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 Principles of Accounting/ Financial and Managerial Accounting Chapter 10
 

Principles of Accounting/ Financial and Managerial Accounting Chapter 10

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     Principles of Accounting/ Financial and Managerial Accounting Chapter 10 Principles of Accounting/ Financial and Managerial Accounting Chapter 10 Presentation Transcript

    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-1 LIABILITIES Chapter 10
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-2 I.O.U. Defined as debts or obligations arising from past transactions or events. Defined as debts or obligations arising from past transactions or events. Maturity = 1 year or less Maturity > 1 year Current Liabilities Noncurrent Liabilities The Nature of LiabilitiesThe Nature of Liabilities
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-3 The acquisition of assets is financed from two sources: Funds from creditors, with a definite due date, and sometimes bearing interest. Funds from owners DEBTDEBT EQUITYEQUITY Distinction Between Debt and Equity Distinction Between Debt and Equity
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-4 Devon Mfg. borrows $100,000 from First Bank. The loan will be repaid in 20 years and has an annual interest rate of 8%. Is this a current liability or a noncurrent liability? Devon Mfg. borrows $100,000 from First Bank. The loan will be repaid in 20 years and has an annual interest rate of 8%. Is this a current liability or a noncurrent liability? Liabilities – QuestionLiabilities – Question The obligation will not be paid within one year or one operating cycle, so it is a noncurrent liability. The obligation will not be paid within one year or one operating cycle, so it is a noncurrent liability.
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-5 Current Ratio = Current Assets ÷ Current Liabilities Working Capital = Current Assets - Current Liabilities An important indicator of a company’s ability to meet its current obligations. Two commonly used measures: An important indicator of a company’s ability to meet its current obligations. Two commonly used measures: Evaluating LiquidityEvaluating Liquidity
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-6 Devon Mfg. has current liabilities of $230,000 and current assets of $322,000. What is Devon’s current ratio?What is Devon’s current ratio? Devon Mfg. has current liabilities of $230,000 and current assets of $322,000. What is Devon’s current ratio?What is Devon’s current ratio? Liabilities – QuestionLiabilities – Question
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-7 Short-term obligations to suppliers for purchases of merchandise and to others for goods and services. Short-term obligations to suppliers for purchases of merchandise and to others for goods and services. Merchandise inventory invoices Merchandise inventory invoices Shipping charges Shipping charges Utility and phone bills Utility and phone bills Office supplies invoices Office supplies invoices Accounts PayableAccounts Payable
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-8 Total Notes Payable Current Notes Payable Noncurrent Notes Payable When a company borrows money, a note payable is created. Current Portion of Notes Payable The portion of a note payable that is due within one year, or one operating cycle, whichever is longer. When a company borrows money, a note payable is created. Current Portion of Notes Payable The portion of a note payable that is due within one year, or one operating cycle, whichever is longer. Notes PayableNotes Payable
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-9 PROMISSORY NOTE Location Date after this date promises to pay to the order of the sum of with interest at the rate of per annum. signed title Miami, Fl Nov. 1, 2003 Six months Porter Company John Caldwell Security National Bank $10,000.00 12.0% treasurer Notes PayableNotes Payable
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-10 On November 1, 2003, Porter Company would make the following entry. Notes PayableNotes Payable
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-11 Interest expense is the compensation to the lender for giving up the use of money for a period of time. The liability is called interest payable. To the lender, interest is a revenue. To the borrower, interest is an expense.. Interest expense is the compensation to the lender for giving up the use of money for a period of time. The liability is called interest payable. To the lender, interest is a revenue. To the borrower, interest is an expense.. Interest Rate Up! Interest PayableInterest Payable
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-12 The interest formula includes three variables that must be considered when computing interest: The interest formula includes three variables that must be considered when computing interest: Interest = Principal × Interest Rate × Time When computing interest for one year, “Time” equals 1. When the computation period is less than one year, then “Time” is a fraction. When computing interest for one year, “Time” equals 1. When the computation period is less than one year, then “Time” is a fraction. Interest PayableInterest Payable For example, if we needed to compute interest for 3 months, “Time” would be 3/12. For example, if we needed to compute interest for 3 months, “Time” would be 3/12.
