. The oldest site, San Lorenzo, dates back to around 1150 B.C. Here archaeologists uncovered important clues that offered a glimpse into the Olmec world. Olmec Society At San Lorenzo archaeologists discovered earthen mounds, courtyards, and pyramids. Set among these earthworks were large stone monuments. They included columns, altars, and more colossal, sculpted heads, which may have represented particular Olmec rulers. These giant monuments weigh as much as 44 tons. Some scholars think that Olmec workers may have moved these sculptures over land on rolling logs to the river banks. From there, they may have rafted the monuments along waterways to various sites. To the east of San Lorenzo, another significant Olmec site, La Venta, rose around 900 B.C. Here, researchers discovered a 100-foot-high mound of earth and clay. This structure may have served as the tomb of a great Olmec ruler. Known as the Great Pyramid, the mound also may have been the center of the Olmec religion. Experts believe the Olmec prayed to a variety of nature gods. Most of all, they probably worshiped the jaguar spirit. Numerous Olmec sculptures and carvings depict a half-human, half-jaguar creature. Some scholars believe that the jaguar represented a powerful rain god. Others contend that there were several jaguar gods, representing the earth, fertility, and maize.
    Trade and Commerce
    Archaeologists once believed that sites such as La Venta were ceremonial centers where important rituals were performed but few people lived. In recent years, however, experts have begun to revise that view. The Olmec appear to have been a prosperous people who directed a large trading network throughout Mesoamerica. Olmec goods traveled as far as Mexico City to the north and Honduras to the south. In addition, raw materials—including iron ore and various stones—reached San Lorenzo from faraway regions. This trade network helped boost the Olmec economy and spread Olmec influence.
    Decline of the Olmec
    For reasons that are not fully understood, Olmec civilization eventually collapsed. Scholars believe San Lorenzo was destroyed around 900 B.C. La Venta may have fallen sometime around 400 B.C. Some experts speculate that outside invaders caused the destruction. Others believe the Olmec may have destroyed their own monuments upon the death of their rulers.
    The Early Mesoamericans’ Legacy Although both the Zapotec and Olmec civilizations eventually collapsed, each culture influenced the Mesoamerican civilizations that followed.
    The Olmec Leave Their Mark
    The Olmec contributed much to later Mesoamerican civilizations. They influenced the powerful Maya, who will be discussed in Chapter 16. Olmec art styles, especially the use of the jaguar motif, can be seen in the pottery and sculpture of later peoples in the region. In addition, future Mesoamerican societies copied the Olmec pattern of urban design. The Olmec also left behind the notions of planned ceremonial centers, ritual ball games, and an elite ruling class. And while there is no clear evidence that the Olmec used a written language, their descendants or a related people carved out stone symbols that may have influenced later glyph writing.
    Zapotec Contributions
    The Zapotec left behind their own legacy. It included a hieroglyphic writing system and a calendar system based on the movement of the sun. In addition, the Zapotec are noted as the Americas’ first city builders. Monte Albán combined ceremonial grandeur with residential living space. This style influenced the development of future urban centers and became a hallmark of Mesoamerican civilizations.
    As the Zapotec and Olmec flourished and then declined, civilizations were also taking shape in South America. Along the rough and mountainous terrain in what is now Peru, ancient peoples came together. There, they created more advanced and complex societies.
  • The Olmec--Mesoamerica’s first known civilization builders were a people known as the Olmec. They began carving out a society around 1200 B.C. in the jungles of southern Mexico. The Olmec influenced neighboring groups, as well as the later civilizations of the region. They often are called Mesoamerica’s “mother culture.”
    The Rise of Olmec Civilization--Around 1860, a worker clearing a field in the hot coastal plain of southeastern Mexico uncovered an extraordinary stone sculpture. It stood five feet tall and weighed an estimated eight tons. The sculpture was of an enormous head, wearing a headpiece. (See History Through Art, pages 244–245.) The head was carved in a strikingly realistic style, with thick lips, a flat nose, and large oval eyes. Archaeologists had never seen anything like it in the Americas. This head, along with others that were discovered later, was a remnant of the Olmec civilization. The Olmec emerged about 1200 B.C. and thrived from approximately 800–400 B.C. They lived along the Gulf Coast of Mexico, in the modern-day Mexican states of Veracruz and Tabasco.
