Ortega et al. BMC Public Health 2010, 10:772 Page 2 of 10http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/10/772smoking in parents is associated with various adverse Health education messages from pediatric profes-effects on infant health: increased risk of sudden infant sionals are an excellent opportunity and, in general, aredeath syndrome , acute respiratory diseases, respira- well accepted by parents since they make reference totory symptoms, aggravation of symptoms in patients the health of their son or daughter. Brief interventions,with asthma, acute and chronic diseases in the middle according to the context and impact of the content, canear and slowed lung growth [6,7]. Passive smoking is the be just as effective as more intensive interventions .leading cause of preventable death in infancy in indus- Studies about this type of intervention have not beentrialized countries (third cause of preventable death in published in our country.adults). According to the International Agency for the It is important to conduct methodologically soundResearch on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Orga- studies with a more appropriate design (especially in thenization (WHO), second hand smoke is a type A carci- calculation of the sample size and monitoring) and eva-nogen . Furthermore, the WHO MPOWER report  luation through objective measure of results, such as theproposes suggestive evidence between environmental level of nicotine in hair.exposure to tobacco smoke and the following diseases:leukemia, lymphoma, brain tumors and asthma. It is Objectivesparticularly worrying in younger children because they The principle objective of the BIBE study is to deter-are dependent on adults and therefore cannot avoid mine the effectiveness of a brief intervention directed atexposure to tobacco smoke; moreover, their immune fathers and/or mothers that smoke in order to reducesystems are underdeveloped. ETS in babies, in the context of pediatric visits in pri- In Spain, the law on tobacco control measures (28/ mary care.2005) has led to notable progress in reducing ETS in The secondary objectives of the BIBE study arework places and in increasing the awareness of the to determine if this intervention produces changesdamage caused by ETS ; however, at the same time in the tobacco consumption of the parents and subse-this law has made the home one of the few places quently, to study the concordance between the subjec-where people can smoke . As an example of the tive measures of ETS and the objective measuresexceptions and contradictions of the Spanish law, in (questionnaire versus biological analysis of nicotine in“small” places of entertainment (less than 100 square hair).meters) such as bars and restaurants, the owners can The specific objective of this article is to describe thedecide whether or not to apply a smoke-free policy. Pre- protocol of the BIBE study.liminary estimates indicate that 90-95% of small estab-lishments have opted to allow smoking, furthermore, Methods/Designthe Spanish law permits the access of children who go Study designin the company of their parents . In Catalonia, var- Multi-centric, open cluster randomized field trial. Unitious interventions have been carried out to reinforce of randomization: Primary Care teams formed by asmoking cessation during pregnancy [13,14]. ETS has pediatrician and a pediatric nurse, both responsible forthe greatest effect on the health of children under the the same infant population.age of five, given that this group of individuals tends tospend the most time at home, making them the most Settingvulnerable to the effects of passive smoking [15-17]. Pediatric Primary Care consultations in Catalonia. All ofThere are few studies on measures to reduce ETS in the the basic health areas of Catalonia will be offered parti-home . Various studies have shown that the poten- cipation through the xarxa de centres sense fum (net-tial for tobacco pollution at home is more significant work of smoke free centers).than levels of atmospheric contamination. Nonetheless,up to 75% of mothers that smoke expose their newborns Study periodto smoke, and between 47-60% of their babies present The preparation and pilot test period: during 2008significant levels of urinary cotinine [19,20]. Data collection period: March-December 2009. The Interventions to reduce passive smoking have obtained period is not coincidental; the first recruitment visit isirregular results [21-26]. The Cochrane review  on in spring and the six-month control visit in the fall, inthe subject states that there is no sufficient evidence to order to compare the degree of exposure in a similar cli-support any one intervention’s effectiveness in reducing mate period.smoking habit in parents and the exposure in children.Various studies have established that the level of nicotine Study populationin hair is a good quantitative indicator to measure the The study subjects are babies under 18 months of age atenvironmental exposure of tobacco smoke [28-32]. the time of recruitment, with a mother and/or father
