Economic benefit of standardization


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Economic benefit of standardization

  1. 1. Economic Benefits of Standardization Sabeen Ahad
  2. 2. Content• Standardization• Standards• International Standardizing Bodies• ISO/IEC• Economic Benefits• Development of Standards
  3. 3. StandardizationFormulation, publication, andimplementation of guidelines, rules,and specifications for common andrepeated use, aimed at achievingoptimum degree of orderor uniformity in agiven context, discipline, or field.
  4. 4. HistorySocietal Standardization• 3000 BC – 1500 BC Indus Valley Civilization First to develop uniform weights and measures• 80–70 BC – 15 BC Marcus Vitruvius Pollio „The first engineer‟• 1215 Magna Carta Clause 35 states and established consistent measures
  5. 5. History (contd….)• Formal Standardization Industrial Revolution 1841 – Sir Joseph Whitworth 1850 onwards – The birth of the railways 1895 – Henry Skelton 1901 – Sir John Wolfe-Barry
  6. 6. History (contd…)On April 26th 1901, British Iron TradeFederation committee met and founded theEngineering Standards Committee, withtwo representatives each from the Institutionof Civil Engineers, Institution of MechanicalEngineers, Institution of Naval Architects andthe Iron & Steel Institute.
  7. 7. History (contd….)1875 the convention of the Metre is signed inParis by 18 nations including USA.. TheMetre convention , often called the Treaty ofthe Metre in USA, provides for improvedweights and measures and the establishmentof the General Conference on Weights andMeasurement.
  8. 8. History (contd….)1820 Eleven physicians meet in Washington,DC, to establish the US Pharmacopeia, thefirst compendium of standard drug for theUnited States.
  9. 9. Standards What the Standard is?
  10. 10. Types of Standards Process Management Product System
  11. 11. Partners Business House State Standard holds Standard Bodies
  12. 12. • Squirrel
  13. 13. ProcessesISO 78-2:1999Chemistry. Layout for standards. Methods ofchemical analysisISO 105-A01:1996Textiles. Tests for colour fastness. Generalprinciples of testingISO 123:2001Rubber latex. SamplingISO 3874:1997Series 1 freight containers. Handling andsecuring
  14. 14. Processes• ISO 7197:1997 Neurosurgical implants. Sterile, single-use hydrocephalus shunts and components• ISO 7198:1998 Cardiovascular implants. Tubular vascular prostheses• ISO 7206-4:2002 Implants for surgery. Partial and total hip joint prostheses.
  15. 15. Product• ISO 254:1998 Belt drives. Pulleys. Quality, finish and balance• ISO 8752:1998 Spring-type straight pins. Slotted, heavy duty• ISO 8765:2001 Hexagon head bolts with metric fine pitch thread. Product grades A and B
  16. 16. Product• ISO 3029:1995 Photography. 126 size cartridges. Dimensions of cartridge, film and backing paper• ISO 3830:1996 Petroleum products. Determination of lead content of gasoline. Iodine monochloride method
  17. 17. Product• ISO 5183-2:2001 Resistance welding equipment. Electrode adaptors, male taper 1:10. Parallel shank fixing for end-thrust electrodes
  18. 18. Management System• ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management System• ISO 14001:2004 Environmental Management System• ISO 26000 Social Responsibility ISO 27001Information Security Management System
  19. 19. International Standardizing Bodies
  20. 20. Processes• CODEX- Codex Alimentarius Commission Scope: Specification, sampling and analysis of food products; food additives; food hygiene; pesticide residues; contaminants; labelling; essential composition; nutritional aspects; veterinary drug residues; food import/export inspection and certification systems.
  21. 21. ProcessesStandard Operating Procedures (SOP)• ITEF- Internet Engineering Task Force Scope: Internet architecture and operation.• IIW- International Institute of Welding Scope: Welding and allied processes.• ICUMSA- International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugars Analysis Scope: Methods of sugar analysis.
  22. 22. Processes• IFLA- International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions Scope: Bibliographic control and other aspects of library matters.• IWTO -International Wool Textile Organization Scope: Testing of wool textiles.
  23. 23. Processes• CODEX- Codex Alimentarius Commission Scope: Specification, sampling and analysis of food products; food additives; food hygiene; pesticide residues; contaminants; labelling; essential composition; nutritional aspects; veterinary drug residues; food import/export inspection and certification systems.
  24. 24. PSQCA• PSQCA is subscribing member of: ISO IEC OIML WTO IECEE
  25. 25. PSQCA has signed followingMoUs• PSQCA and Turkish Standards Institution (TSE)• PSQCA and American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM), USA.• PSQCA and Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN), Germany.• PSQCA and American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
  26. 26. PNAC
  27. 27. ISO Story1952195119501949194819471946194519441943 25 Countries ISO Formulate Establish First ISO met Office Standard
  28. 28. Standardization, Accreditation & Certification NETWORK More than 150 Standards bodies- including PakistanTech Standards Trade/Commercial Stake-holders through members PK-Govt PNAC BSI, SAC, DIN, JISC, SAS PSQCA O, ANSI & PSQCA
  29. 29. Political nationalism will most probably prevail for as long as we live. Economic nationalism is about to disappear. And technical nationalism has disappeared!Olle Sturen, ISO Secretary General (1969)
  30. 30. Economic Benefits
  31. 31. Access to Global Market• “Standards give us access to global markets. Because of this we are not only active in standardization at European level but also internationally. For us, products that conform to standards are passports to other countries.”• Karl Dungs, Managing Director, DUNGS Combustion Controls•
  32. 32. Innovation Management“For us, standards are door-openers insuccessfully establishing technologies andinnovations on the market.”Karl Dungs, DUNGS Combustion Controls
  33. 33. Cost Reduction “We can work at minimum cost when we usestandard parts and place them on the worldmarket because the quality level does not haveto be checked again.”Klaus Kuonath, Corporate StandardsOfficer, Daimler AG
  34. 34. Safety & Sustainability• Standards help users be "on the safe side" legally as well.• “The high level of traffic safety in Germany achieved today is due to the extremely comprehensive standards work at national, European and international level.”
  35. 35. Extract from international studies• Preventing information asymmetry• Allowing and encouraging innovation• Creating economies of scale• Allowing network externalities• Reducing transaction cost• Public safety
  36. 36. National Laws and Regulations National Standard developmentIndustry Experts National Standard bodies Adoption of International Standards