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-13 What entry would Porter Company make on December 31, the fiscal year-end? What entry would Porter Company make on December 31, the fiscal year-end? Interest Payable – ExampleInterest Payable – Example $10,000 × 12% × 2 /12 = $200$10,000 × 12% × 2 /12 = $200
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-14 Net Pay Payroll LiabilitiesPayroll Liabilities Medicare Taxes State and Local Income Taxes FICA Taxes Federal Income Tax Voluntary Deductions Gross Pay
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-15 Deferred revenue is recorded. a liability account.a liability account. Cash is received in advance. Cash is sometimes collected from the customer before the revenue is actually earned. Cash is sometimes collected from the customer before the revenue is actually earned. Unearned RevenueUnearned Revenue Earned revenue is recorded. As the earnings process is completed . .
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-16 Relatively small debt needs can be filled from single sources. Relatively small debt needs can be filled from single sources. Banks Insurance Companies Pension Plans oror oror Long-Term DebtLong-Term Debt
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-17 Large debt needs are often filled by issuing bonds. Large debt needs are often filled by issuing bonds. Long-Term DebtLong-Term Debt
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-18 Long-term notes that call for a series of installment payments. Long-term notes that call for a series of installment payments. Each payment covers interest for the period AND a portion of the principal. Each payment covers interest for the period AND a portion of the principal. With each payment, the interest portion gets smaller and the principal portion gets larger. With each payment, the interest portion gets smaller and the principal portion gets larger. Installment Notes PayableInstallment Notes Payable
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-19 Identify the unpaid principal balance. Unpaid Principal × Interest rate = Interest expense. Installment payment - Interest expense = Reduction in unpaid principal balance. Compute new unpaid principal balance. Identify the unpaid principal balance. Unpaid Principal × Interest rate = Interest expense. Installment payment - Interest expense = Reduction in unpaid principal balance. Compute new unpaid principal balance. Allocating Installment Payments Between Interest and Principal Allocating Installment Payments Between Interest and Principal
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-20 On January 1, 2003, Rocket Corp. borrowed $7,581.57 from First Bank of River City. The loan was a five-year loan and had an interest rate of 10%. The annual payment is $2,000. Prepare an amortization table for Rocket Corp.’s loan. On January 1, 2003, Rocket Corp. borrowed $7,581.57 from First Bank of River City. The loan was a five-year loan and had an interest rate of 10%. The annual payment is $2,000. Prepare an amortization table for Rocket Corp.’s loan. Allocating Installment Payments Between Interest and Principal Allocating Installment Payments Between Interest and Principal
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-21 Now, prepare the entry for the first payment on December 31, 2003. Now, prepare the entry for the first payment on December 31, 2003. Allocating Installment Payments Between Interest and Principal Allocating Installment Payments Between Interest and Principal
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-22 The information needed for the journal entry can be found on the amortization table. The payment amount, the interest expense, and the amount to credit to principal are all on the table. The information needed for the journal entry can be found on the amortization table. The payment amount, the interest expense, and the amount to credit to principal are all on the table. Allocating Installment Payments Between Interest and Principal Allocating Installment Payments Between Interest and Principal
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-23 Bonds usually involve the borrowing of a large sum of money, called principal. The principal is usually paid back as a lump sum at the end of the bond period. Individual bonds are often denominated with a par value, or face value, of $1,000. Bonds usually involve the borrowing of a large sum of money, called principal. The principal is usually paid back as a lump sum at the end of the bond period. Individual bonds are often denominated with a par value, or face value, of $1,000. Bonds PayableBonds Payable
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-24 Bonds usually carry a stated rate of interest, also called a contract rate. Interest is normally paid semiannually. Interest is computed as: Interest = Principal × Stated Rate × TimeInterest = Principal × Stated Rate × Time Bonds PayableBonds Payable