Ortega et al. BMC Public Health 2010, 10:772 Page 3 of 10http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/10/772 Centers invited to participate Centers declined to participate or did not respond Centers consented Professionals completed baseline assessments Randomized phase Control group: centers, professionals Intervention group: centers, professionals Information of study’s procedures Information of study’s procedures and specific formation on the intervention Recruitment phase Control group: 446 babies Intervention group: 446 babies Questionnaires Baseline Questionnaires Hair sample for nicotine analysis Hair sample for nicotine analysis Control group 3-month Intervention group Questionnaires assessment Questionnaires Control group 6-month Intervention group Questionnaires assessment Questionnaires Hair sample for nicotine analysis Hair sample for nicotine analysis Figure 1 Flow diagram of the BIBE study. Diagram and flow chart of the BIBE study.that is an active smoker and that attend a pediatric con- Sampling strategysultation (with the doctor or nurse) in Primary Care for During the two-month recruitment period, and untila check-up visit. Figure 1 shows the diagram flow of the obtaining the eight proposed cases in each team, all ofstudy. the mothers and/or fathers that visit with a baby under
Ortega et al. BMC Public Health 2010, 10:772 Page 4 of 10http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/10/772the age of 18 months will be asked whether or not they smoking habit, smoking behavior during pregnancy andare smokers. whether or not the baby was breastfed, behavior during breastfeeding. Finally, smoking behavior changes duringInclusion criteria the study.Babies under 18 months of age whose parents answer 3-The degree of exposure of the baby to ETS, withinaffirmatively to the question “Do you or your partner and outside of the home, will be based on the questionssmoke?” and who give their informed consent to partici- proposed by clinical practice guidelines [13,14,35,36].pate in the study. In order to measure the levels of biological nicotine in hair, a sample of the baby’s hair will be taken at the firstExclusion criteria (recruitment) visit and at the last (six-month) visit. A- Any pathology or condition that makes inclusion/fol- lock of hair will be cut from the root and once col-low-up difficult at three and six-months (at the profes- lected, will be placed on a card and put into an envel-sional’s criteria), for example parent or baby with an ope, which will be provided with the study materialsactive, acute disease, known addiction in the parents to (Additional files 1 and 2).other substances or foreseeable change in residency. For the secondary objective, change in smoking habit - Parent in smoking cessation process at the recruit- in the father and/or mother, expired carbon monoxidement phase of the study. will be measured in those that declare smoking absti- - Refusal of parents to participate in the study. nence during the study period. Cut off point: 10 ppm.Sample size Description of laboratory analysis techniqueBased on the data from the pilot study in 46 babies and Measuring nicotine in hair provides better informationusing the same analysis technique of nicotine in hair about average or long-term exposure to ETS as comparedused in the present study, a mean of 6.83 ng/mg and a to other biological markers such as cotinine in the urine,standard deviation of 8.88 ng/mg have been obtained. saliva or blood, which have a shorter retrospectivityAssuming a mean difference of 30% between the inter- [28-32,37]. As hair grows in average at a rate of one cen-vention group and the control group in nicotine in hair timetre per month, nicotine concentrations found in aat the end of the intervention, with an alpha value of segment of hair are related to the exposure during a per-0.05 and a power of 80%, 295 subjects are needed in iod of time depending on the distance from the root. It iseach group. If we assume a loss of 20%, the sample size a specific biological indicator, sensitive, stable over timeincreases to 708 (354 in each group). It is considered and temperature, not influenced by specific exposuresfeasible for each basic care unit to recruit eight babies prior to the analysis and easy to obtain [38,39]. The samein a period of two months. The estimates of the intra- IMIM team, with broad experience with the technique,cluster correlation coefficient in cluster randomized analyzed all the samples. The analytical procedure oftrials that evaluate the implementation of clinical prac- nicotine in hair utilizes ultra performance liquid chroma-tice guidelines using outcome variables in primary tography (UPLC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometryhealthcare are generally less