    Gulf Coast Geography --On the surface, the Gulf Coast seemed an unlikely site for a high culture to take root. The region was hot and humid and covered with swamps and jungle. In some places, giant trees formed a thick cover that prevented most sunlight from reaching the ground. Up to 100 inches of rain fell every year. The rainfall swelled rivers and caused severe flooding. However, the region also had certain advantages. There were abundant deposits of salt and tar, as well as fine clay used in making pottery. There was also wood and rubber from the rain forest. The hills to the north provided hard stone from which the Olmec could make tools and monuments. The rivers that laced the region provided a means of transport. Most important, the flood plains of these rivers provided fertile land for farming. The Olmec used their resources to build thriving communities. The oldest site, San Lorenzo, dates back to around 1150 B.C. Here archaeologists uncovered important clues that offered a glimpse into the Olmec world. At San Lorenzo, archaeologists discovered earthen mounds, courtyards, and pyramids. Set among these earthworks were large stone monuments. They included columns, altars, and more colossal, sculpted heads, which may have represented particular Olmec rulers. These giant monuments weigh as much as 44 tons. Some scholars think that Olmec workers may have moved these sculptures over land on rolling logs to the river banks. From there, they may have rafted the monuments along waterways to various sites. To the east of San Lorenzo, another significant Olmec site, La Venta, rose around 900 B.C. Here, researchers discovered a 100-foot-high mound of earth and clay. This structure may have served as the tomb of a great Olmec ruler. Known as the Great Pyramid, the mound also may have been the center of the Olmec religion. Experts believe the Olmec prayed to a variety of nature gods. Most of all, they probably worshiped the jaguar spirit. Numerous Olmec sculptures and carvings depict a half-human, half-jaguar creature. Some scholars believe that the jaguar represented a powerful rain god. Others contend that there were several jaguar gods, representing the earth, fertility, and maize.
    Trade and Commerce
    Archaeologists once believed that sites such as La Venta were ceremonial centers where important rituals were performed but few people lived. In recent years, however, experts have begun to revise that view. The Olmec appear to have been a prosperous people who directed a large trading network throughout Mesoamerica. Olmec goods traveled as far as Mexico City to the north and Honduras to the south. In addition, raw materials—including iron ore and various stones—reached San Lorenzo from faraway regions. This trade network helped boost the Olmec economy and spread Olmec influence.
    Decline of the Olmec
    For reasons that are not fully understood, Olmec civilization eventually collapsed. Scholars believe San Lorenzo was destroyed around 900 B.C. La Venta may have fallen sometime around 400 B.C. Some experts speculate that outside invaders caused the destruction. Others believe the Olmec may have destroyed their own monuments upon the death of their rulers.
    The Olmec contributed much to later Mesoamerican civilizations. They influenced the powerful Maya, who will be discussed in Chapter 16. Olmec art styles, especially the use of the jaguar motif, can be seen in the pottery and sculpture of later peoples in the region. In addition, future Mesoamerican societies copied the Olmec pattern of urban design. The Olmec also left behind the notions of planned ceremonial centers, ritual ball games, and an elite ruling class. And while there is no clear evidence that the Olmec used a written language, their descendants or a related people carved out stone symbols that may have influenced later glyph writing.
    The Zapotec left behind their own legacy. It included a hieroglyphic writing system and a calendar system based on the movement of the sun. In addition, the Zapotec are noted as the Americas’ first city builders. Monte Albán combined ceremonial grandeur with residential living space. This style influenced the development of future urban centers and became a hallmark of Mesoamerican civilizations. As the Zapotec and Olmec flourished and then declined, civilizations were also taking shape in South America. Along the rough and mountainous terrain in what is now Peru, ancient peoples came together. There, they created more advanced and complex societies.