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-25 Bonds are issued through an intermediary called an underwriter. Bonds can be sold on organized securities exchanges. Bond prices are usually quoted as a percentage of the face amount.  For example, a $1,000 bond priced at 102 would sell for $1,020. Bonds are issued through an intermediary called an underwriter. Bonds can be sold on organized securities exchanges. Bond prices are usually quoted as a percentage of the face amount.  For example, a $1,000 bond priced at 102 would sell for $1,020. Bonds PayableBonds Payable
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-26 Mortgage Bonds Mortgage Bonds Convertible Bonds Convertible Bonds Junk BondsJunk Bonds Debenture Bonds Debenture Bonds Types of BondsTypes of Bonds
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-27 On January 1, 2003, Rocket Corp. issues $1,500,000 of 12%, 10-year bonds payable. Interest is payable semiannually, each July 1 and January 1. Assume the bonds are issued at face value. Record the issuance of the bonds. On January 1, 2003, Rocket Corp. issues $1,500,000 of 12%, 10-year bonds payable. Interest is payable semiannually, each July 1 and January 1. Assume the bonds are issued at face value. Record the issuance of the bonds. Accounting for Bonds PayableAccounting for Bonds Payable
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-28 Record the interest payment on July 1, 2003. Record the interest payment on July 1, 2003. Accounting for Bonds PayableAccounting for Bonds Payable
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-29 Bonds Sold Between Interest DatesBonds Sold Between Interest Dates Bonds are often sold between interest dates. The selling price of the bond is computed as: Bonds are often sold between interest dates. The selling price of the bond is computed as:
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-30 Present Value Present Value The Concept of Present ValueThe Concept of Present Value Future Value Future Value $1,000 invested today at 10%. In 5 years it will be worth $1,610.51. In 25 years it will be worth $10,834.71! Money can grow over time, because it can earn interest.
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-31 How much is a future amount worth today?How much is a future amount worth today? Present Value Future Value Interest compounding periods Today The Concept of Present ValueThe Concept of Present Value How much is a future amount worth today? Three pieces of information must be known to solve a present value problem: The future amount. The interest rate (i). The number of periods (n) the amount will be invested. How much is a future amount worth today? Three pieces of information must be known to solve a present value problem: The future amount. The interest rate (i). The number of periods (n) the amount will be invested.
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-32 Two types of cash flows are involved with bonds: Today Principal payment at maturity. Periodic interest payments called annuities. Maturity The Concept of Present ValueThe Concept of Present Value
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-33 The Present Value Concept and Bond Prices The Present Value Concept and Bond Prices The selling price of the bond is determined by the market based on the time value of money. = > < > < =
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-34 Gains or losses incurred as a result of retiring bonds should be reported as extraordinary items on the income statement. Gains or losses incurred as a result of retiring bonds should be reported as extraordinary items on the income statement. E x e r c i s i n g a c a l l p r o v i s i o n . P u r c h a s i n g t h e b o n d s o n t h e o p e n m a r k e t . B o n d s c a n b e r e t i r e d b y . . . Early Retirement of DebtEarly Retirement of Debt
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-35 Lease agreement transfers risks and benefits associated with ownership to lessee. Lease agreement transfers risks and benefits associated with ownership to lessee. Lessee records a leased asset and lease liability. Lessee records a leased asset and lease liability. Lessor retains risks and benefits associated with ownership. Lessor retains risks and benefits associated with ownership. Lessee records rent expense as incurred. Lessee records rent expense as incurred. Lease Payment ObligationsLease Payment Obligations Operating LeasesOperating Leases Capital LeasesCapital Leases
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-36 T h e l e a s e t r a n s f e r s o w n e r s h i p t o t h e l e s s e e . T h e l e a s e c o n t a i n s a b a r g a i n p u r c h a s e o p t i o n . T h e l e a s e t e r m i s e q u a l t o o r > 7 5 % o f t h e e c o n o m i c l i f e o f t h e p r o p e r t y . T h e P V o f t h e m i n i m u m l e a s e p a y m e n t s = 9 0 % o f t h e F M V o f t h e p r o p e r t y . A l e a s e m u s t b e r e c o r d e d a s a C a p i t a l L e a s e i f i t m e e t s a n y o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a . Capital Lease CriteriaCapital Lease Criteria