than 0.05 . These intra- (MS/MS) using a triple quadrupole instrument. The haircluster correlation coefficients translate to a cluster size samples (several milligrams) are extensively washed withof eight in a design effect corresponding to a factor of dichloromethane to eliminate any superficial contamina-1.4. Therefore, the final simple size will be 992 babies tion. Then hair samples are dissolved in an alkaline (1 M(446 in each group). potassium hydroxide) solution. The nicotine released from the matrix of hair is extracted using dichloro-Data collection procedures methane and an aliquot directly analyzed chromatogra-There will be three visits with each baby included in the phically using an HILIC column. Detection by massstudy in both, control and intervention group: a visit at spectrometry: monitoring the transition between thethe start of the study (recruitment) and two follow-up pseudo molecular ion ([M+H]+ a m/z 163) and the frag-visits, at three and six months after the recruitment visit ment at m/z 117. The procedure uses a deuterated inter-(Figure 1). nal pattern D4-nicotine, which monitors the equal The father and/or mother will be asked to provide, transition (m/z 167– > 121). The established limit ofusing an electronic data collection system created for quantification is 0.5 ng (nanogram) of nicotine in thethe study, data regarding the following: sample (e.g. 0.05 ng/mg in 10 mg simple). 1-The baby: age, sex, breastfed/artificial milk, livingnucleus, medical history and clinical data for follow-up, Description of the intervention 2- The parents: age, sex, socio-demographic data, Once the teams have shown interest in collaborating insmoking status (yes or no). In smokers, data on the the study, the participating teams will be randomly
Ortega et al. BMC Public Health 2010, 10:772 Page 5 of 10http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/10/772assigned by clusters to the intervention or control Databasegroup, as specified in the methodology. The database will be obtained from medical records, There will be three visits (at the start of the study, at questionnaires (interviews or visits), biological hair sam-three and six months after inclusion in the study for ples from the babies in the first visit and from expiredeach baby included in the study (control and interven- carbon monoxide (CO) of parents that claim to havetion group). These visits will be used to collect neces- quit smoking.sary information. The teams included in the intervention group will be Follow-up periodgiven a two-hour specific training on passive smoking, The follow-up period is six months from the start of theepidemiology, morbimortality and how to intervene in intervention.the reduction of ETS. The proposed intervention is A visit will be conducted by the pediatrician/nurse atbased on interventions recommended in primary care three and six months after the start of the study. Theythat follow international and national clinical practice will register the parents’ tobacco habit and the level ofguidelines [13,35,36]. The intervention is based on coun- ETS exposure obtained by a questionnaire (at three andseling, cognitive theory and motivational interviewing. six months) and the nicotine in hair (at six months). Thus, this study is proposing a passive smoking inter-vention that has been adapted from an intervention that Statistical analysishas been shown to be effective in decreasing active Statisticians from the University of Girona’s Researchtobacco consumption in Primary Care. Group in Statistics, Applied Economics and Health The intervention aims to give parents that smoke brief (GRECS) will carry out the statistical analyses. Theseinformation that emphasizes the health benefits that statisticians will have an advisory role.reducing ETS can have on their children. The basic ele- The data will be incorporated into a database con-ments of the intervention include: structed using SPSS version 15.0. The descriptive ana- 1. Ask: whether or not there is a smoker that lives lyses, as well as the statistical hypothesis testing, willwith the baby. If the answer is affirmative, the baby’s also be conducted with this program. For subsequentlevel of exposure will be asked. modeling, the Free R software (version 11.0 or later) will 2. Assess knowledge: Information that the parents be used.have about the effect of passive smoking in infancy. All of the known potential confounding factors will be 3. Personalized information depending on the expo- measured at the beginning of the study, including thesure and the perceived risk. caretaker who smokes (and the stage of change), level of 4. Ask about suggestions to make changes: support education, marital status, breastfeeding and other mem-any efforts to modify exposure to ETS and discuss the bers of the household, overcrowding. Therefore, theproblems this entails. control and intervention group comparisons will be car- 5. Personalized