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Mount pelee science project

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  • 1. The 1902Eruption ofMount Pelee inMartiniqueBy: Sabella AundrayaTuesday, June 11, 2013
  • 2. Physical Features• Has an elevation of 4,583 feet (1,397metres).• Pelée is made of layers of volcanic ashand hardened lava.• The volcano is cone shaped.• It has a base of about 39 square miles.• In October 1902 (post eruption) a pillar ofcooled lava arose, which was pushed up bythe pressure in the volcano.  This lavadome, called the tower of Pelée, was 100to 150 metres wide.  At the top the domewas approximately 300 metres above theedge of the crater.  The tower was notstable enough and in september 1903 itcollapsed.Tuesday, June 11, 2013
  • 3. Where is Mount Pelée?• Mount Pelée is on the northernend of the French Caribbeanisland Martinique.• Mount Pelée is the result of asubduction zone. Thesubduction formed the LesserAntilles island arc, a curvedchain of volcanoesapproximately 850 kilometres(530 miles) in length, betweenPuerto Rico and Venezuela.Tuesday, June 11, 2013
  • 4. When Did The EruptionTake Place?• The eruption its self happened on May 8, 1902 at 7:52am, however there were several warning signs:• April 2 - Puffs of steam were seen coming from high up the mountain.• April 23 - A small amount of ash from Mount Pelée fell over St.Pierre, followed by mild tremors.• April 25 - The second crater near the summit opened up, spewing ash and rock fragments.• All through the rest of April Pelée continued to spew clouds of ash, and the sulphurous gas fumesbecame more frequent.• May 2 - Late at night the mountain gave a series of explosions.• May 6 - Eruptions could be clearly be heard 100 miles away on the island of Guadeloupe. Steamcovered the summit of Pelée, and ash fell down, covering everything with up to a foot of ash. About 5p.m., telegraphic communication was broken between Martinique and the islands of St. Vincent andSt. Lucia (undersea avalanches had snapped the cables).• May 7 - At 4 a.m.the citizens observed two fiery craters near the summit. When daylight came, itappeared the entire Caribbean was littered with chunks of ash, pumice and vegetation swept into thesea by the flooding rivers. Some say it appeared that the ships were sailing on soggy ground.• After the eruption - It erupted again a few more times, but it caused no damage because there wasntanything left to destroy.Tuesday, June 11, 2013
  • 5. What Happened?When Mount Pelee erupted it started with three or fourquick, violent explosions. Then two enormous blackclouds of volcanic material shot out from the mountain.One cloud went straight up into the sky, where itexpanded across the whole sky. It blocked out light soseverely that people in Fort-de-France, twelve miles away,could not see two feet in front of them. The other clouddidnt rise like the first, but ran down the slope of MountPelee directly for St. Pierre. This cloud moved at a speedapproximately 100 miles per hour, in about two minutes itimpacted the city with an incredible force. The buildingswere quickly blown down and scattered into rubble. Thecloud, a “nuée ardente” or pyroclastic flow - a mixture ofgas, steam, glowing dust, ash and pumice, set thewreckage of St. Pierre on fire as it swept over the city. Thewhole area was destroyed at 7:52 a.m. That time canestablished, because the hands on the clock on the wall ofthe hospital were frozen on that time. There was no lavaflows from Mount Pelee because it is not a fire volcano.Tuesday, June 11, 2013
  • 6. Who Did Mount PeleeAffect?• Before the eruption there was about 30,000 people inthe city of St. Pierre that had either decided not to leaveor could not leave for whatever reason.• After the eruption there was 2 survivors left in the city.• There are volcanos that have killed more peoplehowever most of those people died form chainreactions, in the case of Mount Pelee, the majority ofthe people that died, died from the volcano directly.Tuesday, June 11, 2013
  • 7. The Survivors• One was a shoemaker, named Leon Compere-Leandre, who owes his life to the fact that hishouse was located near the edge of the path of thecloud of ash, steam and gasses.• The other was a convect serving time in the St.Pierre dungeon, his name was Auguste Ciparis(picture on right side). His cell was poorlyventilated due to only having one grated “window”above the door. However when he was found a fewdays later, he was severely burned and immediatelyput into critical condition. After he healed he wasgiven a pardon and became sort of famousbecause he joined the circus and was known as“The Prisoner of St. Pierre.”• Some people tried to escape on boats howevermost of the people died from the heat and debris,out of the few survivors there was, they were allextremely burned.Tuesday, June 11, 2013
  • 8. What Caused MountPelee to Erupt?• Scientists never really found out what causedMount Pelee to Erupt in the first place butthey did find some other interesting things.• Alfred Lacroix, a scientist who spent a year inMartinique doing research on the volcano,discovered the uncommon phenomenon of a"nuée ardente" (the black volcanic cloudwhich was released by the eruption of theMount Pelée) can be caused by a sidewarderuption of volcanic material.Tuesday, June 11, 2013
  • 9. Tectonic Plates• Mount Pelee was formed in a subduction zone.That is when an oceanic crust (in this case theCocos plate) collides with continental crust(Caribbean plate), the continental crust is pushedover the oceanic crust, since it is lighter. When theoceanic crust is submerged beneath the continental crust, the crust is pushed down into thelava of the lithosphere,  and is eventually melted.This excess lava is then pushed up through gaps inthe continental crust, therefore forming volcanoes(or stratovolcanoes) like Mount Pelee.Tuesday, June 11, 2013
  • 10. How did the Eruption ofMount Pelee Affect theEarth’s Crust?• There was no lava flow fromthe eruption and there for nonew igneous rock wasformed. However there was alot of ash and debris, so thatcould have formed intosedimentary rock on theearths crust.Tuesday, June 11, 2013
  • 11. Bibliography• http://library.thinkquest.org/26568/pelee.htm• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Pel%C3%A9e• http://www.geology.sdsu.edu/how_volcanoes_work/Pelee.html• http://www.platetectonics.com/book/page_5.asp• http://www.gweaver.net/techhigh/projects/period1_2/Mt.%20Pelee/plate%20tectonics%20page.html• http://geography.about.com/library/cia/blcmartinique.htm• http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/sciences/earthscience/geology/volcanoes/power/mountpelee.html• http://library.thinkquest.org/17457/volcanoes/effects.pelee.php• http://m.guardian.co.uk/world/2002/apr/28/physicalsciences.highereducationTuesday, June 11, 2013