  • Early civilizations of the mesoamerica

    1. 1. Early Civilizations of TheEarly Civilizations of The MesoamericaMesoamerica Human Settlement in the AmericasHuman Settlement in the Americas
    2. 2. The Civilizations of MesoamericaThe Civilizations of Mesoamerica While classical civilizations were developing in the Mediterranean & Asia… …advanced societies were developing in isolation in the Americas
    3. 3. Pacific Ocean (Sea West) The name "Mesoamerica" is a term used to identify the heartland of a number of significant pre- Columbian cultures. The area of Mesoamerica encompasses many of the states of southern Mexico, and most of the countries of Central America, including Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and part of Costa Rica. It is bounded on the north by the Gulf of Mexico, on the east by the Caribbean Sea, and on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean. Gulf of Mexico (Sea East)
    4. 4. MesoamericaMesoamerica  Mesoamerica (better acquaintance as CentralMesoamerica (better acquaintance as Central America) it is one of the two areas of America (theAmerica) it is one of the two areas of America (the other one is the central part of the Andes) that hadother one is the central part of the Andes) that had urban civilizations, or "superior cultures" in the timeurban civilizations, or "superior cultures" in the time of the Spanish conquest, in 1519.of the Spanish conquest, in 1519.  This demonstrates the fact that the Meso-AmericanThis demonstrates the fact that the Meso-American ones built pyramids and spectacular temples, they hadones built pyramids and spectacular temples, they had big markets, a sacred calendar, a hieroglyphicbig markets, a sacred calendar, a hieroglyphic writing, a group of gods, they practiced the ball gamewriting, a group of gods, they practiced the ball game and they carried out human sacrifices.and they carried out human sacrifices.
    5. 5. MesoamericaMesoamerica Yucatan Peninsula Gulf Of Mexico X Mexico City Honduras Belize Guatemala
    6. 6. Early Civilizations of TheEarly Civilizations of The MesoamericaMesoamerica  OlmecOlmec  TeotihuacanTeotihuacan  ToltecToltec  MayaMaya  AztecAztec
    7. 7. Mesoamericans CivilizationsMesoamericans Civilizations
    8. 8. The Last Ice AgeThe Last Ice Age:: 1. Between1. Between 20,00020,000 andand 40,00040,000 years ago during the last Ice Age,years ago during the last Ice Age, glaciersglaciers covered a large part ofcovered a large part of the Northern Hemisphere (North America, Europe, and Northern Asia).the Northern Hemisphere (North America, Europe, and Northern Asia). 2. Water level in oceans2. Water level in oceans decreaseddecreased due to increase in size of glaciers.due to increase in size of glaciers. 3. Land was exposed in3. Land was exposed in Bering StraitBering Strait between Asia and North America.between Asia and North America. 4. Land bridge is known as4. Land bridge is known as BeringiaBeringia. About 750 miles wide.. About 750 miles wide. ICE AGE: Period of time when glaciers covered many parts of the Northern Hemisphere. GLACIERS: A huge sheet of ice.
    9. 9. TitleTitle  TextText During the Ice Age, prehistoric nomads migrated across the land bridge between Asia & America During the Neolithic Revolution, these nomads settled into farming villages; Some of which became advanced civilizations
    10. 10. Early American MigrationEarly American Migration:: 1. Herds of animals migrated over land bridge.1. Herds of animals migrated over land bridge. 2. Groups of2. Groups of human nomadshuman nomads followed herds.followed herds. 3. Over thousands of years, early Americans migrated to all parts of the America’s.3. Over thousands of years, early Americans migrated to all parts of the America’s. NOMADNOMAD:: A person or group of people who move from place to place in search of food.A person or group of people who move from place to place in search of food. Asia North America Bering Strait
    11. 11. How did peoplefirst get to theAmericas? Bering Strait TheoriesBering Strait Theories When ocean levels dropped, a land “bridge” formed between Alaska and Russia Earliest migrations about 12,000 - 40,000 years ago Second migration about 4,500 years ago across Canada. Contested by many Traditionalists / Natives!