help and advice according to exposure, ried out both adjusted and unadjusted for these knownbaby’s background, perceived risk and parents’ attitude confounders.towards making changes. This intervention will be rein- The simple treatment effect without adjusting theforced with educational leaflets about passive smoking rates, relative risks and the 95% confidence intervals willin infancy designed for the study (Additional file 3). be obtained in the first case, with a subsequent adjusted 6. Congratulate if the mother and/or father has quit multiple regression analysis for other variables. Twosmoking during the pregnancy and support-encourage forms of regression analysis will be taken into accountcontinued smoking cessation. for the primaries. 7. Support and encourage those that decide to quit Expected results: A Poisson regression analysis and asmoking or reduce tobacco consumption. negative binomial if there is evidence of over or under dis- The control group teams will conduct the three pro- persion. The analysis of the secondary results will be car-posed visits during the six-month follow-up period. ried out using standard statistical procedures applicable toAside from collecting the study variables, the control categorical or continuous data. An adjustment for protocolgroup will carry out the protocol’s habitual care for a analysis will also be conducted to verify the robustness ofhealthy child during the corresponding visits. In Catalo- the results. All tests of significance will be two-tailed. Fornia, these visits are officially scheduled and include a the treatment effects, sensitivity analyses will be conductedgeneric reference to avoid exposure to air polluted by to determine the effect of the missing data.cigarette smoke; however, there is no specific protocol The analysis will be done following the followingfor action. study phases:
Ortega et al. BMC Public Health 2010, 10:772 Page 6 of 10http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/10/772 1. Describe the effect in both groups: pilot test and the definitive study) will be analyzed by the same team at IMIM. Initially an analysis of baseline comparability will be Secondary results to obtain: carried out in relation with the study variables. The - Reduction or cessation of smoking habit in parents, following step will be to estimate the effect on the measured using a questionnaire about status of the smo- response variables without adjusting for other vari- ker/ex-smoker/non-smoker and using the Fagerström ables. To perform the above analyses, chi-squared Nicotine Dependence Test in those that smoke, as well tests will be used for qualitative variables and com- as the stage of change (pre-contemplation, contempla- parison of means for quantitative variables. tion, preparation, action, maintenance, finalization). In smokers that declare smoking abstinence, the amount of 2. To estimate the adjusted effect, a multivariate mul- carbon monoxide in expired air will be determinedtilevel model will be used. The dependent or principal (Smokerlyzer). Cut-off point: 10 ppm.variable is the child’s exposure using the measure of -Other variables using questionnaire/clinical records,nicotine in hair. The baby’s age and sex, as well as the including data related to:variables that have been shown to be statistically signifi- Type of professional that performs the intervention:cant, will be included in the bivariate analyses. The pediatrician, pediatric nurse or both.basic care unit and the individual will be the levels in The baby: age, sex, breastfeeding, medical history, liv-the multilevel analysis. ing nucleus. 3. Concordance between the filled questionnaire and The father and/or mother that attends the visit: age,the nicotine collected in the hair: a summary evaluation sex, marital status, socioeconomic situation.of the questionnaire on a discrete, quantitative scale Parents’ level of knowledge and their level of risk per-based on the data that is provided by the number of ception to exposure.smoking cohabitants, the number of cigarettes that theysmoke and the exposure time outside of the home. Pear- Quality controlson’s (or Spearman’s depending on the distribution) cor- Several procedures have been employed to ensure therelation coefficient will be calculated between the quality of the study data, maximizing the validity andestimate and the result obtained in the nicotine hair reliability of the data obtained and of the evaluation ofanalysis. The intraclass correlation coefficient will also the results: These are:be studied between both measures. Finally, both esti- -Written documentation: electronic and printed copiesmates will be dichotomized (questionnaire and nicotine of protocols, models and outlines of informed consentin hair analysis) into two categories (exposed/not stored together. All written documentation, includingexposed) and the Kappa coefficient between the two will the leaflets given