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Organizational behaviour chapter 16 Stephen P. Robins

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    • 1. Chapter SIXTEEN Foundations of Organizational Structure © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 2. What Is Organizational Structure? What Is Organizational Structure? Organizational Structure How job tasks are formally divided, grouped, and coordinated. Key Elements: Key Elements: • • Work specialization Work specialization • • Departmentalization Departmentalization • • Chain of command Chain of command • • Span of control Span of control • • Centralization and Centralization and decentralization decentralization © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. • • Formalization Formalization
    • 3. Key Design Questions and Answers for Designing the Key Design Questions and Answers for Designing the Proper Organization Structure Proper Organization Structure The Key Question The Answer Is Provided By 1. To what degree are articles subdivided into separate jobs? Work specialization 2. On what basis will jobs be grouped together? Departmentalization 3. To whom do individuals and groups report? Chain of command 4. How many individuals can a manager efficiently and effectively direct? Span of control 5. Where does decision-making authority lie? Centralization and decentralization 6. To what degree will there be rules and regulations to direct employees © and managers? Hall 2007 Prentice Formalization Inc. All rights reserved. E X H I B I T 16–1 E X H I B I T 16–1
    • 4. What Is Organizational Structure? (cont’d) What Is Organizational Structure? (cont’d) Work Specialization The degree to which tasks in the organization are subdivided into separate jobs. Division of labor: Division of labor: • • Makes efficient use of employee skills Makes efficient use of employee skills • • Increases employee skills through repetition Increases employee skills through repetition • • Less between-job downtime increases productivity Less between-job downtime increases productivity • • Specialized training is more efficient Specialized training is more efficient • • Allows use of specialized equipment Allows use of specialized equipment © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 5. Economies and Diseconomies of Work Economies and Diseconomies of Work Specialization Specialization © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. E X H I B I T 16–2 E X H I B I T 16–2
    • 6. What Is Organizational Structure? (cont’d) What Is Organizational Structure? (cont’d) Departmentalization The basis by which jobs are grouped together. Grouping Activities By: Grouping Activities By: •• Function Function •• Product Product •• Geography Geography •• Process Process •• Customer Customer © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 7. What Is Organizational Structure? (cont’d) What Is Organizational Structure? (cont’d) Authority The rights inherent in a managerial position to give orders and to expect the orders to be obeyed. Chain of Command The unbroken line of authority that extends from the top of the organization to the lowest echelon and clarifies who reports to whom. Unity of Command A subordinate should have only one superior to whom he or Prentice Hall © 2007 she is directly responsible. Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 8. What Is Organizational Structure? (cont’d) What Is Organizational Structure? (cont’d) Span of Control The number of subordinates a manager can efficiently and effectively direct. Concept: Concept: Wider spans of management increase organizational Wider spans of management increase organizational efficiency. efficiency. Narrow Span Drawbacks: Narrow Span Drawbacks: • •Expense of additional layers of management. Expense of additional layers of management. • •Increased complexity of vertical communication. Increased complexity of vertical communication. • •Encouragement of overly tight supervision and Encouragement of overly tight supervision and discouragement of employee autonomy. discouragement © 2007 Prentice Hall of employee autonomy. Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 9. Contrasting Spans of Control Contrasting Spans of Control © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. E X H I B I T 16–3 E X H I B I T 16–3
    • 10. What Is Organizational Structure? (cont’d) What Is Organizational Structure? (cont’d) Centralization The degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point in the organization. Decentralization The degree to which decision making is spread throughout the organization. Formalization The degree to which jobs within the organization are standardized. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 11. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Source: S. Adams, Dogbert’s Big Book of Business, DILBERT reprinted by permission of United Features Syndicate, Inc. E X H I B I T 16–4 E X H I B I T 16–4
    • 12. Common Organization Designs Common Organization Designs Simple Structure A structure characterized by a low degree of departmentalization, wide spans of control, authority centralized in a single person, and little formalization. A Simple Structure: A Simple Structure: Jack Gold’s Men’s Store Jack Gold’s Men’s Store © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. E X H I B I T 16–5 E X H I B I T 16–5