    12. 12. Asia
    13. 13. 4. These early humans were Stone Age people. Stone was their most advanced form of technology for tools and weapons.
    14. 14. First AmericansFirst Americans:: 1. Depended on1. Depended on huntinghunting andand gatheringgathering for food and clothing.for food and clothing. 2. Could not2. Could not farmfarm.. 3. Tools and weapons made from3. Tools and weapons made from stonestone,, bonebone, and, and woodwood.. 4. Died in early 30’s.4. Died in early 30’s. 5. Followed herds of animals across land bridge to North America.5. Followed herds of animals across land bridge to North America.
    15. 15. A long and wide knifeA long and wide knife The axes were used to cut or as hammers. CLOVIS: Stone knives & Spear points
    16. 16. Animals They HuntedAnimals They Hunted::  Wooly mammoth.Wooly mammoth.  Bear.Bear.  Bison.Bison.  Deer.Deer.  Anything they couldAnything they could catch and eat.catch and eat.
    17. 17. The capture of aquatic birds with nets was veryThe capture of aquatic birds with nets was very extended in Mesoamerica, in the areas of the lakes.extended in Mesoamerica, in the areas of the lakes.
    18. 18. FarmingFarming:: 11. Around. Around 5,0005,000 BC, humans inBC, humans in Central America learned toCentral America learned to farm.farm. 2. At first, they grew2. At first, they grew corncorn,, beansbeans, and, and squashsquash.. 3. Over time, other humans in3. Over time, other humans in the America’s learned tothe America’s learned to farm.farm. 4. This allowed for civilizations4. This allowed for civilizations to emerge.to emerge. Beans Corn (Maize) Squash
    19. 19. The OlmecanThe Olmecan
    20. 20. The OlmecsThe Olmecs The first American civilization were people known as the Olmec in an area known as Mesoamerica The Olmecs are often called the “mother culture” because they influenced other Mesoamerican societies
    21. 21. The OlmecsThe Olmecs The Olmecs developed a strong trade network in Mesoamerica that brought them great wealth The Olmecs used their wealth to build large stone monuments & pyramids to honor their leaders & gods Olmec trade allowed them to spread their culture to other Mesoamericans For unknown reasons, the Olmec civilization declined by 400 B.C. but their cities & symbols influenced later cultures, especially the Mayans
    22. 22. Mesoamerica, southern Mexico and northern Central America, was ideal for farming. Cities and complex social structures arose there too. • Lived in hot, humid lowlands • 1250 BC to200B.C. • Built first large towns in Mesoamerica • Earliest Olmec town – Pyramid, courtyard – Eight giant stone heads – Thronelike monuments • Towns served as ceremonial, political and religious centers Olmec • Olmec rulers, families lived in towns • Lower social classes lived outside the towns • Elite led ceremonies, controlled trade network • Trade – From Gulf to Pacific coast – Rubber, pottery, furs – Also beliefs, art, games Society The First Civilizations
    23. 23. OLMEC CIVILIZATIONOLMEC CIVILIZATION  Appeared around 1250 BCEAppeared around 1250 BCE  In swampy region along theIn swampy region along the Gulf of Mexico near modern-Gulf of Mexico near modern- day Vera Cruzday Vera Cruz  Not in a river valleyNot in a river valley  Three major cities:La Venta,Three major cities:La Venta, San Lorenzo, and TrSan Lorenzo, and Très Zapotesès Zapotes  ““Olmec” was not what theOlmec” was not what the people called themselves. Itpeople called themselves. It means “rubber people” andmeans “rubber people” and comes from the rubber trees thatcomes from the rubber trees that flourish in the regionflourish in the region
    24. 24. Map of Olmec Empire:Map of Olmec Empire:
    25. 25.   La Venta: La Venta:   Ceremonial Olmec Centre.Ceremonial Olmec Centre.  La Venta was inhabited by people of the Olmec Culture from 1200 BCLa Venta was inhabited by people of the Olmec Culture from 1200 BC until 400 BC after which the site appears to have been abandoned. It isuntil 400 BC after which the site appears to have been abandoned. It is believed to have been an important civic and ceremonial centre.believed to have been an important civic and ceremonial centre.  Today, the entire southern end of the site is covered by a petroleumToday, the entire southern end of the site is covered by a petroleum refinery and has been largely demolished, making further excavationsrefinery and has been largely demolished, making further excavations difficult or impossible.difficult or impossible.