to participants, have been createdbe calculated. according to a standard model and have been subject to In all cases a bilateral alpha error of 0.05 and a 95% the approval of local institutional ethics committees.confidence interval will be used. To complete the expli- -A pilot study has been conducted to reveal deficien-cit information, the comparison of means will be per- cies in the study design.formed using a Student’s t-test for parametric variables -An informational meeting will be held for both theand the U Mann-Whitney test for non-parametric intervention and control group to distribute documenta-variables. tion and to explain and materials. -Learning: All of the intervention group professionalsResults will receive the same two-hour workshop on passivePrimary results to obtain: smoking, attributable morbimortality and how to reduce Reduction of exposure to ETS measured at the begin- exposure to ETS.ning of the intervention (recruitment phase) and at six -Meetings will be held and regular emails will be sentmonths, using a questionnaire that includes information regularly between the members that lead the study andabout ETS history during pregnancy and breastfeeding, all of the participants from the centers.exposure to ETS within and outside of the home, familysmoking habits and measures used to avoid exposure. Ethical aspectsTo develop this questionnaire, questionnaires used in The study and its successive revisions are adapted to thesimilar studies have been adapted (varying some items, criteria of the Helsinki Declaration, as well as to thebased on the results of the pilot study). As an objective Guidelines to Good Clinical Practice. The protocol hasmeasurement of the exposure: biological levels of nico- been reviewed and approved by the CEIC” Clinicaltine in hair of babies. All of the hair samples (from the Research Ethics Committee” of the Jordi Gol and Gurina
Ortega et al. BMC Public Health 2010, 10:772 Page 7 of 10http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/10/772Foundation for the Promotion of Research in Primary As discussed in the introduction, increased exposure isCare (IDIAP Jordi Gol), with the number P08/50 “BIBE”. declared in places not included in the Spanish tobacco In regards to parents’ informed consent, the informa- law 28/2005. This justifies the need to define and pro-tion is provided verbally and written to all participants. mote a pediatric program in Primary Care that includesIndividuals in the study will have the opportunity to awareness interventions in the family environment, inresolve doubts about study details. The written consent places not included in the law (bars and cafes) or placesstates that the study follows the law contained in the that cannot be regulated because they belong to the pri-Helsinki Declaration and in Title I, Article 12 of the vate sphere (homes and cars), in order to achieve pro-Royal Spanish Decree 561/1993 from April 16th, 1993. cesses of change and protect infants. Data confidentiality: Participants will be informed that The BIBE study evaluates, in real conditions, andata will be treated with absolute confidentiality accord- intervention to reduce exposure to ETS that takesing to the organic law that regulates the confidentiality of advantage of pediatric visits. The intervention that iscomputerized data (Organic law 5/1992), and that data proposed in the BIBE study aims to impact the attitudewill be used exclusively for the objectives of the study. and knowledge of parents regarding ETS. Interventions Voluntary withdrawal: A mother or father can volun- in the form of advice, conducted by pediatric profes-tarily withdraw his or her baby from the project at any sionals, are an excellent opportunity for prevention andpoint without having to give an explanation. He or she protection of infants against the harmful effects ofalso has the right to ask that their personal data be ETS. In our country, health centers have almost uni-eliminated from the records at any point, as well as for versal coverage, including all social classes and situa-the results of their interviews. tions. In fact, if the study proves to be effective it would also be efficient, since the intervention uses theLimitations same professionals that are responsible for the routineThe following limitations have been taken into care of newborns.consideration: Based on the bibliography, more research in passive Professionals, rather than subjects (babies) will be ran- smoking that uses objective measures of evaluation isdomized. Although this reduces the variability of the necessary. Such research will generate evidence on thesample studied, it is necessary in order to minimize the information that we are interested in collecting in orderpossibility of contamination between groups. to learn children’s exposure to cigarette smoke. It will The intervention will be carried out only in parents also help to identify which intervention