Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
(COPD) refers to a group of lung diseases that
block airflow and make breathing difficult.
is a long-term lung disease that refers to both
chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
also known as chronic obstructive lung
disease (COLD), and chronic obstructive
airway disease (COAD),
A FVC<75-80% of predicted suggests
restrictive disease. An FEV1% <70% suggests
Although COPD remains more common in
men, recent data suggest that more women die
of COPD than men.
The FEV1% has been shown to be less
predictable of prognosis in COPD patients.
New scoring systems for symptoms include the
COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score and a
modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea
Scale (mMRC) score <2 and 0-1 exacerbations
in the previous year.
The combination of bupropion and nicotine
replacement has clearly been demonstrated to
have better outcomes for smoking cessation
than either alone.
Pulmonary rehabilitation has been shown to be
beneficial for patients whose FEV1% is < 50%.
Macrolides given daily have been shown to
decrease the number of exacerbations in COPD
Continuous supplemental oxygen improves the
survival in patients with severe COPD.
Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation
(NPPV) may be beneficial in some patients
with severe acute exacerbations of COPD.
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