    26. 26. San Lorenzo:San Lorenzo:  Early Olmec culture had emerged centred around the San LorenzoEarly Olmec culture had emerged centred around the San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán site near the coast in southeast Veracruz. They were theTenochtitlán site near the coast in southeast Veracruz. They were the first Mesoamerican civilization and laid many of the foundations forfirst Mesoamerican civilization and laid many of the foundations for the civilizations that followed. Among other "firsts", there is evidencethe civilizations that followed. Among other "firsts", there is evidence that the Olmec practiced ritual bloodletting and played thethat the Olmec practiced ritual bloodletting and played the Mesoamerican ballgame, hallmarks of nearly all subsequentMesoamerican ballgame, hallmarks of nearly all subsequent Mesoamerican societies.Mesoamerican societies.  San Lorenzo is best known today for the colossal Olmec stone headsSan Lorenzo is best known today for the colossal Olmec stone heads unearthed there, the greatest of which weighs onwards of 40unearthed there, the greatest of which weighs onwards of 40 tons (3) and is 3 metres high.tons (3) and is 3 metres high.
    27. 27. treS zapoteS: treS zapoteS:   (Olmec Capital).(Olmec Capital).  Located on the slopes of the Tuxtla mountains, this isLocated on the slopes of the Tuxtla mountains, this is one of the most important Olmec cities, and the firstone of the most important Olmec cities, and the first to be written about in 1868, along with the firstto be written about in 1868, along with the first reports of colossal heads. Tres Zapotes is sometimesreports of colossal heads. Tres Zapotes is sometimes referred to as the third Olmec Capital, as it followedreferred to as the third Olmec Capital, as it followed on the demise of both La Venta and San Lorenzo.on the demise of both La Venta and San Lorenzo.  Of particular interest to archaeology is that the siteOf particular interest to archaeology is that the site was continuously inhabited for over 2000 years (1)was continuously inhabited for over 2000 years (1)
    28. 28. Intensive agricultural techniquesIntensive agricultural techniques Area received abundant rainfall so extensiveArea received abundant rainfall so extensive irrigation systems were unnecessaryirrigation systems were unnecessary The Olmecs built elaborate drainage systemsThe Olmecs built elaborate drainage systems
    29. 29.  The jaguar god: is the most important god, god ofThe jaguar god: is the most important god, god of life, represented by an animal half jaguar, half-serpent.life, represented by an animal half jaguar, half-serpent. •Huehueteotl old god, the god of fire. •Quetzalcoatl: god of rain, weather and corn. It is represented as a feathered serpent.
    30. 30. OLMEC ACHIEVEMENTSOLMEC ACHIEVEMENTS  Talented engineers and architectsTalented engineers and architects  Built underground sewerBuilt underground sewer system at San Lorenzosystem at San Lorenzo  Built pyramids and palacesBuilt pyramids and palaces from stonefrom stone  Also carved giant stone headsAlso carved giant stone heads  Largest is 9 feet tall and weighsLargest is 9 feet tall and weighs 15 tons15 tons  No one knows their exactNo one knows their exact functionfunction  Also developed a writing systemAlso developed a writing system and a system to record calendarand a system to record calendar datesdates
    31. 31. architecturarchitectur ee  The Olmec architecture is to buildThe Olmec architecture is to build platforms around a courtyard,platforms around a courtyard, which houses and temples werewhich houses and temples were builtbuilt LL •Olmec artists distinguished themselves in carving stone. •Colossal heads carved, zoomorphic and anthropomorphic sculptures, tombs, altars with reliefs and huge tombs, and sculptures that look human.