is effective inthat visit the centers that are being studied, thus exclud- reducing this exposure. This is what we aim to do ining a group of people that use other care services or the BIBE study.that do not attend scheduled appointments. This phe-nomenon is present in normal clinical conditions, and Additional materialthe research team wants to show utility and feasibility innormal conditions, such as the ones taken into consid- Additional file 1: Image 1. Cut a lock of the hair. Images showingeration in this design. how to cut a lock of baby’s hair. There could be a contamination effect in the control Additional file 2: Image 2. Sample of the baby’s hair to label and send. Image of a sample of baby’s hair that was used to analyze nicotinegroup due to the pre-test and the feeling of being concentration.observed during the study. Additional file 3: Image 3. Leaflet: Passive smoking: advice to Intervention to prevent exposure to ETS will be carried decrease exposure in babies. Image showing a leaflet in Catalan whichout on the person who attends to the primary care con- contains correct and incorrect advices for parents to reduce baby’s exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.sultation, therefore it can influence smoking status ornot. For instance, the response to the intervention to pre-vent ETS exposure to babies could be greater or lesseraccording to the smoking status of the person. To esti- Abbreviations BIBE: Brief Intervention in babies. Effectiveness; PS: Passive smoking; ETS:mate the possible effect of this phenomenon we will col- Environmental tobacco smoke.lect the status of tobacco consumption of the caretakeras well as of the other persons living with the child. Acknowledgements The study was awarded a grant (CNPT0701) by the National Committee for the Prevention of Tobacco (CNPT), which enabled the pilot study in nineDiscussion centers, as well as the preparation, design and graphic editing of theExposure to ETS is an avoidable factor related to infant definitive study materials. The analysis of nicotine in hair in the 46 babies in the pilot study and themorbimortality. Interventions to reduce exposure to intervention group reinforcement leaflet were financed by the GeneralETS in babies are potentially beneficial for their health. Directorate of Public Health, Generalitat de Catalunya.
Ortega et al. BMC Public Health 2010, 10:772 Page 8 of 10http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/10/772The study has also been awarded a publication grant for the protocol by Porto Turiel, Ma Angels Beneitez, Lázaro, Mónica de Luna Navarro, Mathe Barcelona’s Unit of Research Support for Primary Care of the IDIAP Jordi Asunción Gotzens Busquet, Esther Moral Ramirez, Eulàlia Planas Sanz,Gol. Elisabeth Reverter Garcia, Verónica Villarejo Romero, M. Àngels ChicanoThe study has also received the support from the Primary Care Foundation Picornell, Elena Borlan Agüero, M. Luisa de Pablo Pons, Silvia Lópezof CAMFic and IDIAP Jordi Gol. Merchena, Dolors Canadell Villaret, Núria Vilardebò Lucas, Sílvia Fuster Alay,The authors thanks: Sandra Silva Ortega, Montserrat Pasarisas Sala, Aurora Lombó Vega, M.All members of the Primary Care Sin Humo (Smoke-Free) program that Lourdes Sans Estrada, Andrea Finestres Parra, Mireia Sierra Alegret, Rosacollaborated in the diffusion of the project in their Primary Care centers. Maria Casademont Pou, Ma Esther Martínez García, Ivan Martí Garcia, AlíciaThe scientific comments of Neus Altet and Jesus Almeda in the previous Portella Serra, Rosa Minguell Cos, Carmen Serrano Barahona, Ma Isabelversion of the manuscript. Jiménez García, Marta Franquesa Ibáñez, Montserrat Lloveras Viñals,The help received from the linguistic service of the Department of Health, Montserrat Sánchez Bonet, Lucila Caridad Davidovich, Maria MercedesGeneralitat de Catalunya, especially Elena and Cristina for the correction of Roqueta del Riego, Araceli García García, Marta de Quixano Burgos, Mathe materials and their contributions. Carmen Ruiz Salido, Sara Rosell Salas, Francisca Peidró Martín, Cristina VivasThe management of the nine health centers that participated in the pilot Brau, M° Eugenia Sanchez López, Cristina Bonaventura Sans, Alicia Gámizstudy: ABS Badalona-Montigalà; ABS Badalona-Martí i Julià; ABS Badalona- Gala, Ma del Pilar Cortés Viana, Consol Méndez Vallejos, Maria Castells Icart,Morera; ABS Badalona-Nova Lloreda; ABS Banyoles; ABS Montgat-Tiana; ABS Maria Pilar Olba Ros, Ma Teresa Garcia Fructuoso, Inmaculada Farré Ortega,L’Hospitalet-Florida; ABS Cornellà-St. Idelfons and ABS Vila-Seca. Anna Guimet Villalba, Núria Baraza Ramos, Ana Ma Embid García, MeritxellThe IDIAP Jordi Gol, for financing the translation of the study protocol. Aivar Blanch, Rosa Maria Garcia Andrade, José Enrique Andrés Roldán, MilsaElisa Puigdomènech from the Grup de Recerca en Estils de Vida de la IDIAP Josefa Cobas Selva, Blanca Inmaculada