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-37 Employers offer pension plans to employees. Employers offer pension plans to employees. Retirees receive pension payments from the pension fund. Retirees receive pension payments from the pension fund. The employer makes payments to a pension fund. Usually, this is an independent entity managed by a professional fund manager. The employer makes payments to a pension fund. Usually, this is an independent entity managed by a professional fund manager. PensionsPensions
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-38 Actuaries make the pension expense computations, based on: Average age, retirement age, life expectancy. Employee turnover rates. Compensation levels. Expected rate of return for the fund. Actuaries make the pension expense computations, based on: Average age, retirement age, life expectancy. Employee turnover rates. Compensation levels. Expected rate of return for the fund. The accountant then posts the entry to record pension expense and pension liability. The accountant then posts the entry to record pension expense and pension liability. PensionsPensions
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-39 Many companies offer benefits to retirees other than pensions, such as health coverage or fitness club memberships. Many companies offer benefits to retirees other than pensions, such as health coverage or fitness club memberships. Other Postretirement BenefitsOther Postretirement Benefits Unfunded liability for nonpension postretirement benefits Current liability Long-term liability Amount to be funded next year Remainder of unfunded amount
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-40 Corporations pay income taxes quarterly. Deferred Income TaxesDeferred Income Taxes
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-41 The difference between tax expense and tax payable is recorded in an account called deferred taxes. The difference between tax expense and tax payable is recorded in an account called deferred taxes. The Internal Revenue Code is the set of rules for preparing tax returns. The Internal Revenue Code is the set of rules for preparing tax returns. Financial statement income tax expense. Financial statement income tax expense. IRS income taxes payable. IRS income taxes payable. GAAP is the set of rules for preparing financial statements. GAAP is the set of rules for preparing financial statements. Results in . . . Results in . . .Usually. . . Deferred Income TaxesDeferred Income Taxes
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-42 Examine the December 31, 2003, information for X-Off Inc. X-Off uses straight-line depreciation for financial reporting and accelerated depreciation for income tax reporting. X-Off’s tax rate is 30%. Deferred Income Taxes – ExampleDeferred Income Taxes – Example
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-43 Income Tax Statement Return Difference Revenues 1,000,000$ Less: Depreciation 200,000 Other expenses 650,000 Income before taxes 150,000$ × Tax rate 30% Income taxes 45,000$ The income tax amount computed based on financial statement income is income tax expense for the period. The income tax amount computed based on financial statement income is income tax expense for the period. Compute X-Off’s income tax expense and income tax payable. Deferred Income Taxes – ExampleDeferred Income Taxes – Example
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-44 Compute X-Off’s income tax expense and income tax payable. Income Tax Statement Return Difference Revenues 1,000,000$ 1,000,000$ Less: Depreciation 200,000 320,000 Other expenses 650,000 650,000 Income before taxes 150,000$ 30,000$ × Tax rate 30% 30% Income taxes 45,000$ 9,000$ Income taxes based on tax return income are the taxes payable for the period. Income taxes based on tax return income are the taxes payable for the period. Deferred Income Taxes – ExampleDeferred Income Taxes – Example
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-45 Income Tax Statement Return Difference Revenues 1,000,000$ 1,000,000$ -$ Less: Depreciation 200,000 320,000 (120,000) Other expenses 650,000 650,000 - Income before taxes 150,000$ 30,000$ 120,000$ × Tax rate 30% 30% 30% Income taxes 45,000$ 9,000$ 36,000$ The deferred tax for the period of $36,000 is the difference between income tax expense of $45,000 and income tax payable of $9,000. The deferred tax for the period of $36,000 is the difference between income tax expense of $45,000 and income tax payable of $9,000. Deferred Income Taxes – ExampleDeferred Income Taxes – Example
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-46 Borrowing at one rate and investing at a higher rate. If we borrow $1,000,000 at 8% and invest it at 10%, we will clear $20,000 profit! Financial LeverageFinancial Leverage
    • © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 0-47 Are we having fun yet? End of Chapter 10End of Chapter 10