    32. 32. This basaltThis basalt headhead measures 1.5measures 1.5 meters highmeters high and it weighsand it weighs more than 20more than 20 tons.tons.
    33. 33. This OlmecanThis Olmecan statuette represents astatuette represents a bald boy.bald boy. His facial featuresHis facial features are similar to those ofare similar to those of Asia.Asia.
    34. 34. The “Mother Culture”The “Mother Culture” • Many historians consider the Olmec civilization the “mother culture” of Mesoamerica. • A mother culture is a way of life that strongly influences later cultures. • The Olmec empire led to the development of other civilizations, such as the Maya and the Aztec.
    35. 35. Decline of theDecline of the OlmecOlmec  Olmecs systematically destroyed theirOlmecs systematically destroyed their ceremonial centers and then deserted the sitesceremonial centers and then deserted the sites  Statues were broken and buried, monumentsStatues were broken and buried, monuments defaced, and capitals burneddefaced, and capitals burned  No one knows why!No one knows why!  but some speculate reasons involving civilbut some speculate reasons involving civil conflicts or doubts about the effectiveness orconflicts or doubts about the effectiveness or legitimacy of the ruling classeslegitimacy of the ruling classes
    36. 36. The TeotihuacánThe Teotihuacán
    37. 37. TEOTIHUACTEOTIHUACÁNÁN  Olmec civilization fadedOlmec civilization faded around 900 BCE butaround 900 BCE but influenced later civilizationsinfluenced later civilizations  TeotihuacTeotihuacánán  100-700 AD100-700 AD  Giant city containingGiant city containing 200,000 people200,000 people  Two giant pyramidsTwo giant pyramids  Pyramid of the SunPyramid of the Sun  Pyramid of the MoonPyramid of the Moon  Hundreds of otherHundreds of other buildingsbuildings
    38. 38. TeotihuacánTeotihuacán City PlanCity Plan
    39. 39. CityCity PlanPlan
    40. 40. City PlanCity Plan
    41. 41. Avenue of the Dead
    42. 42. The Pyramid of the Sun It is the largest building in Teotihuacán and one of the largest in Mesoamerica
    43. 43. The Pyramid of the Sun
    44. 44. Pyramid of the SunPyramid of the Sun  The name Pyramid of the Sun comes from theThe name Pyramid of the Sun comes from the Aztecs.Aztecs.  The first construction stage around 100 A.D & theThe first construction stage around 100 A.D & the second round of construction resulted in itssecond round of construction resulted in its completed size of 738 feet (225 meters) across andcompleted size of 738 feet (225 meters) across and 246 feet (75 meters) high.246 feet (75 meters) high.  It’s the third largest pyramid in the world.It’s the third largest pyramid in the world.  The ancient Teotihuacans finished their pyramidThe ancient Teotihuacans finished their pyramid with lime plaster, painted brilliantly colored murals.with lime plaster, painted brilliantly colored murals.