Macías Cajal, Marta Vicente Rodríguez,Jordi Gol for the collaboration on the last versions of the manuscript and its Sílvia Díaz Arcos, Claudia Pérez Gotarda, Josep Antonio Serrano Marchuetsubmission to the journal Zeki, Babà Moadem Montserrat, Alsina Freixa Rosa, Maria Pérez Polo,We also thank all the participants of the BIBE group: Elisabeth Celemin Garriga, Ma Gemma Baulies Romero, Maria MercedesBIBE Project Investigators: Gámez González, Mireia Gallardo Díaz, Marta Pujol Armengol, Núria BartrésAlt Pirineu i Aran: Antonia Parra de la Cruz Ester Prat i Gallart Elena Alcover Canet, Verónica Ferrer Valls, Mercedes Pérez Vera, Ma Remedios MontesBloch. Velayos, Lucia Mónica Cano, López Ma del Carmen Muñoz Duque, Eva MonLleida: Ma Dolores Martínez Gracia, Rosa Gloria Jove Dolcet, Yolanda Pascual López, Maria Amparo Fernández Feijoo, Antonio Gomez Navarro, Eva MaríaArrazola, Laura Lanaspa Serrano, M. Jesús Fernández Galán, Maria Adelina Pacheco Navas, Aurora López Galán, Anna Rosa Casado Sivera, JosefinaAlbana Mola, Mercè Lozano Vergara, Dolors Macià Penella, Ramon Capdevila Castillo Hidalgo, Rosa Maria Martinez Rubió, Marta Chuecos Molina, EstíbalizBert, Mireia Biosca Pàmies, Ma Encarnación Domènech Bonilla, Núria Yolanda Molina Gallego, Raquel Garreta Martín, Esther Caraballo Prieto, Ma ConcepcióPalencia Prats, Olga Diez Zaera, Susana Pérez Osuna, Maria Luisa Moreno Cortés Rivera, Francisco Javier Farré López, Inmaculada Moreno Royo, AuroraGonzalez, Ma Pilar Salillas Larruy, Laura Comabella Alzuria, Carles Gatius Mola Sanna, Ma de las Mercedes Blanco Cardona, Ma Angels Viader Olivilla,Tonda, Silvia Prado Muñoz, Amparo Blanch Guillen, Mercè Giribet Folch, Ma Cecília Crusats Jiménez, Ana Ma Hostalot Abás Concepcion Muñoz RaceroCarmen Cañameras Serrado, Julia Jové Naval, Maria Belen Garriga Figueres, Ma Dolores Bielsa Murillo Àngela Martínez Picó Laia Parron Lagunas, MariaMa Del Mar Bafalluy Melé, Ramon Anguera Farran, Mercè Pollina Pocallet, Ma Mercedes Garcia Drago, Angelina Garcia Moreno, Ma Cristina López Roca,Mercè Segura i Serra, Maria Dolors Andreu Duat, Laura Marimon Gabernet, Olga Fernández Fernández, Maria Irene Rodrigo Bravo, Ma Dolors PanadésRosa-Nicolasa Masot Recha, Lidia Sanz Borrell. Mas, Mireia Diaz Docon, Montserrat Márquez Ruiz, Ana Villanueva Puerto, MaCamp de Tarragona Jaume Andreu Jornet, Elena Roselló Cavallé, Núria Jesús Avila Villalón, Ma Pilar Sola Sola, M. VictoriaValls Ibáñez, Maria PilarSanz Manrique, Margarida Borràs Martorell, Susana Vidal Piedra, Isabel M. Gonzalvo Pueyo, Anna Sánchez García, Encarnación Fernández Férez,Canovas Garcia, Susana Gil Mancha, Raquel Morales Mora, Maria Domingo Mercedes Ramia Estaún, Maria Teresa Gutierrez García, Luisa Ma AngelesFuster, Montserrat Pérez Pérez, Virginia Buj Dell’Abate, Montserrat Bosch Seró, López Hernández, Ma José Torregrosa Bertet, Ramona Ortiz López, AnnaAna Maria Marín Pellicer, Enriqueta Lorente Ten, Àngels Vidal Tomàs, Isabel Vilaro Carulla, Itziar Martín Ibáñez, Luisa Pretel Ordoñez, Rosa Maria GarridoSoler Galera, Ana Reyes Curto, Rosalia Bocanegra Capilla, Lola Alcañiz Herrador, Maria Angeles Crespo Garcia, Africa Raventós Canet, Rebeca SarratRodríguez, Ma Pilar Machado Solanas, Amparo Boix Fonollosa, Francisco Jose Torres, Estebana Mendoza Egea, Montserrat Lozano Saló, Josep Maria RoquerSanchis, Morales Gabriela Ricomá Castellarnau, Anabel Salazar García, Rosa M. Gonzalez, Mercedes Gómez Fernández, Rosa Ma Beringues Sorbías, M. MercèOlivé Vilella, Núria Mélich Teruel, Maria Isabel Noguera Vilà, Francesc Bobé Grau Fernàndez, Laura Enguix Martínez, Mercedes García Ortiz, Anna VilaltaArmant, Montserrat Ferré Guri, Antonieta Albareda Puig, M. Carmen Freixa, Gemma Martinez Galvez, María Ester de la Fuente Requena, AnaFontgivell Yeste, Eva Ma Esteruelas Alvarez, Mey-Lan Hernàndez Lau, Diana Pereira Leiva, Montserrat Antúnez Xaus, Anna Ma Serra Palá, Francisco JoséMarcela López Cubillos, Aroa Baudoin García, Ma Otilia Rodriguez Canals, Molina Jiménez, Ma Mercè Aubanell Serra, Ana Maria Pol Pons, Ma EsmeraldaRosa Maria López Fraile, Susana Mora Herrera. Marrodan Herrero, Gemma Puig Lara, Ma Julia Rodríguez Martínez, Ma JesúsTerres de l’Ebre Irene Gómez Pérez, Jaume Miquel Salsas, Maria del Roser Llobera Bauzá, M Trinidad Hidalgo Benavides, Concepción García Pelaez,Bautista Castells, Sònia Ponce López, Emili Marques Soler, Susana Nadela Irene Rovira Avellaneda, Montserrat Piñol Marce, Amadora Moral Martos,Lapeira, Gracia Garcia Bernal, Miquel Navarro Robles, Elvira Dealbert Ramos, Yolanda Font Casas, Ma Teresa Joval Cepriá, Montserrat Martínez Marzal,MaJosefa López Sánchez, Ma Guadalupe Vélez Cervera. Juana Maria Pérez Llamas, Nydia Fernanda Cabrera Alonso, Ma Nieves SalesGirona: Joaquima Serrat Trias, Gustavo Daniel Egües Cachau, M.Angels Bosch Jiménez, Jesus Bernad Suarez, Marian Llussà Arboix, Carla Benedicto Pañell,Juscafresa, Marta Bustins Pastoret, Anna Coll i Nogué, Liannet Estrada Melcior Marti, i Fàbregas, Mireia Boquet Martínez.Fernandez, Isabel Mascaró Casanovas, Meritxell Parés Rodà, Isabel PelegrinLópez, Anna Fàbrega Riera, Noemi Roura Merino, Maria Lluïsa Ribas Casals, Author details 1Montserrat Mallol Guisset, Maria Dolores Gonzalez Forcadell, Marta Mas Fundació Atenció Primaria, Department of Health, Generalitat de Catalunya,Parareda, Montserrat Armangué Marquez, Isabel Bentué Dabau, Antonia Barcelona, Spain. 