    • 13. Common Organization Designs (cont’d) Common Organization Designs (cont’d) Bureaucracy A structure of highly operating routine tasks achieved through specialization, very formalized rules and regulations, tasks that are grouped into functional departments, centralized authority, narrow spans of control, and decision making that follows the chain of command. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 14. The Bureaucracy The Bureaucracy  Strengths – Functional economies of scale – Minimum duplication of personnel and equipment – Enhanced communication – Centralized decision making © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.  Weaknesses – Subunit conflicts with organizational goals – Obsessive concern with rules and regulations – Lack of employee discretion to deal with problems
    • 15. Common Organization Designs (cont’d) Common Organization Designs (cont’d) Matrix Structure A structure that creates dual lines of authority and combines functional and product departmentalization. Key Elements: Key Elements: + Gains the advantages of functional and product + Gains the advantages of functional and product departmentalization while avoiding their weaknesses. departmentalization while avoiding their weaknesses. + Facilitates coordination of complex and + Facilitates coordination of complex and interdependent activities. interdependent activities. – Breaks down unity-of-command concept. – Breaks down unity-of-command concept. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 16. Matrix Structure (College of Business Administration) Matrix Structure (College of Business Administration) (Director) (Dean) © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Employee E X H I B I T 16–6 E X H I B I T 16–6
    • 17. New Design Options New Design Options Team Structure The use of teams as the central device to coordinate work activities. Characteristics: Characteristics: • •Breaks down departmental barriers. Breaks down departmental barriers. • •Decentralizes decision making to the team level. Decentralizes decision making to the team level. • •Requires employees to be generalists as well as Requires employees to be generalists as well as specialists. specialists. • •Creates aa“flexible bureaucracy.” Creates “flexible bureaucracy.” © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 18. New Design Options (cont’d) New Design Options (cont’d) Virtual Organization A small, core organization that outsources its major business functions. Highly centralized with little or no departmentalization. Concepts: Concepts: Advantage: Provides maximum flexibility while Advantage: Provides maximum flexibility while concentrating on what the organization does best. concentrating on what the organization does best. Disadvantage: Reduced control over key parts of Disadvantage: Reduced control over key parts of the business. the business. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 19. A Virtual Organization A Virtual Organization © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. E X H I B I T 16–7 E X H I B I T 16–7
    • 20. New Design Options (cont’d) New Design Options (cont’d) Boundaryless Organization An organization that seeks to eliminate the chain of command, have limitless spans of control, and replace departments with empowered teams. T-form Concepts: T-form Concepts: Eliminate vertical (hierarchical) and horizontal Eliminate vertical (hierarchical) and horizontal (departmental) internal boundaries. (departmental) internal boundaries. Breakdown external barriers to customers and Breakdown external barriers to customers and suppliers. suppliers. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 21. Why Do Structures Differ? Why Do Structures Differ? Mechanistic Model A structure characterized by extensive departmentalization, high formalization, a limited information network, and centralization. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 22. Why Do Structures Differ? Why Do Structures Differ? Organic Model A structure that is flat, uses cross-hierarchical and cross-functional teams, has low formalization, possesses a comprehensive information network, and relies on participative decision making. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 23. Mechanistic Versus Organic Models Mechanistic Versus Organic Models © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. E X H I B I T 16–8 E X H I B I T 16–8
    • 24. Why Do Structures Differ? – Strategy Why Do Structures Differ? – Strategy Innovation Strategy A strategy that emphasizes the introduction of major new products and services. Cost-minimization Strategy A strategy that emphasizes tight cost controls, avoidance of unnecessary innovation or marketing expenses, and price cutting. Imitation Strategy A strategy that seeks to move into new products or new markets only after their viability has already been Prentice © 2007 proven. Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 25. The Strategy-Structure Relationship The Strategy-Structure Relationship Strategy Structural Option Innovation Organic: A loose structure; low specialization, low formalization, decentralized Cost minimization Mechanistic: Tight control; extensive work specialization, high formalization, high centralization Imitation Mechanistic and organic: Mix of loose with tight properties; tight controls over current activities and looser controls for new undertakings © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. E X H I B I T 16–9 E X H I B I T 16–9