    45. 45. Structure Measurements, LocationStructure Measurements, Location and Orientationand Orientation Dimension Value Height 233.5 feet / 71.2 metres Base perimeter 2,932.8 feet / 893.9 metres Side 733.2 feet / 223.5 metres 1/2 Side 366.6 feet / 111.7 metres Angle of slope 32.494 Lateral Surface Area 637,370.76 square feet / 59,213.681 square metres (assumes perfect square base and smooth faces) Volume 41,841,817 cubic feet / 1,184,828.3 cubic metres (assumes perfect square base and smooth faces)
    46. 46. Teotihuacán: "Pyramid Of The Moon"Teotihuacán: "Pyramid Of The Moon"
    47. 47. The Pyramid of the Moon
    48. 48. Pyramid of the MoonPyramid of the Moon  The Pyramid of the Moon is the second largest pyramid inThe Pyramid of the Moon is the second largest pyramid in Teotihuacan.Teotihuacan.  It is located in the western part of Teotihuacan.It is located in the western part of Teotihuacan.  The Pyramid of the Moon covers a structure older than theThe Pyramid of the Moon covers a structure older than the Pyramid of the Sun which existed prior to 200 AD.Pyramid of the Sun which existed prior to 200 AD.  The Pyramid's construction between 200 and 450 ADThe Pyramid's construction between 200 and 450 AD
    49. 49. Courtyard, Pyramid Of The Moon Pyramid Is North End Of The Complex
    50. 50. The talud-tablero style a prominent stylistic feature of Teotihuacan architecture
    51. 51. TALUD- TABLERO STYLETALUD- TABLERO STYLE  Talud-tablero style used in many MesoamericanTalud-tablero style used in many Mesoamerican pyramids and a prominent stylistic feature ofpyramids and a prominent stylistic feature of Teotihuacano architecture.Teotihuacano architecture.  It consists of a platform structure.It consists of a platform structure.  The tablero-on top of an inward-sloping surface orThe tablero-on top of an inward-sloping surface or panel.panel.  The taludThe talud--the slope-and-panel style.the slope-and-panel style.
    52. 52. An overview ofAn overview of differing Talud-differing Talud- tablero stylestablero styles
    53. 53. Temple of the Feathered Serpent in Teotihuacán
    54. 54. The Main Stairway Up The "Temple Of Quetzalcoatl"
    55. 55. The Great CompoundThe Great Compound Feathered Serpent PyramidFeathered Serpent Pyramid
    56. 56. Quetzalcoatl HeadQuetzalcoatl Head
    57. 57. A detail found on the Quetzalcóatl PyramidA detail found on the Quetzalcóatl Pyramid
    58. 58. Quetzalcoatl HeadQuetzalcoatl Head Serpent The Great Compound Feathered Serpent Pyramid
    59. 59. Remains
    60. 60. The masks can have been dead people's portraits.The masks can have been dead people's portraits. This is a mask of Jade coming from Teotihuacán.This is a mask of Jade coming from Teotihuacán. The holes in the lobes of the ears are to take earrings.The holes in the lobes of the ears are to take earrings.
    61. 61. The Toltec CultureThe Toltec Culture
    62. 62.  Highlands of central Mexico, 900 to 1200 ADHighlands of central Mexico, 900 to 1200 AD  Capital located at Tula, near obsidian minesCapital located at Tula, near obsidian mines  Major trade centerMajor trade center  Pyramids, templesPyramids, temples  Militaristic societyMilitaristic society  Fierce warriors established dominance over large regionFierce warriors established dominance over large region  Established trade network which stretched into northern SouthEstablished trade network which stretched into northern South AmericaAmerica  Developed impressive metal-working industryDeveloped impressive metal-working industry  Specialized in jewelrySpecialized in jewelry  worked turquoise, gold, copper, tin, mica, and lead, together withworked turquoise, gold, copper, tin, mica, and lead, together with green stones, amber, rock crystal (quartz), amethyst, pearls, and opalsgreen stones, amber, rock crystal (quartz), amethyst, pearls, and opals  Climate change, social conflict led to declineClimate change, social conflict led to decline The ToltecasThe Toltecas
    63. 63. TulaTula  A.D. 950-1200A.D. 950-1200  Development of city north of Teotihuacan.Development of city north of Teotihuacan.  Located on the Tula river and near the Lerma riversLocated on the Tula river and near the Lerma rivers for easy communication with others.for easy communication with others.  This new capital was closer to the northern limits ofThis new capital was closer to the northern limits of agriculture.agriculture.  Toltec history embellished by Aztecs, Spaniards andToltec history embellished by Aztecs, Spaniards and others after their collapse in 1200 A.D.others after their collapse in 1200 A.D.