2ABS Florida Nord, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain. 3ABSRamirez Prados, Gemma Vila Buch, Rosa Blanca Cortés, Marina Anna Moyà Barcelona, Pg. St. Joan, Barcelona, Spain. 4Department of Medicine,Martínez, Immaculada Jou Solés, Silvia Mir Mercader, Joana Casellas Garcia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. 5Grupo Cardiocat de laJosefina Aleñà Torrent, Iratxe Olabegoya Estrela, Sonia Farran Farré, Red REDIAPP, Barcelona, Spain. 6USR Barcelona, IDIAP Jordi Gol, Barcelona,Alexandre Harb Birani, Ester Masó Monells, Roser Teixidor Feliu, Imma Sau Spain. 7ABS Montgat, Barcelona, Spain. 8Grup de Recerca en Estadística,Giralt, Ma Antonia Sabench Suriñach, Eugenia del Valle Olmos Sanchez. Economía Aplicada i Salut (GRECS), Universitat de Girona, Girona, Spain.Catalunya Central: Nuria Rosell Soler, Ma Josep Bernat Lopez, M. Angels 9 CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Spain. 10HospitalTarrés Gol, Rosa M. Soler Vila. Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, Reus, Spain. 11Àrea d’Avaluació. DireccióBarcelona: Pilar Oria Floria, Esther Guardia Gil, M. Angels Peris Morancho, d’Atenció Primària. ICS. Girona, Spain. 12Direcció General de Salut Pública.Antoni Crous Xaubet, Pilar Ma Esteras Casanova, Lucelly Gómez García, Department of Health, Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain. 13Grup deMiriam Pascual Jiménez, Ma Mercè Vilallonga Fàbregas, Mercè Llopis Recerca en Bioanàlisi i Serveis analítics, IMIM, Barcelona, Spain. 14BIBE studyCantons, Carlos Moreno Meregalli, Silvia Mas Esteller, Raúl Porras, Montse group, Barcelona, Spain.
Ortega et al. BMC Public Health 2010, 10:772 Page 9 of 10http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/10/772Authors’ contributions 15. Mannino DM, Siegel M, Husten C, Rose D, Etzel R: Environmental tobaccoGO was responsible for the conception and design of the study, conceived smoke exposure and health effects in children: results from the 1991and participated in the design of the questionnaires, led the development National Health Interview Survey. Tob Control 1996, 5:13-18.of the program and the training and wrote the firsts drafts and final version 16. Strachan DP, Cook DG: Health effects of passive smoking. 6. Parentalof the study protocol. CC, CM, JB, ED, JL, LR, CM, CC, ES, AV, and MJ smoking and childhood asthma: longitudinal and case-control studies.contributed to the design and development of the study and the Thorax 1998, 53:204-212.questionnaires, as well as to the writing and development of the protocol. 17. Mannino DM, Moorman JE, Kingsley B, Rose D, Repace J: Health effectsThey have also contributed to the development of the program and the related to environmental tobacco smoke exposure in children in thetraining. MS and MB were responsible for the statistical design of the United States: data from the Third National Health and Nutritionprotocol, the randomization and the statistical analysis of the pilot study Examination Survey. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2001, 155:36-41.data. JP and RP analyzed hair concentrations of nicotine. 18. Johansson A, Hermansson G, Ludvigsson J: How should parents protectThe associated researchers contributed to the field work: recruitment, their children from environmental tobacco-smoke exposure in theinterview and collection of hair samples. Those in the intervention group home? Pediatrics 2004, 113:e291-e295.have contributed to the development of the intervention protocol. 19. Daly JB, Wiggers JH, Considine RJ: Infant exposure to environmentalAll authors have performed a critical revision of this manuscript and the final tobacco smoke: a prevalence study in Australia. Aust N Z J Public Healthversion. 2001, 25:132-137. 20. Cordoba-Garcia R, Garcia-Sanchez N, Suarez Lopez de Vergara RG,Competing interests Galvan FC: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in childhood. AnThe authors declare that they have no competing interests. Pediatr (Barc) 2007, 67:101-103. 21. Emmons KM, Hammond SK, Fava JL, Velicer WF, Evans JL, Monroe AD: AReceived: 25 November 2010 Accepted: 20 December 2010 randomized trial to reduce passive smoke exposure in low-incomePublished: 20 December 2010 households with young children. Pediatrics 2001, 108:18-24. 22. Fossum B, Arborelius E, Bremberg S: Evaluation of a counseling methodReferences for the prevention of child exposure to tobacco smoke: an example of1. 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