    • 26. Why Do Structures Differ? – Size Why Do Structures Differ? – Size Size How the size of an organization affects its structure. As an organization grows larger, it becomes more mechanistic. Characteristics of large organizations: Characteristics of large organizations: • •More specialization More specialization • •More vertical levels More vertical levels • •More rules and regulations More rules and regulations © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 27. Why Do Structures Differ? – Technology Why Do Structures Differ? – Technology Technology How an organization transfers its inputs into outputs. Characteristics of routineness (standardized or Characteristics of routineness (standardized or customized) in activities: customized) in activities: • •Routine technologies are associated with tall, Routine technologies are associated with tall, departmentalized structures and formalization in departmentalized structures and formalization in organizations. organizations. • •Routine technologies lead to centralization when Routine technologies lead to centralization when formalization is low. formalization is low. • •Nonroutine technologies are associated with Nonroutine technologies are associated with delegated decision authority. delegated decision authority. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 28. Why Do Structures Differ? – Environment Why Do Structures Differ? – Environment Environment Institutions or forces outside the organization that potentially affect the organization’s performance. Key DimensionsKey Dimensions• • Capacity: the degree to which an environment can Capacity: the degree to which an environment can support growth. support growth. • • Volatility: the degree of instability in the environment. Volatility: the degree of instability in the environment. • • Complexity: the degree of heterogeneity and Complexity: the degree of heterogeneity and concentration among environmental elements. concentration among environmental elements. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 29. The Three Dimensional Model of the The Three Dimensional Model of the Environment Environment Volatility Capacity Complexity © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. E X H I B I T 16–10 E X H I B I T 16–10
    • 30. “Bureaucracy Is Dead” “Bureaucracy Is Dead”  Characteristics of Bureaucracies – Specialization – Formalization – Departmentalization – Centralization – Narrow spans of control – Adherence to a chain of command © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.  Why Bureaucracy Survives – Large size prevails – Environmental turbulence can be largely managed – Standardization achieved through hiring people who have undergone extensive educational training – Technology maintains control
    • 31. Organizational Designs and Employee Organizational Designs and Employee Behavior Behavior Research Findings: Research Findings: • • Work specialization contributes to higher employee Work specialization contributes to higher employee productivity, but it reduces job satisfaction. productivity, but it reduces job satisfaction. • • The benefits of specialization have decreased rapidly as The benefits of specialization have decreased rapidly as employees seek more intrinsically rewarding jobs. employees seek more intrinsically rewarding jobs. • • The effect of span of control on employee performance is The effect of span of control on employee performance is contingent upon individual differences and abilities, task contingent upon individual differences and abilities, task structures, and other organizational factors. structures, and other organizational factors. • • Participative decision making in decentralized Participative decision making in decentralized organizations is positively related to job satisfaction. organizations is positively related to job satisfaction. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 32. Organization Structure: Its Determinants and Organization Structure: Its Determinants and Outcomes Outcomes Associated with Implicit Models of Organizational Structure Perceptions that people hold regarding structural variables formed by observing things around them in an unscientific fashion. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. E X H I B I T 16–11 E X H I B I T 16–11
    • 33. Chapter Check-Up: Structure What kind of structure might someone who has a low tolerance for ambiguity feel most comfortable in? Bureaucratic Organic Matrix Virtual Discuss with your neighbor why a virtual organization would not make this same person feel comfortable. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 34. Chapter Check-Up: Structure If someone has a high need for affiliation, would a virtual organization be a good fit for him or her? Why or why not? Discuss with a classmate whether or not an organic organization would be a good fit for this same person. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 35. Chapter Check-Up: Structure With which type of structure do you think trust is most necessary? Why? Are the “substitutes for trust” that are potentially built into some structures? If so, which ones? © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.