"Science demands from aman all his life. If youhad two lives that wouldnot be enough for you.Be passionate in yourwork and in yoursearching." - Ivan Pavlov
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov Born: September 14, 1849 (at Ryazan,Russia) Died: February 27, 1936 (Leningrad, nowcalled St. Petersburg, Russia ) Son of a priest, Peter Dmitrievich Pavlov 9 or 10 years old: suffered from a healthproblem and delayed his formal education 11 years old: entered the second grade ofa church school 1864: studied at Theological Seminary ofRyazan, a school for training priestshttp://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1904/pavlov-bio.html/http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/pavlov.htm
1870: entered the University of St.Petersburg (Leningrad), Russia tostudy on animal physiology as hismajor and chemistry as his minor 1881: worked as a laboratory assistant fortwo years at Military MedicalAcademy: Pavlov married SerafimaKarchevskaishttp://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1904/pavlov-bio.html/http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/pavlov.htm
1890: selected as chairman ofpharmacology at the academy 1891: became director of the Departmentof Physiology of the Institute ofExperimental Medicine 1895-1925: became the chairman ofphysiology at the academy 1904: awarded the Nobel Prize inPhysiologyhttp://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1904/pavlov-bio.html/http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/pavlov.htm
• Classical conditioning : process by which astimulus comes to provoke a responsethat was initially caused by anotherstimulus.• Pavlov’s theories focused on observablebehaviour.• Pavlov studied reflexes – the automaticbehavior
• Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) would bringto unconditioned response (UCR)– Eg : Dog sees meat (UCS) Salivation(UCR)• Pavlov associate the unconditionedstimulus with a new (conditioned) stimulus(CS) = bring same response.– Eg : Dog sees meat (UCS) + Ring of bell (CS)Salivation (UCR)Source : http://www.simplypsychology.org/pavlov.html
Basic Processes in ClassicalConditioning1. Acquisition : Forming new responses– Learning a response to a stimulus1. Extinction– Gradual disappearance of a CR– Caused by the consistent presentation of theCS without the UCSSource : Learner and Learning Environment by Mok Soon Sang
3. Spontaneous Recovery– Reappearance of a CR after a period withoutthe CS4. Stimulus Generalization– CR in response to stimuli that are similar butnot the same as CS
5. Stimulus Discrimination– Contrast with stimulus generalization.– Will take place when the new stimulus is quitesimilar with the original conditioned stimulus.6. Higher-Order Conditioning– New conditioned response– CS functions as UCS.
Conditioning response can be adoptedthrough the process of teachinglearning process:beforeduringafterEnglish Teacher (UCS)teaching in the class forthe first timeStudents’ attention (UCR)towards the teachingactivities onlyStudents pay attention toteacher’s teaching (CR)Students pay attention tothe teacher’s teaching(CR)Teacher (CS) teaching inan interesting manner andmethodTeacher’s presence (CS)
Pavlov’s Conditioning Learning Model wasoriginally used in the field of psychologyand later applied in behavioural learning It also can be used in mathematicalprinciples and laws through the process ofhigher-order conditioning The educator should relate practicalexperience (CS) with the learning task(UCS) in order to produce satisfactoryconditioned learning response.
Guide students to apply skill to makeaccurate generalisation by using variousrelated examples. Guide students to use their skill to makediscrimination (differentiate the shape) Assign enough exercises for students tostrengthen the application of CS and CR Use secondary reinforcement to sustainCR to avoid process of extinction
Help students to restore their memory byhaving enough resting time until allexisting interferences in learning havebeen removed
background Name - Burrhus Frederic Skinner Born -March 20, 1904Susquehanna, Pennsylvania, UnitedStates Died - August 18, 1990 (aged 86)Massachusetts, United States Nationality- American Fields- Psychology, linguistics, philosophy Institutions- University of MinnesotaIndiana UniversityHarvard University
Alma mater- Hamilton CollegeHarvard University Known for -Behaviour analysisOperant conditioningRadical behaviourismVerbal BehaviourOperant conditioning chamber Influences-Charles DarwinIvan PavlovErnst MachJacques LoebEdwardThorndikeWilliam JamesJean-Jacques Rousseau Notable awards- National Medal of Science (1968) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B._F._Skinner
Implication towards teaching andlearning A newly learned skill ought to be givencontinuous reinforcement, followed byintermittent reinforcement so that this skill canbe strengthen. The use of positive reinforcement which givepleasant result is more effective than negativereinforcement. Guide people to master the concept ofdiscrimination so that they will acquireknowledge accurately.
John Broadus Watson
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_B._WatsonJohn B. WatsonBorn January 9, 1878, South CarolinaDied September 25, 1958 (aged 80)New York City, NYOccupation Psychologist, Advertising executiveKnown for Founding Behaviorism
Time Line1899 ~ Watson graduated from Furman University.1901 ~ He majored in psychology and minored inphilosophy and neurology at the University of Chicago.1907 ~ He was hired as an associate professor ofpsychology at John Hopkins University. It was at JHU thathe became known as the Founder of Behaviorism.1914 ~ He published Behavior: An Introduction toComparative Psychology.1920 ~ He published the "Little Albert" Experiment.http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/watson.htm
The Little Albert Experiment
1. A white mouse was brought to Little Albertwhom he showed interest to play with it.2. The white mouse was shown at the second timeand a loud sound was emitted from the back.3. It cause him to be afraid and Little Albert burstinto tears.4. He repeated the action 7 times over 7 weekswith other stimuli.5. When the white mouse appeared, Little Albertresponded with fear.Mok Soon Sang, Learner and LearningEnvironment.
CONCLUSION• Watson had shown that classical conditioningcould be used to create a phobia.• A phobia is an irrational fear-a fear that is out ofproportion to the danger.• Watson believed that a response could bepredicted when the stimulus given.http://mennta.hi.is/starfsfolk/solrunb/behavio.htm
IMPLICATIONS• All types of behaviour can be learned throughthe learning process.• Teacher should use suitable stimulus tomotivate pupils in learning.• Avoid using stimulus which will producenegative effect.Mok Soon Sang, Learner and LearningEnvironment.
REFERENCES• Wikipedia. (2010). John B. Watson. Retrieved onJuly 7, 2012 fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_B._Watson• Emily Watson. (1999). John B. Watson. Retrieved onJuly 7, 2012 fromhttp://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/watson.htm• Mok Soon Sang. (2008). Learner and LearningEnvironment. Selangor: Penerbitan MultimediaSDN. BHD.• Saul McLeod. (2008). Classical Conditioning.Retrieved on July 7, 2012 fromhttp://mennta.hi.is/starfsfolk/solrunb/behavio.htm