    64. 64. Tula BallcourtsTula Ballcourts Ballcourt 1 Ballcourt 2 Stone (found in the center of the ballcourt) possibly connected with the scoring or ritual of the game http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~delacova/ballcourt-no2.htm
    65. 65. Columns in the form of Toltec warriors in TulaColumns in the form of Toltec warriors in Tula
    66. 66. Columns in the form of Toltec warriors in Tula
    67. 67. Toltecs
    68. 68. This is one ofThis is one of the warriorsthe warriors that are inthat are in the superiorthe superior part of thepart of the Temple B. InTemple B. In their times,their times, thesethese warriorswarriors sustained asustained a roof.roof. This warrior, lifts the arms to hold an altar or reliquary.
    69. 69. Altar support from the Temple of Quetzalcoatl Rear view of the altar support
    70. 70. Artifacts: PotteryArtifacts: Pottery Duck effigy bowl Brazier with skulls Pipes Papagayo polychrome bowl http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~delacova/toltecs-dishware.htm
    71. 71. Artifacts: Stone CarvingsArtifacts: Stone Carvings Jaguar statue Figurines http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~delacova/toltec-standing-figurines.htm
    72. 72. Mayan CivilizationMayan Civilization  The Maya were an early civilization inThe Maya were an early civilization in Mesoamerica a region that was located inMesoamerica a region that was located in Central America and parts of southern NorthCentral America and parts of southern North America.America.  The Maya civilization began around 1500 BCEThe Maya civilization began around 1500 BCE in Present-day Mexico and Guatemala.in Present-day Mexico and Guatemala.  Maya prehistory is often split into three periods:Maya prehistory is often split into three periods: Pre-classic (2000 BCEPre-classic (2000 BCE——250 CE), Classic (250250 CE), Classic (250 ——900) and Post-classic (900900) and Post-classic (900——1500).1500).
    73. 73. The MayasThe Mayas  We know they were not called MayasWe know they were not called Mayas  When Spaniards arrived, the major city was MAYAPANWhen Spaniards arrived, the major city was MAYAPAN (thus the name the Mayas)(thus the name the Mayas)  The Maya civilization reached its height in a periodThe Maya civilization reached its height in a period called the Classic Age.called the Classic Age.  During this period, the civilization spread to the YucatanDuring this period, the civilization spread to the Yucatan Peninsula. It included more than 40 cities of 5,000 toPeninsula. It included more than 40 cities of 5,000 to 50,000 people each.50,000 people each.  Cities were really city-states, each with its ownCities were really city-states, each with its own government and king.government and king.  No single ruler ever united the many cities into oneNo single ruler ever united the many cities into one empire.empire.
    74. 74. Chichen ItzaChichen Itza
    75. 75. The AztecThe Aztec The strong Aztec Empire, founded in central Mexico inThe strong Aztec Empire, founded in central Mexico in 1325, lasted until the Spanish conquest in 1521.1325, lasted until the Spanish conquest in 1521.  The Aztecs built a rich and powerful empire in centralThe Aztecs built a rich and powerful empire in central Mexico.Mexico.  Life in the empire was shaped by social structure,Life in the empire was shaped by social structure, religion, and warfare.religion, and warfare.  Hernán Cortés conquered the Aztec Empire in 1521.Hernán Cortés conquered the Aztec Empire in 1521.
    76. 76. Life in the empire was shaped byLife in the empire was shaped by social structure, religion, andsocial structure, religion, and warfare.warfare.  The Aztecs had a complex social structure, a demandingThe Aztecs had a complex social structure, a demanding religion, and a rich culture.religion, and a rich culture.  The Aztecs worshipped many gods and regularly madeThe Aztecs worshipped many gods and regularly made human sacrifices to please the gods.human sacrifices to please the gods.  Sacrifices were often battle captives. Aztec warriorsSacrifices were often battle captives. Aztec warriors waged frequent battles with neighboring people towaged frequent battles with neighboring people to supply enough victims.supply enough victims.  Aztecs valued art and architecture.Aztecs valued art and architecture.  They studied astronomy and devised a calendar like theThey studied astronomy and devised a calendar like the Maya did.Maya did.
    77. 77. Tenochtitlan
    78. 78. THANKSTHANKS FORFOR LEARNINGLEARNING

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